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Патент USA US2125066

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July 26, 1938.,
L. c. cox ETAL
Filed April 1, 1957
Fig: 2
.Sauzs Charle-s gqac
Patented July 26, 1938
Louis Charles 00:, Brightwaters, and John Cariei,
Jamaica, N. Y., assignors to Federal Aircraft
Corporation, Lindenhurst, N. Y., a corporation
of New York
Application April 1, 1937, Serial No. 134,270
6 Claims.
(or. 123-193)
when moved towards the right in the example
illustrated. Before starting the engine, the elec
The present invention relates to internal com
bustion engines, more particularly to engines
serving for propelling heavier~than-aircraft,' and
tric ignition circuit is closed in a known manner
among the objects of the invention is the pro
vision of means for and a method of preventing
an engine to be subjected to full load or normal
operation before it has warmed up to a proper
by closing the so-called ignition switch.
operating temperature.
A more speci?c object of the invention is to
prevent a pilot from taking off a plane when the
engine has not warmed up sufficiently to insure
efficient and reliable operation for affecting a
safe take-oil’.
Other objects and features of the invention will
become more apparent from the following de
scription taken with reference to the accompany
ing drawing formingv part of the speci?cation and
engine may then be started and the throttle lever
moved to a predetermined point determined by a
blocking element or collar i2 engaging the upper
part of a plunger 53 held in its upper position by
a coil spring i4 and arranged to be pulled into a
normally deenergized magnet core or solenoid l5
upon energization of the latter. The element I!
in the example shown is slidably mounted upon
a rod or extension I6 connected with the lever
Ill and arranged to move in its lengthwise direc
tion when the throttle lever is moved'towards the
right and the throttle or valve l6’ arranged inter
rangement and apparatus in accordance with the
mediate the carbureter I7’ and the engine 25 and
admitting the gas mixture to the engine is opened
as indicated in the dottedposition in the drawing.
The element I2 is fixed in any desired“ position, 20
invention, and -
such as by‘a set screw or the like.
Figure 1 is a diagram showing a control ar
Figure 2_ is a partial view of Figure 1 illustrating
a modification‘ of the invention.
As is well known, it is necessary for an airplane
engine to be warmed up to the proper operating
temperature'to insure efficient and reliable oper
ation before a safe take-off of a plane may be
effected. A cold engine fails to readily volatilize
the gasoline mixture due tolack of heat. This
may result in ignition failures in one or more cyl
inders, poor lubrication with consequent over
heating and destruction of bearings, and other
well known defects causing the engine to miss or
cease ?ring altogether and to quit ?nallyQ In
many cases the result may be disastrous. Pilots
are therefore usually instructed to warm up the
engine to the temperature recommended by the
manufacturer before attempting a take-off. How
ever, it often happens that these instructions are
overlooked or violated, such as when the pilot
is in a great hurry and decides to venture a take
off with a cool or insufficiently warmed-up engine,
with the result in many cases of serious accidents
and loss of life and material.
By the present invention this danger and pos
sibility due to error or sheer violation of given
rules is substantially eliminated in a most simple
and efficient manner.
A preferred method of this invention consists in
limiting the movement of the throttle of the en
gine beyond a predetermined point until its tem
perature has reached the proper operating value
at which a safe and reliable take-off may be
:3 LI
A system of this type is illustrated diagram
matically in Figure 1 wherein parts not necessary
for an understanding of the invention have been
omitted to simplify the disclosure. There is‘shown
at 10 a conventional throttle lever for controlling‘
the amount of gas supplied to the engine manifold
The entire control apparatus is preferably en
closed in a sealed metal box l'l so that no one can
tamper with it without breaking the seal IS. The
electric energizing circuit for the solenoid is com 25
pleted through a switch ii, a source of current
such as a battery l9 and a pair of contacts 20 and
2i of a thermostatic or heat-responsive device of
suitable construction which in the example shown
comprises a tube 2270f glass or other insulating 30
material connected with a casing or bulb 23
through a tube 24 which latter may be rigid or
?exible for mounting the device in any convenient
position. The switch ll may be either separate
or is preferably combined with the ignition switch 35
ll’ so that both switches are connected and dis
connected simultaneously. The bulb 23 of glass
or other insulating material suitably mounted in
a metal housing is secured to the engine 25 in
close proximity to the cylinder and is ?lled with 40
mercury or any other suitable conducting ?uid.
The operation of the arrangement as described
is as follows:
Under normal conditions; that is, when the en
gine ii is at rest and in a cold state, the mercury 45
column will extend to a certain length within the
tube 22 and the contacts 20 and iii will interrupt
the circuit for the solenoid. As a result, the
plunger i3 is pulled ‘in a downward direction
against the action of the spring it thereby releas
ing the blocking mechanism and allowing the
pilot to move the throttle lever as he desires up to
full throttle opening and affect a safe take-off.
In this position an indicator 26 which may be a
coloreddisc or ball as shown will project through
the metal housing thereby apprising the pilot that
the mechanism is in working order. Should the
mechanism have become defective and be pre
vented from proper functioning, the indicator 26
will not appear, thereby authorizing the pilot to
engine, power output control means for said en
gine, thermostatic means responsive to the en
break the seal I 8, remove the bottom cover 0! cas
ing I], and pull down the ball 26. The latter
ginettemperature, means for restraining the op
. may be locked such as by twisting in the manner
of a bayonet catch thereby keeping the plunger in.
oi its lower position and permitting a throttle to be
used as usual.
eration oi said control means to a predetermined
iraction of the full power output of the engine,
a control circuit, for said thermostatic control
. After the engine has been brought to rest by
means, and further means for releasing and ap
moving the lever III to the extreme left position plying said restraining means actuatable by said
and the temperature has decreased below the. control circuit when the engine temperature in
creases above or decreases below a predetermined 10
10 critical point required for safe operation, the
~‘mercury column in the tube 22 will descend there
by interrupting contacts 2| and 22 and in turn
deenergizlng the solenoid 15. As a result, the
plunger will be pulled in an upward direction to
the position illustrated by the action of spring
l1 and~the system restored to a condition for
renewed operation.
value, respectively. .
temperature, an electric control circuit therefor, 15
a locking member engaging said' throttle and
preventing its opening beyond a predetermined
point, a current-responsive device arranged to
be energized by said control circuit and adapted
In place of ‘a thermostatic device of the type
3. In combination with an internal combustion
engine, throttle control means for said engine,
a thermostatic device responsive to the engine
described comprising a mercury column, any
equivalent heat-responsiveelectrical device may
to unlock said member upon increase of the 20
be used for the purpose of the invention, such
engine temperature beyond a ~predetermined
as a bi-metallic element as illustrated in greater
value, and means for returning said member to
its locking position upon deenergization of said
detail in Fig. 2 of the drawing. The lattercom
prises a bi~metallic strip 21 wound into a spiral
25 having one end ?xed and having its other end
tree and extended in a‘ straight line and carry
ing a contact 21. The latter is arranged to co'operate with a stationary contact 28 and the;
entire device is mounted in a metal casing 28
secured to an appropriate part of the engine
cylinder similar as in the case of Fig. l. The
contacts 21 and 28 are connected in a solenoid
circuit. and the operation of this device is simi“
in as described in Fig. 1. As the motor warms
H up the freeextension of the bi-metallic element
21 will bend in a downward direction with proper
arrangement oi the bi-metallic strip thereby clos
4ing the contacts 21 and 28 and releasing the
throttle of the engine at a definite temperature
similarly as described hereinabove.
As is obvious, the invention is not limited to
airplane engines but applies with equal advan
tage to internal combustion engines for any other
use where it is desirable to prevent the engine
45 from being subjected to a load beyond a' pre
‘ determined point before reaching a safe and
proper operating temperature.
4. In combination with an internal combus
tion engine, a throttle control device, a thermo
static device responsive to the engine tempera
ture, an electric control circuit therefor, a plung
er arranged to normally engage ‘said control
device ‘to limitthe throttle opening beyond a 30
predetermined point, and a solenoid connected .
in said circuit and arranged to attract said
plunger to unlock the throttle upon energization
of said solenoid upon closing of said control cir
cult by said thermostatic device when the engine 35
temperature reaches a predetermined value.
5. In combination with an internal combustion
engine, a throttle control device, a thermostatic
device responsive to the engine temperature, a
control circuit therefor, a plunger arranged to 40
normally engage said control device to prevent
opening of the throttle beyond a predetermined
point, a solenoid adapted to be energized by said
circuit and arranged to attract said plunger to
unlock said control device when the engine tem- .
perature increases beyond a predetermined value,
and resilient means counteracting the movement
It will be further understood from the above
that the invention is not limited to the speci?c
arrangement of elements and parts as described
herein for illustration and that the underlying
inventive thought is susceptible of numerous
modiflcatioris'and variations coming within the
broad scope‘ and spirit of the invention as de
55 fined in the appended claims.
We claim:
current responsive device.
1. The combination with an internal combos»
tion engine having throttle means for controlling
' the power output‘ thereof, of a thermostatic de
(30 vice arranged to be responsive to the engine tem
perature, said thermostatic device having a pair
of cooperating contacts, a source of electric cur
rent, an electrically actuatable blocking means
normally restraining said throttle to be moved
65 beyond a predetermined point, said blocking
means, said source, and said contacts forming
a control circuit, whereby with increase of the
engine temperature beyond a predetermined value
said blocking means is released to unlock said
throttle means.
2. In combination with an internal combustion
-of said plunger and adapted to return said plunge
er to normal locking position after the throttle
has been closed and the engine temperature de 50
creased beyond said predetermined value.
6. In combination with an internal combus
tion engine, an ignition circuit for said engine,
throttle control means for said engine, a ther
mostatic device responsive to the engine tem
perature, an electric control circuit therefor, a
locking element engaging said throttle control
means to normally prevent the opening of the
throttle beyond a predetermined limit, a cur
rent responsive device arranged to be energized
by said control circuit and adapted to unlock
said element upon increase of the engine tem
perature beyond a predetermined limit value, a
switch for said ignition circuit, and a further
switch mechanically coupled with said last
switch for closing and opening said control cir
cuit simultaneously with the closing and opening
of the ignition circuit.
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