Патент USA US2125086код для вставки
July 26, 1938. ` _ l R. K'. àoURKE ' ¿125,086 - PNEUMATIC cLAs'sIFIER Filed Jan. 29, 1935 ' 2 Sheets-Sheet l .9 51 31 Wenko/r, 33343 ‘ ' ¿n rá ¿klima/ud I July 2_6, 1938. ‘ 2,125,086 R. K. .ROURKE ~ PNEUMATIG CLASSIFIER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. _29, 1935 ` www Wag 550w/ê@ 5M Patentedjuly 26, i938 ' _ 2,125.086 AUNITED s'rAri-:s l PATENT .Y u 2.125.086 ori-‘ics ' _ ~ PNEUMATIO CLASSIFIER Rupert K. Rourke, Lompoc, Calif. , . 'I'his Ainvention relates Application January z s, r193s, serial No. 3,895 .19 claims. (ol. eos-144i _' genuauy in'trtduœd into the lower portion of to methods and means wherebyl disintegrated. p_ulverulent or comminu lthe classiiication and separation zone and in - ted materials such as the non-metallic minerals. >the direction'of rotation of the aforesaid bodyl ilxs clays, decoiorizing carbons, etc.,_ may be treated for the removal of impurities and/or particles which are ìarger than or heavier than remaining portions of such disintegrated material. - In the manufacture of disintegrated or com ' `minutedmaterials such as diatomaceous filter of fluid. _This secondary fluid may be preferably introduced at substantially the same velocity as the primary fiuidfbearing the disintegrated ma terial in suspension although-higher or lower velocities can be used. 'I‘he secondary fluid also assists in separating smaller particles from: ad herentl contact with larger particles and/or as 10 cined or chemically treated form), bleaching sociated with larger particles in the -outer por clays or decolorizing material and numerous tions- of the classification zone, moving such 'other substances used in a finely divided condi vlighter particles toward the center of such zone. tion, it is highly ‘desirable to remove impurities. »Furthermore the second fluid is preferably ‘substantially free from disintegrated material. 15v reasons for such removal need not .be ex is 'I'he plained in detail but it may be stated for pur „Such secondary airl is, moreover, introduced at poses of illustration that in the manufacture ofl a plurality of circumferentially spaced points so diatomaceous nlter-aids the. removal of coarse that the larger and heavier particles are repeat particles is desirable as such coarse particles do >`edlyy subjected to blasts- of incoming and sec' pndary fluid which opposes the outward com 20 20 not function as' effective components of the filter aid. v‘Very often theY impurities, although within ponent to some extent- andvblows adhering fine _’ the desired -particle size (by linear or volumetric particles from the larger and heavier particles. Eventually, the now cleansed larger and heav measurement), are of ahigher specific- gravity than the main biidy of material and such heavy ier particles of material areseparately discharged from points along the lowerv edge of the classi particles should also'be removed. g l , In prior methods of classification, separatorsv of fication or separation zone. It is to be noted that in the usual cyclone type the cyclone type have been extensively used but in such vseparators there is a tendency for .the` of separator; the ñnes 4are removed upwardly finer particles> to adhere to larger particles and (against the action of gravity) while the coarser 'to be carried with such larger or coarse particles particles move downwardly. In the method and 3 out of the system` whereas it _is highly desirable apparatus'of this invention, both fines and coarse 30 that such finer particles be removed from. the move-downwardly but along‘diiferent paths, the coarse, thereby increasing the output of the more separation thereby taking place without relying ^ finely divided product. In the lnormal and usual upon gravity to the extent characterizing prior separators of the cyclone’ type, only a minor 35 Although the method of >this invention may be ~ proportion of 'the material introduced (generally less than 20%) is separately discharged as fines, carried out in various forms of apparatus, the present invention -ìs also directed to a preferred whereas the method of this invention contem plates the separation of the liner particles from form and» arrangement whereby the method of the same feed material to the extentof 40% or` this invention-may be can‘ied out very effectively. 40 lI‘he invention _also contemplates a combined more of the total feed. _ . The method of this invention distinguishes milling and classification system in which the from .prior methods 7in that a >iiuid bearing a hereinabove described method may-form an in tegral part.v ? . . heterogeneous mixture of large and small par‘ It is an object o! this invention, therefore, to .45 ticles in‘~V suspension is- vcontinuously introduced ' 45 into, a classification or separation zone and, a disclose and provide a method of classifying dis body of such fluid rotating in a substantially integrated. comminuted and/or pulverulent horizontal plane is formed. Fluid bearing the materials. smaller and lighter particles is continuously with- ' ' Another object is to disclose 'and provide a method of classifying and/or separating disin drawn axially fromthe central _and lower por .50 tions of such body of fluid. The fluid introduced tegrated materials‘for the purpose of removing 10 aids (in natural uncai’cined form and/or in cal methods. .into the classification zone is introduced at a velocity sufñcient to impart a'decided outward velocity' component to the larger and heavier particles, which particles-assume a downwardly ' Y ` therefrom larger _and heavier particles. A further object of the invention is to disclose and provide a combined millinrand classification system in which the classification of disintegrated, 55 ~ inclined,` spiral path toward the outer and lower non-metallic minerals and the like may be lmost portions of the classification and separation 'î effectively performed. 'A . sun ‘further ßbject or uns .invention 'is to zone. In order to more eiïectively vseparate the lighter. and smaller particles from the larger disclose and provide an arrangement of means,i ’ whereby the classification and separation _.of dis to particles; additional or secondary fluid is tan 2 ,l ‘ 2,125,086 '_ integrated materials may' be rapidly, economical-f particles from the suspension of disintegrated ly and accurately obtained. These and other objects, uses and advantages material supplied thereto by the feed conduit `6. This feed will hereinafter-be referred to as the of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from Ihe following detailed primary feed and for purposes of illustration description of a milling system, classification conveying the disintegrated material through the means and classifying-method of operation. apparatus.. it will be assumed that air is the medium used in It ` ‘ . is to be understood that the subsequently de- »Y The classifier, more specifically shown in Figs. scribed specificìforms and conditions of opera 2 to 6 inclusive, consists of a classifier 20 which,~ 10 tion v are .simply ,illustrative internally, is substantially cylindrical with sub and , numerous changes, _modifications and adapíations of this . stantially cylindrical walls. The interior of such invention will be readily apparent to those skilled classification zone is indicated at 2|. Such classi in the art. , ,_ ' fication zone is provided with a closure member In describing the invention, reference will be or cover plate 22 and may well be divided into an 15 had to the appended drawings, inwhich upper and‘lower section, said sections being sep Fig. 1 diagrammatically represents a combined arated by a plate or member 23. In the preferred milling, classifying and separating system. -embodiment shown in the drawings the height of the classifier (the distance from the closure. tion, of the preferred form of classifier. plate 22 to the lower edge of section 20) vdoes not 20 Fig. 3 is a plan view of the classifier illustrated exceed' the internal diameter ofthe classifier. in Fig. 2. 1 ~ ' Y 'I'he lower portion of the classifier I0 is .enclosedFig. »2 is a side elevation, partly in vertical sec Fig. 4 is a horizontal section taken along’the f by a housing,` such as the inverted cone II. . c Mounted within . the housing isl a'- Ifunnel-like Fig. 5 is a vertical section taken along the plane member 24 with its upper edge extending slightly V-V of Fig'. 4. . > above the bottom edge of the classifier 20 and ' plane IV-'IV of Fig. 2_. Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken along the plane spaced from the walls thereof. The edge of the VI-VI of Fig. 4. funnel member' 24 is provided with an outwardly In Fig.` 1, the feeder bin is represented at I, and downwardly extending apron 25 directed to this bin containing disintegrated material vsup . ward-the housing II, said apron 25 being spaced plied thereto from a preliminary or primary mill from the lower edges of the interior surface 2| ing system, not shown. The material from the .'of the classifler. The funnel member 24 com bin I may be discharged in controlled .quantities fmunicates with the discharge. line I3-which may by means of an automatic feeder 2 into the inlet y extend through the housing II, one end of the line 3 of the system‘through a rotaryseal mech line I3 being sealed as by plate 26. ` 85 anism 4. ' The gases passing through the line 3The diameter of the upper edge of the funnel are picked up by a blower, such as a paddle type - member 24 bears an important relation to the. fan 5, and discharged through a line or conduit inside diameter of the- classifier, i. e., the'diameter of wall 2I. The diameter of the` classifier should 6 into the outer end of a classifying unit IU. In this. unit (subsequently Vdescribed in greater de not be more thantwice the diameter of the upper 40 tail) the disintegrated material is‘ classified, the edge of the funnel and preferably the ratio should larger and heavier particles being retained within the lowerhousing II for discharge through the valved outlet I2 whereas the smaller and lighter particles are discharged through the conduit I3.`-rl be about 4:3 or 7:5. The'> funnel may even have a diaineter equal to the ïinside diameter of the classifier, the upper'edge ’óf the funnel member, under such conditions, being placed slightly be- . 45 The conduit I3 leads tol a separator 1 in which the low the lower edges of the surface 2I . of the particles are more or less perfectly separated from the conveying fiuid or gas, the particles settling in the lower portion of the separator from which they may be removed through the valved outlet 8, -whereas the gas or fluid is discharged through conduit 9. classifier. It is to be understood that the diam _eter of the classiñer at, the secondary -inlet por' tion may exceed ‘the .diameter of-the primary air inlet pòrtionfalthoughthe form shown is more readily constructed. , ,When operating under substantially closed cir-. rcuit conditions, the outlet conduit 9 may connect 545 I , . . , , 'I'he upper portion of theA classifier 2li, that is, the portion between the closuremember-22 and the horizontally disposed partition plate 23, may with the inlet conduit 3, as indicated. Further be provided >with a plurality of tangentially di more, the discharge conduit 9 may be provided rected passageways indicated at 21; 2l, 29, etc. By identifying the passageways 2.1, 28, 29, etc., as tangential, it is to be' understood that ‘they may with a‘branch line I4 leading to a fan or blower I5 which then supplies secondary air or gas to the classiñer I0 through the line I6. Dampers be' tangential to the inner wall 2I, or to the outlet funnel 24, or to some circle between these two may be lprovided in the conduits 6 and I6' as in dicated at I1 and I8 respectively. ’ elements. These passageways preferably termi-~ Although in the above described form of ap paratus air is constantly> recirculated, it is -"ob yious that` the“ blower 5 may draw in atmospheric V>nate inl openings which are larger in height than ‘ _ in‘wldth and which become reduced in cross sec house or other suitable separating device for the tional' area as they approach the inner wall 2I of qthe‘classiiier, thereby causing an increase in the velocity of gases passed therethrough. The shape of these .openings is not critical and may be varied greatly,"nor is it necessary that the removal .of finest passageways vary in cross sectional area. ' - air or gas _from any suitable source, such `as for 65 example, preheated gas or air. The discharge line 9 may furthermore be _connected with? bag particles therefrom. The > blower I5 preferably 'supplies a' gas or fluid to the classifier >IIi- which is substantially free from disintegrated material and may well draw in at mospheric air instead of the air or gas discharged by the separator 1. . ' j _ . _ l The closure nrein’ber 22 is provided `with a‘plu rality of ports communicating with> pas 70 sageways. Conduits, such as the conduits .31, 38 and 39, connect _the ports in ‘the closureßplate 22 witha conical'head 30 connected with the in-._ As has been stated hereinbefore, the classifier take conduit 6.' Axially positioned within theä . 75 III. functions for the removal of 'larger and heavier “ cone 30- is a distributor corie 3l whichïassistsin succosa insuring an equal distribution of gases to the various downwardly directed conduits 3l, 38, 39, etc. - In this manner it will be seen that the aeri form -supension of disintegrated material sup - plied to the classifier I0 by thefintake conduit 6 f is distributed through the. conduits 31, 38, 39, etc., to the tangentially directed passageways 21, 28, 29, etc. i' ' . The velocity of gasesl introduced into the clas sifler may range from abouti 1,000 to 12,000 feet 1‘ per minute and in the experimental device de * scribed hereinabove the velocity was about 2,000 feet per- minute. The velocity used will, oi course, depend upon the specific gravity ofA the materials treated ‘and the degree" of classiñcatio'n required. ' . I claim: _ i e A vortex is thus -formed within the classiiier l. In a classifying and separating apparatus, '10 20, the only voutlet therefrom being through the funnel-like member 24 and dischargev line I3. the combination of_ a substantially cylindrical The port of the funnel-like member 24 is' located classiñer provided with substantially vertical in a plane not materially below the edge of the walls; a closure for the top of said classiner; a plurality of tangentially arranged inlet conduits section 20 and preferablyin a planev virtually co incidental with the plane of the lower- edges of ~/ communicating with the upper portion of said 15 the secondary air inlet ports. Outwardly directed - classiñer; means for supplying a ñuid suspensión of disintegrated material to said inlet conduits; components I`are thus caused to exist in a -direc a plurality of tangentially arranged secondary tion opposite to the inwardly directed compo ts .due to the movement and discharge of inlet conduits' communicating with >the lower ` gases from such vortex. ' The tangential yor out portion of the classiiìer; conduit means for sup wardly directed component will vary with the velocity of the fluid discharged into the classi plying ñuid to said secondary inlet vconduits to , form a vortex in said classifier; a downwardlyl ñcation zone; 'the radial, inwardly directed com ponent will vary with the volume of ñuid sup plied. When the. volume of airused is main tained constant, the tangential velocity may be increased or decreased by changing the area of the „inlet ports, and it may be :noted thatianJ in-`' crease of velocity will decrease the average par ticle size of the productl discharged as lines. _ As a result, the lighteriand smaller v.particles pass with the gas through the funnel-like mem ber _24 into the discharge line I3 while the larger and, heavier particles tend to move toward the inner wall 2i of the classifier zone 20, along which wall they move helically downward. In order to classify the disintegrated material with extraordinary accuracy, secondary air is admitted through the conduit I6 into a manifold Il from whence it is distributed by a plurality of conduits, such as the conduits l2, 43, etc., and inwardly directed-funnel member provided with an outwardly and downwardly extending lip positioned below said classiñer with theglip spaced 25 from the lower edges of said classiñer; a' housing `.tor said funnel member, and a discharge conduit ‘extending into said housing and terminating at the lower end of said funnel member. ' 2. In a classifying and separating apparatus, the combination ofzfa substantially'cylindrical classifier provided with a top closure and a down wardly extending housing of larger internal cross sectional area, at a plane immediately below said classiñer, than the internal cross sectional area of said classiiier; means for introducing ñuid bearing disintegrated- material in suspension tan- ’ gentìally into the upper portion of said classifier; ,means for tangentially introducing secondary ñuid into the lower portion of the classifier whereby a vortex is formed in said classiiìer, the through suitably arranged ports in the- cover ' bottom of said vortex being open; and a discharge plateA 22 to passageways or channels I4, 45, and conduit extending into said housing and com~ the like, formed in the -lower portion of the municating with the lower and central portion classiiier zone 20. 'I'hese passageways M, I5; etc., of said. classifier whereby the central and lower 45 discharge tangentially into the classifier at a portions of the vortex and suspension of liner plurality of circumferentially spaced points. 'I'he ' l velocity of the gases discharged through `.and l passageways intov the classifier should be. sub stantially the same as the velocity of .the pri 3. In a classifyingy and separating apparatus, the combination of: a substantially cylindrical mary feed, although the volume of such second ary gases may be materially less. An experimental classifier of theï character classiñer provided with a top closure> and a down describedy hereinabove contained a classification zone by which the bore 2| had a diameter of 16 inches.' It was provided with eight primary con ' duits-and eight secondary conduits. 510 cubic feet of primary air was supplied per minute and , 275 cubic feet of secondary air per minute. Dia tomaceous earth, previously disintegrated, was introduced with the primary- -air at the rate of 16 pounds per minute. The milled diatomaceous earth so introduced into the classiiìer~ contained 3.2% of 150 mesh and'9._9% by weight of par at particles in fluid comprising the same may be . separately drawn oii. wardly extending housing of larger internal 'cross sectional area, at a plane immediatelybelow said classifier, than the internal cross sectional area oi’_ said _classiñem means for introducing fluid bearing disintegrated material in suspension tan gentially into the upper portion of said classiiier; means for tangentially introducing secondary fluid into the lower portion of the classifier; a discharge conduit extending into said housing, said conduit terminating at the lower and central portion of said classiñer; and means carried by - the upperlend of said discharge conduit and spaced from the lower edge'of the classiñer for ticles larger than 20 microns (in sedimentation directing larger and heavier particlesoutwardly l characteristics) . Afterseparation, it was foundA into said housing. 4. In a classifying> and separating apparatus. . that 39.7% of the material fed was discharged in the form of large and heavy‘particles through the` combination of: a substantially' cylindrical classiiìer provided with a top closure and a down the valved outlet I2; 60.3% of the feed was car ried over as iinal product. 'I'he coarse product- ’ wardly extending housing of larger ’internal- cross 70 > contained 6.0% by weight larger than 150 mesh -sectional area, at a plane immediately below said and -24.3% by weight larger than 20 microns. classifier, than the internal cross sectional area The final product discharged through the conduit of' said classifier; means for introducing fiuid I3 contained only 0.8% larger than 150 mesh and ' bearing ‘disintegrated material in suspension tan gentially into the upper portion of said classiiier; 76 l ' 3.8%v larger than 20 microns.` 2,125,086 means for ltangentially -introducing secondary fluid into the lower portion of the classiñer;v a discharge conduit extending into said housing _and communicating with the lower >and central portion oi said classiñer; and means carried by diameter of said classiiier being greater than the height thereof, a housing below said classiiier, said housing having a larger internal cross-sec tional area at a plane immediately below said vclassifier than the internal cross-sectional area the upper end of said discharge conduit and ‘Y of said classifier, a plurality of tangentially di spaced from the lower edge of the classifier for rected circumferentially spaced inlet ports Íin the directing largerand heavier particles outwardly upper portion of said classifier, means for supply into said housing, said means having a diameter ing i'iuid bearing disintegrated material in sus at their upper edge of not less than 1/2 the inter nal diameter of the lower portion of said classifier. directed secondary iiuid inlet ports in the lower pension to said ports, a plurality oi tangentially 5. In a classifying and separating apparatus . part of said classifier, means for supplying sec ondary fluid to said secondary ports, and a dis .and nner-particles from a heterogeneous mixture charge conduit provided with an intake port ax containing such particles, the combination of a iallyßpositioned with respect to said classinen’said cylindrical ,chamber provided with a closed topl intake port in said discharge conduit lying in a plane virtually coincidental with the plane of the ‘- and an open bottom, a plurality of circumferen particularly adapted to eiiiciently separate lighter ' tially arranged/'ports in the walls of said cylin drical chamber, means for introducing fluid bear ing disintegratedmateriai in suspension tangen tially into the upper portion of said classiñer lower edges of said secondary iiuid inlet ports. 9. In a classifying. and separating apparatus, the combination of: a substantially cylindrical classifier provided with a closed top, Ethe internal diameter of said classiñer being greater than the chamber through certain of said' ports to form a- height thereof, a housing below said classifier, said vortex within said chamber, means for tangen tially introducing secondary iiuid into the lower portion of said cylindrical chamber through other of said ports, two concentricoutlets at the bot tom of said "cylindrical chamber, and a hopper housing having a larger internal cross-_sectional area at a plane immediately below said classifier than the internal cross-sectional area of said classiñer, a plurality of tangentially directed cir-. surrounding said outlets, the outer annular out- . cumferentially spaced inlet ports in the upper let being adapted to discharge heavier and larger particles into the hopper, the inner outlet com municating with an outlet conduit. portion of said classiñer, means for supplying fluid bearing disintegrated materialv in suspension to ‘said ports, a plurality of tangentially directed I 6. In a classifying and separating apparatus,` secondary fluid inlet ports in the lower part of ` the combination of a cylindrical classiñer pro vided with a closed top and an open bottom, a said classiiler, means for supplying secondary iluid to said secondary ports, a downwardly and 35 plurality of ports circumferentially arrangedv in the walls of said classifier, means for tangentially inwardly directed funnel member positioned ax ially with respect to said classifier, the upper edge '_of said funnel member lying in a plane virtually coincidental with the lower edge of said classiiler, introducing iluid bearing disintegrated material in suspension into the upper portion/of said clas-v sifier, through certain of said ports, means-for la downwardly and outwardly extending apron _ 40 tangentially introducing secondary ñuid into the carried by theupper edge of said funnel member . lower portion of the classifier. through other of and extending to a int beneath the lower edge ~said ports, a downwardly extending hopper con of said classiñer; an a discharge conduit ex nected to the bottom of said cylindrical classiiier, - tending through said housing'and _communicating and an outlet conduit extending Vinto said hop? ' with the lower edge of said funnel'mem'ber where per and terminating in a plane passing through 'by fluid may be discharged from said classiiier. 10,)In a classifying and separating apparatus, ' the bottom of the ports in the walls of said clas siñer. said outlet conduit Abeing concentrically vthe combination of:4 a substantially cylindrical positioned with respect to said cylindrical classi ?er, `the upper edges of said conduit being slightly spaced from the lower edges of said cylindrical i classifier provided with a closed top, a housing _ below said classiiier, said housing having a larger internal cross-sectional area at a plane imme- _ classifier to`form an annular port through which ` diately below said classiiler than the internal heavier particles may be discharged from? said kclassifier into said hopper. cross-sectional area of said classifier, a plurality ‘of tangentially directed and circumferentially 7.v In a classifying and separating apparatus. ’ spaced ports 4in the upper portion of the cias‘siiler, the combination of:A a substantially cylindrical4 means for distributing iluid from a supply con- . ’classiner provided with a closed top, a housing duit intoa plurality of conduits. a plurality o_f below said classifier. a conduit, for supplying a conduits connecting said plurality of ports with gas bearing disintegrated material in suspension said distributing means,_.`a supply conduit, a‘dapted ` g to said classifier, 'a plurality of circumferentially to supply iluid bearing disintegrated material in spaced and tangentially directed inlet ports in suspension to said distributing means, a plurality ».00 the upper section-of said classiñer. a plurality ofv Yot circumfcrentially spaced and _ tangentially* conduits connecting said ,ports _with vsaid vsupply ldirected secondary fluid ports in the lower por conduit, means for distributing iiuld bearing dis Ltion of said classifier, means for mpplying integrated material in suspension from said sup~ `secondary iluid to said ports, a downwardly and ply conduit to said plurality of conduits. means inwardly directed funnel member positiaaeda'x-l with respect to said classiiier. the upper edge mr lower the tangentially' portionintroducing of the classifier', secondary and a discharge nuid _man - ially of saidfunnel> member lying in 'a plane virtually conduit provided with an'intake port positioned coincidental with the lower edge of said ci ..~ - r', axially o! said classifier, said intake port lying in _ and a discharge conduit extending through. d housing and communicating with the lower edge 70 a plane not materially below said means for tan gentially introducing secondary fluid. _ 8. In a l_classiiyingand separating apparatus. the combination of: a substantially cylindrical classiiier provided with a closed top', the internal _l - of said funnel member whereby iluid may be discharged from said classiiier. L" y n o RUPERT K. Ronan.