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Патент USA US2125086

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July 26, 1938.
R. K'. àoURKE
¿125,086 -
Filed Jan. 29, 1935
' 2 Sheets-Sheet l
31 Wenko/r,
¿n rá ¿klima/ud I
July 2_6, 1938.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Jan. _29, 1935
Wag 550w/ê@
Patentedjuly 26, i938 '
_ 2,125.086
ori-‘ics '
Rupert K. Rourke, Lompoc, Calif.
. 'I'his Ainvention relates
Application January z s, r193s, serial No. 3,895
.19 claims. (ol. eos-144i
into the lower portion of
to methods and means
wherebyl disintegrated. p_ulverulent or comminu
lthe classiiication and separation zone and in -
ted materials such as the non-metallic minerals. >the direction'of rotation of the aforesaid bodyl
clays, decoiorizing carbons, etc.,_ may be treated
for the removal of impurities and/or particles
which are ìarger than or heavier than remaining
portions of such disintegrated material.
- In the manufacture of disintegrated or com
' `minutedmaterials such as diatomaceous filter
of fluid. _This secondary fluid may be preferably
introduced at substantially the same velocity as
the primary fiuidfbearing the disintegrated ma
terial in suspension although-higher or lower
velocities can be used. 'I‘he secondary fluid also
assists in separating smaller particles from: ad
herentl contact with larger particles and/or as 10
cined or chemically treated form), bleaching sociated with larger particles in the -outer por
clays or decolorizing material and numerous tions- of the classification zone, moving such
'other substances used in a finely divided condi vlighter particles toward the center of such zone.
tion, it is highly ‘desirable to remove impurities. »Furthermore the second fluid is preferably
‘substantially free from disintegrated material. 15v
reasons for such removal need not .be ex
is 'I'he
plained in detail but it may be stated for pur „Such secondary airl is, moreover, introduced at
poses of illustration that in the manufacture ofl a plurality of circumferentially spaced points so
diatomaceous nlter-aids the. removal of coarse that the larger and heavier particles are repeat
particles is desirable as such coarse particles do >`edlyy subjected to blasts- of incoming and sec'
pndary fluid which opposes the outward com 20
20 not function as' effective components of the filter
aid. v‘Very often theY impurities, although within ponent to some extent- andvblows adhering fine _’
the desired -particle size (by linear or volumetric particles from the larger and heavier particles.
Eventually, the now cleansed larger and heav
measurement), are of ahigher specific- gravity
than the main biidy of material and such heavy ier particles of material areseparately discharged
from points along the lowerv edge of the classi
particles should also'be removed. g l
In prior methods of classification, separatorsv of fication or separation zone.
It is to be noted that in the usual cyclone type
the cyclone type have been extensively used but
in such vseparators there is a tendency for .the` of separator; the ñnes 4are removed upwardly
finer particles> to adhere to larger particles and (against the action of gravity) while the coarser
'to be carried with such larger or coarse particles particles move downwardly. In the method and
3 out of the system` whereas it _is highly desirable apparatus'of this invention, both fines and coarse 30
that such finer particles be removed from. the move-downwardly but along‘diiferent paths, the
coarse, thereby increasing the output of the more separation thereby taking place without relying ^
finely divided product. In the lnormal and usual upon gravity to the extent characterizing prior
separators of the cyclone’ type, only a minor
Although the method of >this invention may be ~
proportion of 'the material introduced (generally
less than 20%) is separately discharged as fines, carried out in various forms of apparatus, the
present invention -ìs also directed to a preferred
whereas the method of this invention contem
plates the separation of the liner particles from form and» arrangement whereby the method of
the same feed material to the extentof 40% or` this invention-may be can‘ied out very effectively. 40
lI‘he invention _also contemplates a combined
more of the total feed. _
The method of this invention distinguishes milling and classification system in which the
from .prior methods 7in that a >iiuid bearing a hereinabove described method may-form an in
tegral part.v
heterogeneous mixture of large and small par‘
It is an object o! this invention, therefore, to .45
ticles in‘~V suspension is- vcontinuously introduced '
into, a classification or separation zone and, a disclose and provide a method of classifying dis
body of such fluid rotating in a substantially integrated. comminuted and/or pulverulent
horizontal plane is formed. Fluid bearing the materials.
smaller and lighter particles is continuously with- ' ' Another object is to disclose 'and provide a
method of classifying and/or separating disin
drawn axially fromthe central _and lower por
.50 tions of such body of fluid. The fluid introduced tegrated materials‘for the purpose of removing
10 aids (in natural uncai’cined form and/or in cal
.into the classification zone is introduced at a
velocity sufñcient to impart a'decided outward
velocity' component to the larger and heavier
particles, which particles-assume a downwardly
therefrom larger _and heavier particles.
A further object of the invention is to disclose
and provide a combined millinrand classification
system in which the classification of disintegrated, 55
~ inclined,` spiral path toward the outer and lower non-metallic minerals and the like may be lmost
portions of the classification and separation 'î effectively performed.
'A . sun ‘further ßbject or uns .invention 'is to
zone. In order to more eiïectively vseparate the
lighter. and smaller particles from the larger disclose and provide an arrangement of means,i
’ whereby the classification and separation _.of dis
to particles; additional or secondary fluid is tan
‘ 2,125,086
'_ integrated materials may' be rapidly, economical-f particles from the suspension of disintegrated
ly and accurately obtained.
These and other objects, uses and advantages
material supplied thereto by the feed conduit `6.
This feed will hereinafter-be referred to as the
of the invention will become apparent to those
skilled in the art from Ihe following detailed
primary feed and for purposes of illustration
description of a milling system, classification
conveying the disintegrated material through the
means and classifying-method of operation.
it will be assumed that air is the medium used in
is to be understood that the subsequently de- »Y
The classifier, more specifically shown in Figs.
scribed specificìforms and conditions of opera
2 to 6 inclusive, consists of a classifier 20 which,~
10 tion v are .simply ,illustrative
internally, is substantially cylindrical with sub
and , numerous
changes, _modifications and adapíations of this . stantially cylindrical walls. The interior of such
invention will be readily apparent to those skilled classification zone is indicated at 2|. Such classi
in the art.
fication zone is provided with a closure member
In describing the invention, reference will be
or cover plate 22 and may well be divided into an
15 had to the appended drawings, inwhich
upper and‘lower section, said sections being sep
Fig. 1 diagrammatically represents a combined
arated by a plate or member 23. In the preferred
milling, classifying and separating system.
-embodiment shown in the drawings the height
of the classifier (the distance from the closure.
tion, of the preferred form of classifier.
plate 22 to the lower edge of section 20) vdoes not
Fig. 3 is a plan view of the classifier illustrated exceed' the internal diameter ofthe classifier.
in Fig. 2.
'I'he lower portion of the classifier I0 is .enclosedFig. »2 is a side elevation, partly in vertical sec
Fig. 4 is a horizontal section taken along’the f by a housing,` such as the inverted cone II.
Mounted within . the housing isl a'- Ifunnel-like
Fig. 5 is a vertical section taken along the plane member 24 with its upper edge extending slightly
V-V of Fig'. 4.
above the bottom edge of the classifier 20 and '
plane IV-'IV of Fig. 2_.
Fig. 6 is a vertical section taken along the plane spaced from the walls thereof. The edge of the
VI-VI of Fig. 4.
funnel member' 24 is provided with an outwardly
In Fig.` 1, the feeder bin is represented at I, and downwardly extending apron 25 directed to
this bin containing disintegrated material vsup . ward-the housing II, said apron 25 being spaced
plied thereto from a preliminary or primary mill
from the lower edges of the interior surface 2|
ing system, not shown. The material from the .'of the classifler. The funnel member 24 com
bin I may be discharged in controlled .quantities fmunicates with the discharge. line I3-which may
by means of an automatic feeder 2 into the inlet y extend through the housing II, one end of the
line 3 of the system‘through a rotaryseal mech
line I3 being sealed as by plate 26. `
85 anism 4. ' The gases passing through the line 3The diameter of the upper edge of the funnel
are picked up by a blower, such as a paddle type - member 24 bears an important relation to the.
fan 5, and discharged through a line or conduit
inside diameter of the- classifier, i. e., the'diameter
of wall 2I. The diameter of the` classifier should
6 into the outer end of a classifying unit IU. In
this. unit (subsequently Vdescribed in greater de
not be more thantwice the diameter of the upper
40 tail) the disintegrated material is‘ classified, the
edge of the funnel and preferably the ratio should
larger and heavier particles being retained within
the lowerhousing II for discharge through the
valved outlet I2 whereas the smaller and lighter
particles are discharged through the conduit I3.`-rl
be about 4:3 or 7:5. The'> funnel may even have
a diaineter equal to the ïinside diameter of the
classifier, the upper'edge ’óf the funnel member,
under such conditions, being placed slightly be- .
45 The conduit I3 leads tol a separator 1 in which the
low the lower edges of the surface 2I . of the
particles are more or less perfectly separated
from the conveying fiuid or gas, the particles
settling in the lower portion of the separator from
which they may be removed through the valved
outlet 8, -whereas the gas or fluid is discharged
through conduit 9.
classifier. It is to be understood that the diam
_eter of the classiñer at, the secondary -inlet por'
tion may exceed ‘the .diameter of-the primary air
inlet pòrtionfalthoughthe form shown is more
readily constructed.
,When operating under substantially closed cir-.
rcuit conditions, the outlet conduit 9 may connect
, 'I'he upper portion of theA classifier 2li, that is,
the portion between the closuremember-22 and
the horizontally disposed partition plate 23, may
with the inlet conduit 3, as indicated. Further
be provided >with a plurality of tangentially di
more, the discharge conduit 9 may be provided
rected passageways indicated at 21; 2l, 29, etc.
By identifying the passageways 2.1, 28, 29, etc., as
tangential, it is to be' understood that ‘they may
with a‘branch line I4 leading to a fan or blower
I5 which then supplies secondary air or gas to
the classiñer I0 through the line I6. Dampers
be' tangential to the inner wall 2I, or to the outlet
funnel 24, or to some circle between these two
may be lprovided in the conduits 6 and I6' as in
dicated at I1 and I8 respectively. ’
elements. These passageways preferably termi-~
Although in the above described form of ap
paratus air is constantly> recirculated, it is -"ob
yious that` the“ blower 5 may draw in atmospheric
V>nate inl openings which are larger in height than ‘
_ in‘wldth and which become reduced in cross sec
house or other suitable separating device for the
tional' area as they approach the inner wall 2I
of qthe‘classiiier, thereby causing an increase in
the velocity of gases passed therethrough. The
shape of these .openings is not critical and may
be varied greatly,"nor is it necessary that the
removal .of finest
passageways vary in cross sectional area. ' -
air or gas _from any suitable source, such `as for
65 example, preheated gas or air.
The discharge
line 9 may furthermore be _connected with? bag
The >
blower I5 preferably 'supplies a' gas or fluid to
the classifier >IIi- which is substantially free from
disintegrated material and may well draw in at
mospheric air instead of the air or gas discharged
by the separator 1. .
' j
The closure nrein’ber 22 is provided `with a‘plu
rality of ports communicating with>
pas 70
sageways. Conduits, such as the conduits .31,
38 and 39, connect _the ports in ‘the closureßplate 22 witha conical'head 30 connected with the in-._
As has been stated hereinbefore, the classifier take conduit 6.' Axially positioned within theä .
75 III. functions for the removal of 'larger and heavier “
cone 30- is a distributor corie 3l whichïassistsin
insuring an equal distribution of gases to the
various downwardly directed conduits 3l, 38, 39,
etc. - In this manner it will be seen that the aeri
form -supension of disintegrated material sup
- plied to the classifier I0 by thefintake conduit 6
is distributed through the. conduits 31, 38, 39, etc.,
to the tangentially directed passageways 21, 28,
29, etc.
The velocity of gasesl introduced into the clas
sifler may range from abouti 1,000 to 12,000 feet
1‘ per minute and in the experimental device de
* scribed hereinabove the velocity was about 2,000
feet per- minute.
The velocity used will, oi
course, depend upon the specific gravity ofA the
materials treated ‘and the degree" of classiñcatio'n
I claim:
A vortex is thus -formed within the classiiier
l. In a classifying and separating apparatus,
'10 20, the only voutlet therefrom being through the
funnel-like member 24 and dischargev line I3. the combination of_ a substantially cylindrical
The port of the funnel-like member 24 is' located classiñer provided with substantially vertical
in a plane not materially below the edge of the walls; a closure for the top of said classiner; a
plurality of tangentially arranged inlet conduits
section 20 and preferablyin a planev virtually co
incidental with the plane of the lower- edges of ~/ communicating with the upper portion of said 15
the secondary air inlet ports. Outwardly directed - classiñer; means for supplying a ñuid suspensión
of disintegrated material to said inlet conduits;
components I`are thus caused to exist in a -direc
a plurality of tangentially arranged secondary
tion opposite to the inwardly directed compo
ts .due to the movement and discharge of
inlet conduits' communicating with >the lower `
gases from such vortex. ' The tangential yor out
portion of the classiiìer; conduit means for sup
wardly directed component will vary with the
velocity of the fluid discharged into the classi
plying ñuid to said secondary inlet vconduits to ,
form a vortex in said classifier; a downwardlyl
ñcation zone; 'the radial, inwardly directed com
ponent will vary with the volume of ñuid sup
plied. When the. volume of airused is main
tained constant, the tangential velocity may be
increased or decreased by changing the area of
the „inlet ports, and it may be :noted thatianJ in-`' crease of velocity will decrease the average par
ticle size of the productl discharged as lines. _
As a result, the lighteriand smaller v.particles
pass with the gas through the funnel-like mem
ber _24 into the discharge line I3 while the larger
and, heavier particles tend to move toward the
inner wall 2i of the classifier zone 20, along
which wall they move helically downward.
In order to classify the disintegrated material
with extraordinary accuracy, secondary air is
admitted through the conduit I6 into a manifold
Il from whence it is distributed by a plurality
of conduits, such as the conduits l2, 43, etc.,
and inwardly directed-funnel member provided
with an outwardly and downwardly extending lip
positioned below said classiñer with theglip spaced 25
from the lower edges of said classiñer; a' housing
`.tor said funnel member, and a discharge conduit
‘extending into said housing and terminating at
the lower end of said funnel member.
2. In a classifying and separating apparatus,
the combination ofzfa substantially'cylindrical
classifier provided with a top closure and a down
wardly extending housing of larger internal cross
sectional area, at a plane immediately below said
classiñer, than the internal cross sectional area
of said classiiier; means for introducing ñuid
bearing disintegrated- material in suspension tan- ’
gentìally into the upper portion of said classifier;
,means for tangentially introducing secondary
ñuid into the lower portion of the classifier
whereby a vortex is formed in said classiiìer, the
through suitably arranged ports in the- cover ' bottom of said vortex being open; and a discharge
plateA 22 to passageways or channels I4, 45, and conduit extending into said housing and com~
the like, formed in the -lower portion of the municating with the lower and central portion
classiiier zone 20. 'I'hese passageways M, I5; etc., of said. classifier whereby the central and lower 45
discharge tangentially into the classifier at a portions of the vortex and suspension of liner
plurality of circumferentially spaced points. 'I'he
' l velocity of the gases discharged through `.and
passageways intov the classifier should be. sub
stantially the same as the velocity of .the pri
3. In a classifyingy and separating apparatus,
the combination of: a substantially cylindrical
mary feed, although the volume of such second
ary gases may be materially less.
An experimental classifier of theï character
classiñer provided with a top closure> and a down
describedy hereinabove contained a classification
zone by which the bore 2| had a diameter of 16
inches.' It was provided with eight primary con
' duits-and eight secondary conduits.
510 cubic
feet of primary air was supplied per minute and
, 275 cubic feet of secondary air per minute. Dia
tomaceous earth, previously disintegrated, was
introduced with the primary- -air at the rate of
16 pounds per minute. The milled diatomaceous
earth so introduced into the classiiìer~ contained
3.2% of 150 mesh and'9._9% by weight of par
particles in fluid comprising the same may be .
separately drawn oii.
wardly extending housing of larger internal 'cross
sectional area, at a plane immediatelybelow said
classifier, than the internal cross sectional area
oi’_ said _classiñem means for introducing fluid
bearing disintegrated material in suspension tan
gentially into the upper portion of said classiiier;
means for tangentially introducing secondary
fluid into the lower portion of the classifier; a
discharge conduit extending into said housing,
said conduit terminating at the lower and central
portion of said classiñer; and means carried by -
the upperlend of said discharge conduit and
spaced from the lower edge'of the classiñer for
ticles larger than 20 microns (in sedimentation directing larger and heavier particlesoutwardly
characteristics) . Afterseparation, it was foundA into said housing.
4. In a classifying> and separating apparatus. .
that 39.7% of the material fed was discharged
in the form of large and heavy‘particles through the` combination of: a substantially' cylindrical
classiiìer provided with a top closure and a down
the valved outlet I2; 60.3% of the feed was car
ried over as iinal product. 'I'he coarse product- ’ wardly extending housing of larger ’internal- cross 70
> contained 6.0% by weight larger than 150 mesh -sectional area, at a plane immediately below said
and -24.3% by weight larger than 20 microns. classifier, than the internal cross sectional area
The final product discharged through the conduit of' said classifier; means for introducing fiuid
I3 contained only 0.8% larger than 150 mesh and ' bearing ‘disintegrated material in suspension tan
gentially into the upper portion of said classiiier; 76
l '
3.8%v larger than 20 microns.`
means for ltangentially -introducing secondary
fluid into the lower portion of the classiñer;v a
discharge conduit extending into said housing
_and communicating with the lower >and central
portion oi said classiñer; and means carried by
diameter of said classiiier being greater than the
height thereof, a housing below said classiiier,
said housing having a larger internal cross-sec
tional area at a plane immediately below said
vclassifier than the internal cross-sectional area
the upper end of said discharge conduit and ‘Y of said classifier, a plurality of tangentially di
spaced from the lower edge of the classifier for rected circumferentially spaced inlet ports Íin the
directing largerand heavier particles outwardly
upper portion of said classifier, means for supply
into said housing, said means having a diameter
ing i'iuid bearing disintegrated material in sus
at their upper edge of not less than 1/2 the inter
nal diameter of the lower portion of said classifier.
directed secondary iiuid inlet ports in the lower
pension to said ports, a plurality oi tangentially
5. In a classifying and separating apparatus . part of said classifier, means for supplying sec
ondary fluid to said secondary ports, and a dis
.and nner-particles from a heterogeneous mixture charge conduit provided with an intake port ax
containing such particles, the combination of a iallyßpositioned with respect to said classinen’said
cylindrical ,chamber provided with a closed topl intake port in said discharge conduit lying in a
plane virtually coincidental with the plane of the
‘- and an open bottom, a plurality of circumferen
particularly adapted to eiiiciently separate lighter
' tially arranged/'ports in the walls of said cylin
drical chamber, means for introducing fluid bear
ing disintegratedmateriai in suspension tangen
tially into the upper portion of said classiñer
lower edges of said secondary iiuid inlet ports.
9. In a classifying. and separating apparatus,
the combination of: a substantially cylindrical
classifier provided with a closed top, Ethe internal
diameter of said classiñer being greater than the
chamber through certain of said' ports to form a- height thereof, a housing below said classifier, said
vortex within said chamber, means for tangen
tially introducing secondary iiuid into the lower
portion of said cylindrical chamber through other
of said ports, two concentricoutlets at the bot
tom of said "cylindrical chamber, and a hopper
housing having a larger internal cross-_sectional
area at a plane immediately below said classifier
than the internal cross-sectional area of said
classiñer, a plurality of tangentially directed cir-.
surrounding said outlets, the outer annular out- . cumferentially spaced inlet ports in the upper
let being adapted to discharge heavier and larger
particles into the hopper, the inner outlet com
municating with an outlet conduit.
portion of said classiñer, means for supplying fluid
bearing disintegrated materialv in suspension to
‘said ports, a plurality of tangentially directed
I 6. In a classifying and separating apparatus,`
secondary fluid inlet ports in the lower part of `
the combination of a cylindrical classiñer pro
vided with a closed top and an open bottom, a
said classiiler, means for supplying secondary
iluid to said secondary ports, a downwardly and
35 plurality of ports circumferentially arrangedv in
the walls of said classifier, means for tangentially
inwardly directed funnel member positioned ax
ially with respect to said classifier, the upper edge
'_of said funnel member lying in a plane virtually
coincidental with the lower edge of said classiiler,
introducing iluid bearing disintegrated material
in suspension into the upper portion/of said clas-v
sifier, through certain of said ports, means-for la downwardly and outwardly extending apron _
40 tangentially introducing secondary ñuid into the carried by theupper edge of said funnel member .
lower portion of the classifier. through other of and extending to a int beneath the lower edge
~said ports, a downwardly extending hopper con
of said classiñer; an a discharge conduit ex
nected to the bottom of said cylindrical classiiier, - tending through said housing'and _communicating
and an outlet conduit extending Vinto said hop? ' with the lower edge of said funnel'mem'ber where
per and terminating in a plane passing through 'by fluid may be discharged from said classiiier.
10,)In a classifying and separating apparatus, '
the bottom of the ports in the walls of said clas
siñer. said outlet conduit Abeing concentrically vthe combination of:4 a substantially cylindrical
positioned with respect to said cylindrical classi
?er, `the upper edges of said conduit being slightly
spaced from the lower edges of said cylindrical
classifier provided with a closed top, a housing _
below said classiiier, said housing having a larger
internal cross-sectional area at a plane imme- _
classifier to`form an annular port through which ` diately below said classiiler than the internal
heavier particles may be discharged from? said
kclassifier into said hopper.
cross-sectional area of said classifier, a plurality
‘of tangentially directed and circumferentially
7.v In a classifying and separating apparatus. ’ spaced ports 4in the upper portion of the cias‘siiler,
the combination of:A a substantially cylindrical4 means for distributing iluid from a supply con- .
’classiner provided with a closed top, a housing duit intoa plurality of conduits. a plurality o_f
below said classifier. a conduit, for supplying a conduits connecting said plurality of ports with
gas bearing disintegrated material in suspension said distributing means,_.`a supply conduit, a‘dapted ` g
to said classifier, 'a plurality of circumferentially to supply iluid bearing disintegrated material in
spaced and tangentially directed inlet ports in suspension to said distributing means, a plurality ».00
the upper section-of said classiñer. a plurality ofv Yot circumfcrentially spaced and _ tangentially*
conduits connecting said ,ports _with vsaid vsupply ldirected secondary fluid ports in the lower por
conduit, means for distributing iiuld bearing dis Ltion of said classifier, means for mpplying
integrated material in suspension from said sup~ `secondary iluid to said ports, a downwardly and
ply conduit to said plurality of conduits. means inwardly directed funnel member positiaaeda'x-l
with respect to said classiiier. the upper edge
mr lower
of the classifier',
and a discharge
nuid _man - ially
of saidfunnel> member lying in 'a plane virtually
conduit provided with an'intake port positioned coincidental with the lower edge of said ci ..~ - r',
axially o! said classifier, said intake port lying in _ and a discharge conduit extending through. d
housing and communicating with the lower edge
70 a plane not materially below said means for tan
gentially introducing secondary fluid.
8. In a l_classiiyingand separating apparatus.
the combination of: a substantially cylindrical
classiiier provided with a closed top', the internal _l -
of said funnel member whereby iluid may be
discharged from said classiiier.
y n
RUPERT K. Ronan.
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