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Патент USA US2125131

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` Júly 26, 1938.
A. SIEMENS
2,125,13l
METALLIC VAPOR DISCHARGE APPARATUS FOR HIGHv VOLTAGES
2 Sheets-«Sheet 1
Filéd Aug. 17, 1956
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Alfred Siemens.
AfslEMr-:Ns
Jury 2_6, 193.8.> ï
2,125,131v
METALLIC VAPOR DISCHARGE APPARATUS FOR HIGH voLTAGEs
Filed- Aug. 1v, 4195s
' 2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Alfred Siemens.
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ATTORNEY
Patented July Z6, 1938
2,125,13l
UNITED STTES
ATENT GFFICE
2,1 25,131
METALLIC VAPOR DISCHARGE APPARATUS
FOR HIGH VOLTAGES
Alfred Siemens, Berlin, Germany, assigner to Sie
mens-Schuckertwerke Aktiengesellschaft, Ber
lin-Siemensstadt, Germany, a corporation of
Germany
Application August 17, 1936, Serial No. 96,521
In Germany August 17, 1935
7 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
My invention relates to metallic Vapor dis
charge apparatus for high voltages, and more
particularly to steel-tank mercury arc rectiñers.
The construction of high-voltage rectiñers is
5 closely connected with the control of the high
field intensities occurringin such apparatus.
Besides the difñculties hithertoI encountered in
the high-voltage practice and already partly over
come, such as electrical stress on material, design
l0 of bushings etc., also the diiiiculties presented in
metallic vapor vacuum apparatus and caused by
the ionization of the discharge path during the
active period must also be taken into considera
tion.
In this case operating conditions of a
greatly diiîerent character occur owing to the
periodical alternation of the active and inactive
period; that is, in the active period the discharge
is practically without an electric ñeld but
strongly ionized, whereas in the inactive period
if: C. a strong electric ñeld is set up between the anode
and cathode which causes disturbances and back
ñres as a result of the excessive acceleration of
the residual charges or of the creation ofV uncle
sirable glow discharges.
m o:
It the case of the mercury arc discharger ap
the anodes are located in the interior of the
.The conditions in the path: control grid
dimensioned and extended according to» the
necessary drops of voltages. Endeavors have
been made to split up the Voltage drop between
the anode and the vapor space surrounding the
anode and having a cathode potential by various
negative Voltage with respect to the cathode and, ¿
therefore, also with respect to the control grid.
The voltage in the case of a six-phase opera
means, for instance, by telescopically arranged
tion is two times the direct voltage produced.
Particularly in the case of high voltages the
strength of the field produced in this case is by
orders of magnitude greater than the ñeld be
tween cathode and control grid. This strong
field causes the known disturbances.
According to the present invention both paths
which behave electrically in a quite different 115
cylindrical shields which cause a splitting up of
the voltage drop as a result of their capacity
both with respect to the anode and cathode and
with respect to one another.
However, in this connection it has been found
that the voltages may be only controlled within
45 certain limits, since an absolute control of the
The following considerations show a method
how the above~mentioned diiiiculties may be re
The
anode are quite diiîerent. It is true that also in
this case a conductive connection is established
in the active period of the anode by the arc but
in the inactive period the anode has a higher
cover of the vacuum tank, which bushings are
cases considerable costs for the construction of
turbance or an unfavorable influence of the oper
trons and in the active period of the anode any
substantial potential diiierences do not exist at
all events.
vacuum discharge tank by means of insulated
bushings of ceramic material passing through the
the same.
relatively small amounts, as are entailed by the
construction of the discharge apparatus, that is
to say, in the positive direction during the ac
tive period of the anode and in the negative direc
tion during the inactive period of the anode.
According to the order of magnitude these values
amount, for instance, at most to i200 volts El l)
and are so chosen that they do not cause a dis
ionization by impact when accelerating the elec
known construction of high-voltage rectiñers has
been in principle followed. In these apparatus
presented by the bushings which require in most
chosen. Referred to the cathode potential the
potential of the control grid fluctuates only by
electric ñeld produced by the same is too weak in
the inactive period of the anode to produce an 1:
paratus for high voltages hitherto employed the
so
sirable extent.
If the simplest arrangement of the arc path is
considered in a discharge device controlled by a
grid the path may be subdivided into two part
paths which from an electrical point of view
behave in a substantially different manner, i. e.,
into the part path: cathode-control grid and
into the part path: control grid-anode. As refer
ence potential the potential of the cathode is
ation of the electric discharge apparatus.
,
distribution of the electric fields is not possible.
Measurements of the ñeld distribution in the
vacuum tank are practically impossible and it is
diiì‘icult to effect changes in capacities. A further diiiiculty in the high-voltage practice is
moved and, therefore, how the reliability of dis
charge apparatus may be enhanced to any de
`
manner are not inserted one in the other as has
hitherto been the case but are in spaced rela
tion with one another. The anodes are arranged
according to the invention in such a manner out
side the main tank which encloses the cathode »
and the condensation chamber and is impressed
with the cathode potential that the planes of
equal potential formed between the counter
electrodes are practically uniform outside the
main tank.
In this case the upper wall of the .f
2,125,131
2
main tank and the anode surfaces are given
forms as are usual for adjacent electrodes in the
high-voltage practice; i. e., they are designed as
plate-sphere, sphere-sphere, concentric sphere or
Cfl
plate-plate. It is essential that also the con
densation chamber does not extend beyond the
wall of the main tank, for the condensation cham
ber, the walls of which possess also cathode po
tential, would lead to a disturbance of the planes
of equal potential so that they would not be uni
form. Consequently, according to the invention
advantage. Furthermore, the difliculties present
in the known apparatus owing to the mutual in
ñuence of the anodes are removed. This influ
ence does not only entail the disturbances of the
fields lying in the neighborhood of the anodes but
also very high local ñeld intensities which lead
to lateral discharges such as, for instance, leak
age discharges or the like. In multiphase dis
charge apparatus as a matter of fact not only an
electric ñeld is present between the anode and
the portion of the space containing the cathode
and which serves above all to produce vapor and
has substantially constant cathode potential, i. e.,
the cathode but also a mutual influence of the
anodes takes place which in accordance with the
multiphase cycle are impressed with differently
the cathode space, is separated from those por
tions of the space in which alternating fields oc
cur (anode spaces).
The anode spaces lie preferably outside the por
tion of the tank containing the cathode chamber
and are separated from said portion by control
high voltages. The cross fields deflect particu
larly the charge carriers in the discharge path 15
grids. It is preferable to insulate the portion of
the tank enclosing the anode chamber from the
portion of the tank containing the cathode cham
ber. The portion of the tank enclosing the anode
chamber may be made of insulating material; for
instance porcelain, ceramic or the like and, if de
sired, be provided with conducting coatings. The
portion of the tank enclosing the anode chamber
is preferably curved in the neighborhood of the
30 anode head so as to conform therewith.
It may
be, for instance, designed in the form of a sphere.
Conducting surfaces or coatings concentrically
arranged, screens disposed outside the tank por
tion enclosing the anode chamber and/or grid
35 bodies disposed inside the tank portion enclosing
the anode chamber may be allotted to the anodes.
The conductive parts lying inside and/or outside
the tank portion enclosing the anode chamber
may be designed as control bodies and be im
40
pressed with graded potentials. It is preferable
to arrange the control bodies in the surfaces of
the screen or to dispose them in such a manner
as to form extensions thereof.
The electrodes
and, if desired, also the conducting surfaces are
preferably designed as sphere-plate, concentrical
50
so that the insulating material may be even
punctured. These difficulties are overcome ac
cording to the invention by designing the above
mentioned shield plates, surrounding the anode
chambers and serving to control the cross and 20
longitudinal ñelds, in such a manner that the
shield plates in the form of bell-like bodies having
a predetermined potential, for instance cathode
potential, allot a well-defined cross field to each
anode and thus prevent a mutual influence.
in a shield the above phenomena impair the con
trollability. The reliability and accuracy of the
control leave in many cases so much to be desired 30
that they do not correspond to the present day
practice. Endeavors have been made to remove
these difliculties by alloting to the anodes which
were located in the inner space of the discharge
apparatus, several concentrical shields, the open 35
ings of which facing the cathode were, if desired,
provided with grids. But also apparatus designed
in such a manner proved to be disadvantageous
in that the heating of the electrode chamber
caused by the arc led to overheatings. The dissi 40
pation of heat from the anode parts in such ar
rangements'is very deficient, insofar as the heat
is rather stored up than dissipated, since the
heat is retained by the shields surrounding the
anodes.
v
ments of my invention are shown in diagram
matic form.
Fig. l is a vertical sectional view of a multi
cooling agents.
paratus.
bers are arranged in spaced relation the advan
tage is obtained in that it is possible to attain
maximum voltages, particularly when employing
approximately the most simple electrode ar
rangements and forms (plates arranged in par
allel relation, sphere-sphere, sphere-plate or con
centric cylinders). In this case, the field distri
bution may be so influenced by outside means as
is required for the high voltages and is most fav
orable for the corresponding operating conditions.
The electrode surfaces, particularly the anode
surfaces, are as far as possible concentrically ar
ranged with respect to screens which extend to
the space parts to be homogenized. The elec
trode surfaces and the screens are preferably de
signed as concentric spherical surfaces and the
control or neutralization bodies placed in the
space parts to be homogenized are so arranged
70 that they lie in the surfaces of the screen (spher
45
In the accompanying drawings some embodi
sphere or the like. The conducting surfaces, for
instance, also the control bodies may form at the
same time cooling surfaces. To this end, the
cooling surfaces may be under the influence of
Since both above-mentioned discharge charn
25
In controllable discharge apparatus in which
control grids and deionizing grids are arranged
phase high power mercury vapor discharge ap
50
Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view of
an anode part of a steel tank discharge appara
tus.
Fig. 3 illustrates diagrammatically how the 55
anodes of a six-phase discharge apparatus may
be mutually influenced.
Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show modified forms of the
anodes and the anode parts.
In Fig. l, i denotes the steel tank of the dis 60
charge apparatus. The insulated cathode 2 is
arranged at the bottom of the tank l and the
anodes 3 on the top thereof. The anodes 3 are
arranged in a spherical chamber which forms the
closed end of the shield 4 designed as arm. The 65
chamber 3 either forms the anode or encloses, if
desired, concentrically an anode, the center of
which is the center of the spherical anode arm
part and of the screens 5 and 6. The screens 5
and 6 serve to influence th fields surrounding the 70
ical surfaces) serving to effect the homogeniza
tion. Besides, in the novel high-voltage dis
charge apparatus all high-tension bushings are
anode.
dispensed with, which from an electrical and eco
is provided with a vacuum-tight joint. The tank 75
.75 nomical point of View presents a further great
, According to Fig. 2 the anode tube 'l designed
as arm consists of insulating material and enters
the tank El as indicated at 8 at which point it
2,125,131
9 has cathode potential.
The closed end of the
tube 'I has also a spherical shape and, if desired,
a metallic coating and encloses a spherical anode
I0, the center of which is the center of the spher
ical anode arm` end and of the likewise spherical
screens Il, I2 and I3. The upper sides of the
grid bodies I4, I 5 and I6 which are either in
sulatedly embedded in the anode tube 'I or, when
impressed with a voltage, may be designed as con
trol members are adjacent to the curved sur
faces of the screens Il, I2 and I3.
As will be apparent from Fig. 3 each anode I1,
I8, I9, 25, 2l and 22 is under the influence of the
five adjacent anodes. This influence may as
above-mentioned be of such nature that serious
disturbances may occur in the operation of the
discharge apparatus. 'I'hese disturbances are
practically prevented from occurring by the use
of the screens and globes surrounding the anodes,
if desired concentrically.
As will be seen from Fig. 4 the‘anode 23 may
also be arranged eccentrically within the closed
spherical anode tube end 24. According to these
embodiments it is preferable to arrange the
screens 25, 2li, 21 in such a manner that the front
surface of the spherical anode 23 Contacts with
the spherical surface of the screen 25. A metallic
cap 29 having a beaded edge 30 may be directly
placed over the anode arm end 28 as shown in
Fig. 5.
In the modification shown in Fig. 6 the anode
3l eccentrically arranged in the screen 32 has a
beaded edge.
I claim as my invention:
1. A high voltage vapor electric device com~
prising a metallic chamber enclosing the cathode,
a plurality of anode tubes connected to said
chamber, said tubes being composed of insulating
material, an anode in each of said tubes adjacent
the outer extremity thereof, a plurality of con
ducting shields respectively secured to said anode
tubes external to said device, said shields being
substantially spherical sectors so as to control the
electric ñeld between said anode and said cham
1 ber and the field between said anodes.
2. A high voltage vapor electric device com
prising a metallic chamber enclosing the cathode,
a plurality of anode tubes connected to said
chamber, said tubes being composed of insulating
"g material, an anode in each of said tubes adjacent
< the outer extremity thereof, a plurality of con
ducting shields respectively secured to said anode
tubes external of said chamber and said tubes,
said shields being curved so that all points on said
~ shield are substantially equidistant from said
anode so as to control the electric field between
said anode and said chamber and the field be
tween said anodes, and grids in said anode tubes,
said grids being shaped to form a continuation of
60 the shield surface.
3. A high voltage vapor electric device com
3
prising a metallic chamber enclosing the cath
0de, a plurality of anode tubes connected to said
chamber, said tubes being composed of insulating
material, an anode in each of said tubes adjacent
the outer extremity thereof, a plurality of con Ul
ducting shields respectively secured to said anode
tubes exterior of said chamber, said shields being
substantially semispherical in shape and con
centric with respect to said anode so as to con
trol the stress field applied to said anode.
4. A vapor-electric-device comprising a metal
lic chamber enclosing the cathode space, a plu
rality of substantially tubular arms secured in
vacuum tight relation to openings in said cham
ber, said arms being composed of vacuum tight
insulating material, said arms ending in a sub
stantially spherical anode chamber, and anode
in each of said anode chambers, a cathode in said
cathode chamber, a plurality of substantially
semi-spherical conducting shields secured to the
outside of said tubular arms exterior to said
cathode chamber and said anode chamber, said
shields being intermediate the anode chamber
and the cathode chamber.
5. A vapor-electric-device comprising a metal
lic chamber enclosing the cathode space, a plu
rality of substantially tubular arms secured in
vacuum tight relation to openings in said cham
ber, said arms being composed of Vacuum tight
insulating material, each of said arms ending in a 30
substantially spherical anode chamber, an anode
in each of said anode chambers, a cathode in
said cathode chamber, a plurality of curved con
ducting shields secured to the outside of each of
said tubular arms intermediate the anode cham
‘Il
ber and said cathode chamber, said shields being
exterior of said anode chamber and said cathode
chamber, and grids in said arms forming a con
tinuation of said shields.
6. A vapor-electric device comprising a metal 40
lic chamber enclosing a cathode space, an anode
chamber enclosing a single anode space, a plu
rality of conducting shields of substantially
spherical section secured to said anode chamber
between said anode and said cathode chamber 45
and exterior to said cathode chamber, for con
trolling the potential gradient between the anode
and the metallic cathode chamber.
7. A vapor-electric device comprising a metal
lic cathode chamber enclosing a cathode space, 50
a plurality of anode chambers opening into said
cathode chamber, each anode chamber enclosing
a single anode space, a plurality of individual
conducting shields secured to the outside of each
of the anode chambers between the anode and the 55
metallic cathode chamber and exterior to the
cathode chamber for controlling the potential
gradient between the anode and the metallic
cathode chamber, said conducting shields being
semi-spherical bodies concentric with the anodes.
ALFRED SIEMENS.
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