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Патент USA US2125526

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Ang. 2, 193s.
s. TRIMBA‘rl-l
originaL'Fned Dec. 1, 1932
5 sheets-sheet 1
2, 1938.
original Filed-Dec. 1, 1932
5 sheets-Sheet 2
777272.60172 A
Aug. 2, 1938.
Original Filed Dec. l, 1932
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
s\\'\ \
Allg- 2, 1938~
originalriled Dec. 1, 1932
5 Sheets-sheet 4
Al1g~ 2, 1938-
original >Filed Deo. 1, 1932
1:' 1 :1.18
731. /37
/3//26 125
5 sheets-sheet 5
Patented Aug. y l2, 1938
2,125,526` l
Samuel Trìmbath, Kalamazoo, Mich., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to Willys-Overland Motors,
Inc., a corporation of Delaware
' '
Application December 1, 1932, Serial No. 645,217.
Renewed November 13,I 1937
` This invention relates -to power transmission
parallelism-between corresponding pitch lines of
mechanism and more particularly to transmis
sion mechanism utilizing clutching means of the
the clutching teeth or projections which may arise
by reason of irregularities in manufacturing or
distortion during heating treatment of the parts.
The loosenessor clearance allowed between theV 5
support and the shiftable element will cause al
ternate, diametrical, frictional stresses tending to
interengaging projection type for completing
5 ltransmitting power fnoin a _prime mover to the
driving connection as for example in drive wheels
of an automotive vehicle.'
In a power propelled vehicle of ordinary con
struction incorporating an internal combustion
10 engine of the variable speed type as a prime
mover, it is usual lto interpose an arrangement
of speed reduction gearing or a gear train prior
to the final drive to the drive Wheels of the vehi
cle as it hasV been found desirable at starting and
15 at slow speeds to employ such a speed reduction.
by reason of the fact that the power developed by
>an internal combustion engine increases with the
speed of the‘engine. Thus, to insure an effective
' driving torque in starting an automotive vehicle
20 of this character and operating same at slow
speeds. or underheavy loads, a speed reduction
gearing or gear set is usually employed to- obtain
disengage the elements so as to cause a linear
“creeping” of the .movable element which “creep
ing” is particularly aggravated by periodic accel- 10
eration and deceleration of the prime mover.
'I'his undesirable condition may also arise by
reason of misalignment of the shafts or supports
carrying the respective inter-enmeshable clutch
ing elements which may be caused by irregulari- 15'
ties in manufacturing even if the shiftable ele-,
ment is properly 4aligned with its- supporting
shaft. 'I'he inter-enmeshable elements would
underthis situation tend‘to -“creep” linearly as
the axes of the shafts supporting these elements, 20 `
if out ofalignment, would rotate with a slight
angularity one .with respect'to the other, the
same being true with respect to the inter-en
meshable elements carried thereby/ which under
the friction stressv existing between the interlock- 25
ing portions of such elements çwould result in a
tendency of separating these elements under.
sufficient power from the prime mover. It has,v
been found that in prior constructions -of gear;
25. setsinwhich various ratios of speed may be ob
tained' between the prime mover and the final
drive by the shiftable interenmeshment, engage
ment or disengagement of interlocking elements l stress or load, as they are bound to move in a dl
or members having interlocking /portions or pro-I rection of least resistance in event there is a lon
30 j_ections, that during the transmission of driving gitudinal stress set up as hereinbefore explained. 30
torqueA certain of these'elements tend to become This condition produces at or substantially at
demeshed or disengaged. This tendency toward the pitch line or normal engaging point of the
demeshment of. elements under driving torque is inter-engaging clutching projections a theoreti
particularly prevalent whenga toothed meinberior
35 clutching gear is enmeshed with aucorrsespond
ingly toothed or recessed element in an' arrange
' ment wherein one or both ofthe elements are
capable of being shifted to an interlocking posi
tion or to a disengaged position.; Among the var
r40 ious reasons given for this apparent mechanical
imperfection-is attributed to a required clearance
xto effect a relative shifting or ysliding of one or
both of the toothed or recessedelements to en
' gaged or disengaged position.
This clearance is
-45 suflicient in -some cases when the parts are en
gaged under driving "stress'or torque to result in
.an'oscillating action of. one element with respect
to the other in a planesubstantially at right
. angles to the axes of- the intereng'aging elements,
cal spiral wind of the fpoints on the line of engage
ment of the teeth of these elements.
'I'he condition hereinbefore explained is gen
erally present in the usual transmission or gear
set incorporating shiftable or sliding enmeshable
toothed members for obtaining various speed ra
tios and is particularly characteristic of the type 40
of gear train for the transmission of power
wherein vcertain gears thereof are in constant
mesh `l>While a separate shiftable element is em
ployed as a means lof changing the speed ratio
in certain types through the use of synchronizing- 45
cones or other means for bringing the d¿ ying and
driven elements substantially to .the sai/ff e speed.
before the interenmeshment of drive connection.
'I'he diiiiculties heretofore'explained- are present
in a ‘constant meshv gear transmission. and are 50
more aggravated as the driven gears are general
walls of corresponding recesses tends to -cause a l ly of helical type so that thereis a lateral thrust
disengagement- of the elements;L Another reason imparted to the driven gear and as the latter is
SOjWhich oscillating action under the influence of
' the friction of the interengaging teeth and the
tending to cause disengagement of the clutching
5_5 elements under load is attributed to a lack of
usually slidably supported upon a shaft orf-«other
support, that because of such ‘lateral thrust, the 55 _
drivenhelical gear tends to tilt thus causing a
slight misalignment of the gear and the shiftable
means for establishing a drive connection there
with, such arrangement accentuating the tend
ency of _the shiftable element to linearly or axially
“creep” out of driving engagement.
AFigure 9 is a view siníilar to Figure 2 showing a
mod_ißed form of the invention with the clutching
elements in disengaged position;
Figure 10 is a vertical sectional view >taken sub
stantially on the line I Il-'Illr of Figure 9; Figure 11 is a vertical sectional view taken sub
As one `of Vthe objects, this invention embraces 'stantially on a line II-II of Figure 9;
an arrangement of power transmission mecha
nism wherein the tendency of relatively shiftable
10 interengaging elements to become disengaged is
substantially eliminated.
' A. Figure 12 is a view showing one of the clutch
ing elements of the arrangement shown in Fig
Figure 13 is arvertical transverse sectional view
The invention contemplates the provision oi‘ showing the driving and driven elements of the
simple ' and effective means for establishing a
drive between driving and driven elements where
15 in satisfactory transmission oi.' power maybe ob
tained and wherein-the tendency of the shiftable
element to become disengaged is substantially
eliminated without the use of additional means.
A further object of the invention is the provi
20 sion of improved clutching means for use in~ a
power transmission arrangement wherein a satis
factory drive for the'transmission of power is ob
tained and the weight of certain of the elements
lStill a further object of the invention is the pro-1
vision of a gear train incorporating nshiftable ele
ments for obtaining various speed ratios between
the driving and driven elements which is inex-l
pensive to manufacture.
'I'he invention also embraces a method of pro
ducing certain“ of the elements forming a part of
the present invention.
Further objects and advantages are within the
scope of this invention such as relate to the ar
.35 rangement, operation and function of the related
elements of the structure, to various details of
construction and to combinations of parts, ele
ments per se, and to economies of manufacture
f 'and numerous other features as will be apparent
from a consideration of the specification and
drawings of a form of the invention, which maybe
form of the invention shown in Figure 9 in inter
engaged or driving relationship;
Figure 14 is a view similar to Figure 13 showing
a modiñed arrangement wherein certain oi' the
clutch- projections are removed from the driven
Figure 15 is an enlarged fragmentary detailed
view showing the clutching arrangement illus
trated in Figure 14;
i '
Figure 16 is a view similar to Figure 3 with
certain recesses of the driven member enlarged in
a modified form of clutching arrangement;
Figure 1'? is a fragmentary detail view showing
a portion of one of the elements illustrated in
Figure 16 showing- the enlarged recesses;
Figure 18 is a view similar in part to Figure 1
«showing another arrangement 4of power trans
mission mechanism~ or gear train incorporating 30
the arrangement of my invention;
Figure 19 is an enlarged detailed sectional view
taken substantially on the line I9-I 9 of Figure 18
showing inter-enmeshment of certain driving and
driven elements incorporating my invention;
Figure 20 is a view 'similar to Figure 19 illus-r
trating the interengagement or inter-enmeshment
of driving and driven elements incorporating an
other form of my invention.
I have »shown the arrangement of my- invention 40
as incorporated in and having particular use
preferred, in which:
with~ a gear set or system of gearing for trans
Figure' 1 is a vertical sectional view through a mitting power from an internalcombustion en
variable speed gear train or transmission mecha= gine of the variable speed type to the drive wheels
nism incorporating one arrangement of my inven- - of an automotive vehicle in which for satisfac
tory operation it is desirable to employ means to
Figure 2 is an enlarged view showing certain `have a diil'erent ratio of speed between the en
elements in interengaged or driving relationship gine and the drive wheels under certain condi- '
of the arrangement illustrated in Figure 1 show
tionsfbut it is to be understood that the arrange
sol ing one form of the invention; .
ment of my invention may be used in any power 50
_ Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken sub
transmission system 'where two or more driving
’.stantially on the 'line 3_3 of Figure 2 showing or driven elements are incorporated having oper
one arrangement of interlocking projections o! ative drive or clutch connection therebetween,
the clutching elements; '
and that I contemplate the arrangement and
Figure`4 is an enlarged view of a portion of one utilization of my invention in any power trans
of the toothed elements of the arrangement shown mission system or in any place where it is desired
in Figure 3 illustrating the reduction in size of to secure satisfactory drive connection between
certain teeth or driving projections thereof;
mechanical elements.
Figure 5 is a- view similar to Figure 3 showing
Referring to the drawings in detail and partic
another arrangement of the driving or clutching ularly Figures 1 to 4, inclusive, I have illustrated a
projections 'of certain oi.' the elements of trans
power transmission mechanism, gear train or gear
mission mechanism;
set of a type particularly usable in obtaining vari
Figure 6 is an enlarged view showing one of the able speed ratios between an internal combustion
toothed or driving projections of one of the ele
~ ments illustrated in Figure 5 showing the method
of reducing the size oi'certain teeth or driving
engine and drive shaft or drive wheels of an
automotive vehicle wherein numeral I0 illustrates
a housing enclosing theñy wheel I2 and a rev
oluble clutch housing I3 enclosing friction clutch
‘ Figure -7 is a view similarv to Figure 3 showing mechanism only a portion of the driven disc being
another modiiied arrangement of clutching ele- ` illustrated as at I5. L6 illustrates a portion of the
engine casing, I‘I_ the extremity of the" engine 70
Figure 8 is an enlarged fragmentary view show
crank shaft or other portion of a power unit or
ing a portion of one of the elements of Figure 8 prime mover. I9 illustrates one of the usual op
villustrating in detail the coniiguration of >certain erating control'pedals of the vehicle, 20 an up
of the clutching teeth of the arrangement shown right casing secured to the casing I0 in which is
in Figure '1;
pivoted by means of a ball joint 22 a shifting
3 .
lever 'z3 having manipulating handle portion u, . whereby shaft 52 is rotated at a reduced speed as
the lower v_end of the rod 23 being connected by compared witlr rptation of shaft 38.` When it is
means of yokes 28 to longitudinally movable. or desired to effect a higher speed of -shaft 52 with
slidable rods, only one of which is shown i‘n-Fig-f' respect to shaft 38,lthe lever_23 is moved to a dif
ur'e -1 as at ,28 which performs Athe'i'unction of ferent position moving shaftc 28 and gear 84 to the
meshing and'demeshing certain geìrsin a man 'position illustrated in Figure I_demeshing gears
ner to be hereinafter explained.
A 84 and-58„ further movement of the lever 23jac
Positioned immediately 'at the rear ofthe' ces
. «16 ing Il is a lhousing 38 having end walls 3l and 32.
Fixed to the forwardv portion of the wall 3| of
the‘casin’g 38 is a.- sleeved bracket 34 carrying a
thrust bearing 38 for the clutch mechanism.
Positioned within a central bore in the bracket 34
« is a shaft 38 provided at its forward end with aI
15 tenon 39 journalled within a. bore in the end of
tuating the shaft carrying yoke 88 to move gear
<83.V into mesh with- gear 51. As gear 51 is larger
in diameter than gear 58 'and gear 83 smaller in
diameter thanl gear 84, a correspondingly higher
speed as_oompared with shaft 38 is impartedto
drive shaft‘52. .
ß In order to secure a direct drive, i. e.,~ shaft
38 `connected directly with shaft 52 so that `both
shafts are rotating at the sameA speed, lever 23
.the engine` crank shaft I1, the other end being
_journalled in an ‘anti-_friction bearing 40 mounted
is moved in the opposite direction bringing gear 83
_in an opening in the wall 3l `in the casing 30._ Poe
out of enmeshment with gear 51,‘and the inter
sitioned within an opening 'in the rear wall 32 of ' 'nal teeth 88 of the gear portion 83 into enmesh
20 housing 38 Ais 'an anti-friction bearing 42 in which ment with the teeth sa er nie shaft :s thus es
is journalled a shaft 43, the .latter' having at its _tablishing a direct drive between shafts 38, 43
forward end a tenoriA 44 journalled within an in
and 52. The geafr portions 88 and 89 are com
ternalV axial bore in the end of shaft 38. The monlyknown in ythe art as clutching gears.
shaft 43 is provided with aA splined portion 48
As has been ¿previously explained, gear 83 is
which extends rearwardlyvof the housing 30 and slidable upon shaft 43 and therefore there exists 25
upon which is iixedly mounted a bracket 41 and between the internal bore of this gear and the
held in place by means of a nut 48 threaded upon l periphery of `shaft‘43 sufficient clearance to per
an extensionkof ythe shaft 43.V The bracket 41 is
connected to a member 50 which -forms the ex-f’
30 terior housing of a universal joint mechanism en
closed therein (not shown) which in turn is con
nected to a drive or propeller shaft 52 which is
-_connected by means (not shown) to propel the
vehicle through its connection to the drive wheels.
Positioned out of alignment with shaft 43 but
mit the sliding of the gear. When, however, the
‘clutching gears 88 and 89 are in driving connec
tion and are under load in torque transmittingl 30
relation theclearance between gear 83 and its
supporting shaft in certain instances permits the
’ gear 83 to tilt slightly, and it has been found that
periodieacceleration and deceleration of the en
gine effects the tilting tendency of this gear and
as the latter is under the stress of transmitting
torque or force to the drive wheels it tends to fol
. gear or toothed portions 58,' 51, 58 and 59, the low the. course of least resistance which is toward
gear 58 being in constant mesh withfa‘gear or - an» out-of-mesh position. The tilting of the gear
toothed portion 88 formed upon a portion of shaft 83 with' respect to its supporting shaft produces 40
‘ 38 projecting within the transmission casingßß. an out-of-parallel condition of the pitched lines
-Shaft 43Á is provided with a 'spliñed portion 82 , of the toothed gea;- portions 88 and 88 and under
lparallel therewith is an auxiliary' shaft 54 upon
which is journalled a member 55 formed with four
e. upon which is slidably mounted 'gears 83 and 84, ' load transmitting conditions results in a so-called
these gears having means or feathers projecting4 spiral winding 'of one gear portion with respect
' into the splines so that rotary movement of leither to the other whereby the gear 83 will tend to 45
vof the-gears transmits rotation to shaft 43. Gear move longitudinally or “creep” so as to demesh
84 which isthe low speed gear is connected by the clutching gear portions 88 and 88.
means of a yoke 85 to the longitudinally movable
. Means have been used for holding shaft 28 in
shaft 28 providing the means for sliding gear 84
for purpose to be hereinafter, explained. As has
, ' f been previously stated, parallel with shaft 28 is a I
second shaft similar thereto having a yoke 88 sim
' ilar to 88 which engages a circumferential groove
certain of gear meshing positions in the form of
a ball detent (not illustrated) mounted in a bore
1| under tension of a coil spring 13 which engages,
>in the several gear meshing positions, with re
cesses 12 and 14 in shaft 28 and tends to hold the
in gear: 83 in the same manner as the yoke 85y en‘-~ f shaft 28 in itsshifted position.` The other slid~
gages a circumferential groove inA gear 84 Lfor ing shaft (not shown) arranged parallel with 115
shifting gear 83.
. ' '
r shaft 28 isßalso provldedwith recesses correspond
_,'I'h'e end of shaft 38 is also provided with
a sec
_ ond toothed section or gear 88, and gear 83‘is-
also provided with an internal toothed portion or
ing to recesses 12 and 14 and cooperate with a '
similar ball vdetent (not shown) tending "to hold
this shaft vin its various positions.
gear 83 for establishing _driving connection as - -of retaining the sliding shafts in various positions
a „
however, has several disadvantages, in that if the
The„,0peration of 'the »mechanism above de-> spring pressure against the ball detent which is
scribed is Vas follows: Shaft 38 is driven bythe in ' mounted in the bore 1I is of sufficient pressure _
hereinafter explained.
ternal c'or'nbustionl engineer rime mover` (not.
through the friction cl tchmechanism I5
465 shown).
causing rotation'of gear portions 88 and '88.,
to maintain shaft 28.; in1 its various positions to
prevent demeshmentmf the clutching gears as , ~
above explained,fit becomes practically impos
Gear 88 being constantly in mesh with gear 88 sible to move lever 23 to effect a re-adjusting or
causes constant rotation-of member 55 whenever' shifting of shaft 23 to another of lts-positions.4
the shaft 38 is rotated. `In order to bring the slow- .If the spring pressure on the ball detent is weak
70 speed» gear into operation to effect a driving con
ened or reduced to' facilitate movement of the gear
nection to the propeller shaft 52, lever 23Vis moved shifting lever 23, then the driving stress acting
to the‘proper position to slide -shaft 28 and yoke through the clutching gears particularly accen
85 longitudinally to the`left to move the compara
tu'ated by reason of a periodic acceleration and
tively- large gear 84 into mesh with; gear 58 thus
establishing a. drive between shafts; 38 and V524,
iation in vthe drive torque transmitted through
deceleration of the engine and the resultant var
the clutching gears results in the shiftable clutch-.
the teeth in the member 68 which accomplishes '
ing gear 68 "creeping” cnt‘of meshment with its
corresponding driving clutching element 68.
Referring particularly to Figures 2 through 4,
substantially the same results as the relieving of '
ure 3, there being in the embodiment illustrated
six teeth'of the standard conteur in which each
tooth snugly and properly engages the walls of
the corresponding properly formed teeth of the
internally toothed portion 69 of the driven clutch
ing gear. 'I'he balance of the number of teeth
upon the periphery of the driving clutching gear
reduced in sizeon both the drive andthe non
drive sides as particularly shown in detail in
Figure 8. In this manner the entire driving cc-n
tact of the interengaging clutch surfaces in either
the major portion of the teeth onthe non-driving
side as the v“spiral wind” tending to' demesh the
inclusive, the same illustrate a means of my in- ‘ clutching gears is substantially eliminated.
vention for alleviating orsubstantially overcom
Figures 7 and 8 illustrate a further ferm of the
» ing these dimctälties. In this form of the in
invention wherein the teeth 6E' are of the stand
vention certain teeth of the clutching gear'EiB are ard shape and configuration while the major
of the standard size and pitch, these teeth being portion of the teeth er the balance of teeth 68"
designated as 68’ particularly iiiustratedin Fig
on the clutching member 68 have been relieved or
direction is through the minor number of teeth 15
68' on the member 68, the major number of
teeth 68” which are of reduced size serving no
or member 68 are relieved on one side, i. e., re
driving function whatever but are preferably `
duced in size, these relieved or reduced teeth being
present upon the periphery of member 68 sorv
designated 68", the relieved 'tooth being partic
that at high speeds the clutching gear will be sub 20
stantìally in balance.
It is to be noted that in the above described.'
forrns of the invention the relief given to certain
ularly indicated in fuli lines in Figure 4 by nu
meral 15 as ccrnpared‘with the standard formed
tooth illustrated in this figure in dotted lines.
The relieving of certain teeth in the driving
clutching gear .68 in the 'embodiment shown is
teeth may be very little as for .example only a
_few thousandths of an inch for sufileient clear 25
on the non-drive side or coasting side as indi-'
ance which should' preferably exceed the amount
cated by the drive rotation direction arrows `in
of “back-lash” clearance existing between the
Figure 3.
theoretically perfectly meshed teeth forming the
It is well known that in any system
_ I
actual _driving surfaces between the clutching
of gearing there is present slight clearance be
tween the teeth which is commonly termed as
In the arrangement shown in Figures 9 through
“back-lash”, and therefore it follows that in this ‘
embodiment there is slight “back-lash” existing 13, inclusive, the member 68 is provided with
between the drive surfacesof teeth 68' and` 68', >teeth throughout only afminor portion ofits
thus there isv always substantial peripheral tooth periphery which teeth are indicated at 68' and
contact between the drive surfaces of both sets are of the standard configuration so'that the
of teeth 68' and 68" and Athe‘driven side or face entire driving torque takes placevbetweenteeth
_ of each internal‘projection or tooth 68 of the 68' and internal teeth 69 of gear _63. 'I'he oper
clutching gear which are in close contact when ation of this form of the invention and' the
driving torque is being transmitted through the results obtained are substantially the same shown
member 68 to member 69. In event'the engine in theembediments of Figures 2 to ‘8 voi? the draw?
is decelerated, there is a slight “play” between the ings so far as the elimination of “creeping” or 40
' two clutching members due to the “back-lash’î or
tendency of disengagement of the `'gears or mem
tooth clearance above mentioned, but .by reason
of the relieving of the major number of teeth 68”
bers is concerned. The member 68, howeveri has
been reduced in Weight-by- reason of the elimi
of the driving clutching member 68 actual contact ' nation of the major portion ofthe teeth from the
between members 68 and 68 takes place ‘only periphery thereof which also g'effects a reduction
through the teeth 68', which are of the standard in the cost of producing the construction.
or proper configuration and the drive side of teeth
lFigures~ 14 and' i5 illustrate _a further form oi' '
68", there being a freedom or clearance of the the invention wherein the female clutching gear
balance of the projeetions _68" on the non-drive teeth 68 of member' 63 extend only throughout
side with the internal teeth> 68 of member 63 `so a minor portion of >the internal surface thereof.
that any diametrical tendency to tilt member .63 Y In this form of the invention the teeth 68' of the
with respect to member 68 has been substantially
eliminated. When the motor is again acceier
to ated, the clearance between member 63 and shaft
4I will be taken up by reason of the driving
mele clutching gear 68. are of standard
tion. 'I'he tendency of vthese -clutching gears to
become demeshed under load is obviated as the
continuity of the “spiral wind” under the fric--
torque being transmitted only through teeth or - tional stresses tending to .separate the gears is
projections 68' and the drive side ofteeth 68"
substantially eliminated as the effective torque
in mesh with corresponding teeth 68 in the mem- '
driving surfaces einst only on a minor portion
ber 68 and a tilting, if anyì of the gear taking
of the periphery ofthe clutching gears.-
place upon such acceleration will not produce a ~
spiral wind tending to demesh the clutching gears;
The'forrnof the invention illustrated in _Fig
ures 16 and 17 is similar to the form ef the
and all tendency for the clutching members to _ invention -shown
in Figures 3 and 4 except that
become demeshed by reason of4 driving or torque , in thisform a major number of the recesses in'
transmitting stresses will be substantially'elimi l'the female clutch gear I69 are enlarged or re
Another form of the invention is iilustrated in
Figures 5 and 6 wherein teeth 68’ of the driving
clutching member are of the standard contour
70 while the balance of the teeth 68" of this mem
ber have been relieved in much thesame manner
as heretofore described in lconnection withÍ the
y form illustrated in Figures 3 and 4, but the re'
lieving of certain teeth 68" is -applied tc- the
driving sides or walls ofithe major portion of
' lieved on one vside preferably‘theÁ non-drive side
of the interengaging clutching. projections, while
the recesses shown in 68" are of the standard
formation to _properly flt the contour Aof the
standard formed ‘teeth 68 ,of the male clutching >’is
In this form -of the invention the axial '
stressestending to demesh the elements _are obvi
ated as has been >pr-eviously expiained'in con
nection with other forms of the invention.
The arrangement of my invention has par
.ticuiar utility in -transmissions of the so-called
constant mesh type wherein certain speed ratio
is a direct drive connection between drive shafts-
gears of the gear set are in constant'mesh, a
to the left bringing the teeth of »member |35 in_to
engagement with lthe _teeth |30 formed on _the
drive being attained by shifting a toothed clutch
member into engagement with toothed members
cooperating with the gears to obtain various
speeds of ñnal drive.
I|I and |22, it is only necessary to shift rod |30 '
end vof shaft |||,»thus a direct drive is established
through shaft || |„teeth |30, memberv |35, teeth
|33 to shaft'|22._.
Figure 18 illustrates one form of this type ‘of
Due tothe clearance'` required for adequate
'I transmission comprising a housing I I0 in the for
10 Íward end of which is journalled a shaft ||| having formed thereon a gear portion I |3.l The shaft
| | I corresponds to shaft 30 illustrated in Figure 1
slidingmovement of member I 35 and the _clear
15 gear I|3 is a gear ||4 formed upon a sleeve-like
reduced size -on the non-drive side to eliminate 15
ance necessary for rotationvof gear |26, I have 10
embodied one form'- of ‘the arrangement of my
invention as illustrated particularly Iin Figure 19,and isI adapted to be driven from the crankshaft wherein teeth` |30' are of standard -con-figuration
' of an internal combustion engine.' Meshing with »While the major. number. of -teeth ,l30'.' are of'
member ||5 journalled upon an auxiliary or, the so-called “spiral Wind”, or -the tendency of
counter shaft I I6, the member ||5 being formed
the shiftable member |35 to-‘_‘creep” longitudi
with other gear portions I|8', I|0and |20.
nally out of engagement-withthe clutching gear ` '
' Y
Positioned in axial alignment _with shaft AI || is
or -toothed‘member |30. 'It -is to be understood
that teeth of clutching gear |3-| connectedto theV 20~
20 a splined shaft |22 one end journalled in bear
Aings at the rear of the housing IIO, its forward
lconstantly driven second speed gear are shaped
"correspondingly to vtheY teeth
. end being journalled within a' bore contained
within the extremity of shaft -|I|. Slidably
mounted upon splined portion of shaft |22 is a
25 slow 'speed gear |24 which cooperates with a‘
so that
“creeping” tendency will be -set up tending to
move '|35 out' of engagement with the clutching
gear |3| ashereinbefore described'in connection
shifting yoke |25 adapted to be shifted by mech--
with clutching gear
anism similar to that shown in the transmission
mechanism of Figure 1 hereinbefore described.
Another, form of the invention _as applied vto
this type of transmission'- is illustrated in Figure
The gearl |24 has feather portions extending into
20 wherein teeth |30' are of standard conñgura- `
tion, thel remaining teeth |30” inmemberv |32
30 the splines of shaft |22 so that when the 'gear
being 'of reduced configuratio‘n'on the drive side»
which accomplishes substantially the same result '
of preventing tendency of the clutching gears to
become separated in driving.' connection as the
- |24 is moved into 'enmeshed position with gear
|,|9, a low [speed is >imparted to shaft |22 as~compared with the speed of shaft ||I.
. Journalledfor rotation upon shaft |212 is a
35 _gear |26 which is constantly in mesh with .gear‘ so-called “spiral wind’îis eliminated. ‘
.The arrangement of'my invention hasv partic
Hß’formed upon the _member liti.` It is to be
ular `utility in this form` of constantmesh trans
noted'that‘gears II3, ||4,'||0 and |26 are pref
erably of helical tooth formation as this type .of mission,~ as has been previously: stated, the re
gearing is more silent in operation than the Áusual quired clearance 'topermit rotation of gear |25
and the sliding movement of shiftable clutch'` 40
type of spur gearing.
The shaft III is provided at its ¿forward end member |35 per-mits'these members in some in
with a tooth clutching gear portion |30 and the stances to tilt inìrespect to their supporting e1e-.
>gear |26 is formed with a similar toothed portion ments and in respectV to each-other. _ _This tilting y
forming a clutching gear '|3I. Positioned be-> would normally produce the v"spiral wind’for
tween the non-slidable clutching gears |30 and> “creeping”~action should the teeth be of stand
|3| is a member |32 splined upon shaft |22 and ard ~_configuration throughout their peripheries.
adapted to rotate therewith being non-slidably ` With the incorporation 'of the arrangement of my
mounted thereon.
The exterior periphery-of the
member |32 is preferably formed with spur teeth „
invention providing the drive surfaces throughout
only a-portion of the circumferential contacting
areas of saidi'clutchin‘g gears, the tendency- for'
these members to become disengaged under torque
transmission is practically eliminated. 'I'hus it
is possible to employ only a weak .spring |40- to ‘
hold a‘ ball detent (not shown) into engagement
with recesses' |4| inthe shiftable 'rod |38 ffo'r.
|33 which enmesh with correspondingly shaped
spur teeth formed in a longitudinally- shiftable
clutching gear |35, the latter having on its ex
terior periphery a circumferential groove into
which extends a shifting yoke |31 mounted upon'
a shifting rod I38`connected with the shifting
lever (not shown) in the same manner as rod
retaining the shiftable clutch'member |35 in its>
23 of Figure 1 is- connected to theshifting lever
33, thus movement of the shifting lever in either
makes possible a change of speed ratio with very
various positions.
The use of a weakspring |40
Ydirection operates to slide the member |35 into l little effort being applied to engage _and disent'~
gage the clutching gears.
enmeshment with either of the non-slidable
clutching gears |30 and |3I.
It is to be noted that gear |26 is at all times
rotating at a certain predeterminedspeed with
respectto rotation of shaft |||, and when it 'is
'What I claim is:
»1. In a `device'of the character disclosed, 'in
combination, power transmission mechanism in'
cluding aligned slidabie interengageableVv ele- '
ments; said elements being movable into and out
gear train to secure a so-called intermediate or of engagement, said elements being provided with
second speed it is only necessary to‘move the '
said projections being of a thickness whereby 4
desired to eenneet the shaft- |22 through theA
shifting rod |38~to the right, yoke |31 carrying
the shiftable member |35 into toothed or clutch
70 ing engagement with the clutching gearJI3I, a
» portion of the teeth of member |35 being still in
engagement with teeth |33, thus effecting a drive
driving engagement is effected throughout‘only
a portion of the peripheries of said elements. .„
2. In a device of the character disclosed, in
combinatiompower transmission mechanism -in-- A
cluding slidable interengageable elements; means
for moving said elements into and out of engage
|35, teeth |33 to a ñnal drive of shaft |22.
ment, said elements having a plurality of inter
When it is desired to obtain a _direct drive, that . locking teeth, certain of said teeth_being formed. through gear |26, teeth |3I, clutching member
" 2,125,526
whereby power transmitting engagement is es
of said projections formed> with reduced periph--'
tablished'throughout only a circumferential por
eral thickness whereby a clutching driving- en
tion of said- elements on one side of a, plane pass
gagement is eiïectefd through the engagement` of
projections of unreduced peripheral thickness.`
10.` In' a device ofthe _character described,
ing through the axis of said elements.
3. In a -device of the character?disclosed, in
combination, power transmission mechanism in
cluding slidably enrneshable toothed elements;
means for moving one of said elements into and
out of engagement with another of said elements,
certain of the teeth ofîonë`of said elements [being
of reduced thickness whereby power is transmit
powe; transmitting mechanism including a pair
of rotatable clutching elements arranged for
relative’ slidable interengagement and disengage
ment; each of said elements having a plurality
of interengageable projections arranged for ef
-fective'transmission oi power stresses in both
ted through only the teeth of normal size.
4. In a device of the character disclosed, in
directions oi rotation, the shape of said projec
combination, power transmission mechanism in
ment'is effected throughout only a portion o!
15 cluding enmeshable gears; means for moving one
of said gears into and out of 4engagement with
another of said gears, certain of the teeth oi' one
of said gears being of reduced thickness whereby
power is transmitted through only the teeth of
20 normal size.
5. In a device of the character disclosed, the
combination of powerl transmission mechanism
including substantially _axially aligned interen
gageable clutching gears; means for moving one _
tions having areas so thatA contacting engage
the peripheries of saidclutching elements on one
side of a plane passing through the axis oi rota
tion of said clutching elements.`- "
11. In a device of the character described. in
combination, a pair of rotatable clutching ele
ments aligned for relative slidable interengage
ment and disengagement; each of said elements
having a plurality of interengageable spaced pro
jections arranged lfor ‘eiïective transmission of
25 of said?clutchlng gears into and out oi engage
power stresses in _both directions of rotation, the
shape of certain di the spaced projections of one
gearsbeing provided with interengaging projec
tween the projections of lthe other element so
ment with another oi said gears, said clutching . element having areas which fit the spaces be
tions and recessœ enmeshable throughout only
that full contacting engagement is effected
a portion .circumferentially of said gears- on one
throughout only a'portion of the peripheries of '
30 side of a plane passing through the axis of said
said clutching elements on one side of a plane
clutching gears.
passing through the axis of rotation of said
6. In ‘a device of the character disclosed, the
combination of powerv transmission mechanism
clutching elements.§
- 12. In a device' oi' the character, disclosed in
including substantially axially aligned' interen
combination, a plurality of aligned slidable inter
gageable clutching gears; said clutching gears engageable elements; means associated with said
being movable into and out 'oi engagement; one f elements for moving the same into and out of
of said gears» being provided. with a plurality of engagement, said elements being provided with
uniformly shaped recesses, the other oi.' said a series of interlocking spaced projections for
gears beingÍ provided throughout a portion of
its periphery with toothed projections adapted
to iit the walls of certain ofv said recesses and
eifective transmission of power in both directions
of rotation, the projections of one> of said ele 40
ments being of a thickness with respect to the
throughout the remainder of its peripherywith ` spaces between the projections o! the other ele
1 toothed projections adapted to engage only- one
wall of each of the remaining‘reeesses in said
first mentioned clutching gear.
l y
n‘7. Ina device ot the character disclosed, the
combination of power transmission mechanism
including substantially axially aligned interen->
gageable clutching gears: said clutching gears
being movable into and out of engagement; one-
of said \gears‘being provided with a plurality of
' spaced and yuniformly shaped recesses, the other
ment so that full contact of said projections for
'driving rotative stresses in `either direction is
effected throughout only- a portion of the pe
ripheries of said elements._
' 13. In' a device of the character disclosed in
combination, power transmission mechanism in
cluding aligned slidable interengageable gears;
means associated with said gears for moving the
same into and out of engagement, said gears be
ing provided with a series of interlockingy teeth
oi said gears being provided throughout a por
for effective transmission of power in both di
tion of its periphery with toothed projections ~ >rections of rotation, the teeth of one of said gears
adapted to nt the walls of certain of said recesses , being of a thickness with respect to the teeth of
and throughout the remainder oi' itsA periphery .the other‘gears so that full contact therebetween 55
with toothedprojections out -of engagement with ,
for driving “rotative stresses in eitherl direction.
the walls. of the remaining recesses in said ñrst
-is effected throughout only a portion of the pe
mentioned clutching gear. 'l'.
ripheries of said gears wherebytendency for the
8. In a _device `of the character described power
gears to become disengag/ed?by
transmitting mechanism including a pair oiîïro .interengageable
tatable clutching ’elements arranged for relative reason of.Y torque transmitting stresses will; be
slidableïnterengagement and disengagement;V
' each of~ said elements having Aa yplurality of in
terengageable projections arranged for eiïective
' ;
'.14. In a lpower _transmitting mechanism,- in
combination, a pair of aligned and slidable
transmission oi' power stresses in both directions,
clutching> elements Yarranged for interengage
of rotation throughronly- aT portion peripherally
ment and disengagement, each of said elements _
of said clutch elements Von one side of a plane
passing through the axis of said clutching ele
substantially eliminated.
- 9. In -a device'oi’ the character disclosed, the
combination of a power transmission mechanism
includingsubstantially axially aligned interen
gageable 'clutching elements, said elements being
provided c with interlocking f projections, certain
having a plurality of spaced projections arranged
for effective transmission of power stresses in
both directions of rotation,'the shape oi’ the pro 70
jectiòns presenting areas of contacting engage
ment establishing' driving stresses throughout
only'a portion of the peripheries `'of said elements
whereby tendency for the interengaging mem
bers to become- disengaged by reason oitorque 76
transmitting stresses will be substantially elimi
rangement of the projections of one of said ele- l
15. In a power transmitting mechanism, in
combination, a. pair of aligned and slidable
ments presenting areas of contacting engagement
. clutching elements arranged for interengage
ment and disengagement, each oi.' said elements
» having a plurality of spaced projections arranged
for eñective transmission of power stresses in
both directions of rotation, the shape and ar
establishing driving stresses throughout only a
portion of the peripheries of said elements where
by tendency for the interengaging members to 5
become disengaged by reason of torque trans
mitting stresses will be substantially eliminated. '
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