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Патент USA US2125680

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Aug. 2, 1938.
A, R, MacGREGOR
ALLOY
_
Filed Julie 1o, 1936
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Patented Àug. V2„ 1938
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STATES
2,125,630
ALLOY
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Alpino mongool-oros, somt mno, ru;
Application June 10, 1936, Serial No.- 84,577
1 claim. (ci. sti-_154)
My invention relates to copper base alloys suit-_ f phorus. ' With alloysof this'type having a phos
able for use in welding, brazlng, and soldering, phorous content >ranging up to’about 8.3 per cent,
and relates particularly to ternary alloys of cop-â I have found that the most eiiective tin addition
‘ per, phosphorus, and' tin adapted to be used for is about 0.5 per cent, and that in substantially all
Veases the maximum ductiJity-is obtained bythe 5
5 such purposes.
'
’
An vobject of my invention isA to provide an - addition of this amount oi tin. Good results _are ‘
also obtained by the addition of tin .in amounts
from about 0.25 per cent to about 0.75 percent,
A second object oi.' my invention is to: provide ' but additions of tin in amounts less than about 0.2
improved alloy i'or the purposes s_et forth herein
above.
'
'
'
y10 copper-phosphorus alloys having improved physi
cal
properties.
'
»
»
'
_
«.
_
` per cent or more than about 0.85 per cent have
« relatively little eiïeet» on the ductility oi the alloys
as compared with additions within my preferred
«
' _ Another object of my invention is to provide
an‘improved alloycontaining copper and phos
range. In fact, larger additionsl o! tin _may
phorus, and adapted to use in welding, brazing, . result in alloys having greater hardness land "
l5 filling, and similar processes.
_
„ .
My invention has for other objects such other
advantages as are found to obtain in the alloys'
described and claimed herewith.
_
' ‘lower ductility _than alloys of similar phosphorous 15
content to which no tin is added, as shown here
.inbelova
,
'
l
»
.
»
The veffect oi tin on phosphorus-copper alloys
.
is illustrated in the following tables, which give
the Brinell hardness values oi alloys, containing _20
peratures above their melting- points. Eutectlc ¿constant phosphorous\ proportions, as stated.
alloys oi copper and phosphorus, _i'or'exsmpla varying amounts> oi’ tin, as stated, and the re
It is well known that eutectic> alloys generally
20 have a relatively highl d‘egree of iiuidity at tem
‘
‘
exhibit thlscharacteristic to a marked degree,`
mainder` substantially copper;
and such alloys have been used in the _past for
ever, it has been found that the brlttleness and ,
low duetllity oi these alloys makes them unsatis
_iactory whenvductile welds are desirable.
Izllave found that thel addition oi tin in the
rus
30 ‘ proper proportion to alloys oi copper and phos
_
phorusresults in the formation o! alloys’having
marked liiuidity'and at the same time - ~~~ ~
.
’
Time. i
ggg-’giá itlslent Brlnell
25 brazlng, welding, and similar purposes. How
-
vunusual ductility and softness.' More specifi
-
-
- cally, I have found that alloys comprising copper, _ _
25
,um
4.0
o
to
to
4.o
to
0.5
1.o
1.o
ao
A
120 '
a0
10o
110
m
4.0
as
120
'-30
.
phosphorus is less than or does not materially
exceed that 1u the outeouo composition (obout'aa ,
Table II
per cent) and containingtin in amounts les than
:gêgä reagent nanou
l per cent, are very satisfactory for use -as__ weld
40 ing* or braaing» media. These
v
35
35 . phosphorus, and tin, in which the percentage oi
in a
- -
.
' application. andiorm a weld or illling having
vunusually high >d'uctility and softness, which al'
_ lows them to be` _readily peened, machined, or
_ 45 otherwise dressed in the weld. or elsewhere. Hy
alloys, - furthermore,- produce a strong, dense weld
.40
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7.o
1.0
0
0.25
0.50
.100
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1.0
. 0.15
1an
1.o
1.00
1an
7.0
2.00 _
14a
1.0
aso
los
’
45
.
or braze capable o! resisting high pressures, both
.
Table III
gaseous
'As stated
and liquid.
hereinabove, my _ preferred
_ . _ alloysmi
5o coppenphosphorus; ansiv tin contain not more
_ than about 8.3'per eentphosphorua'and'l have
found that -a phosphorous content o_i about 6.5 to
7.5 per cent is especially desirable >for general use
Perce t
l
as
as
m suitable proportions in oooordsuoeyitnmy'm
‘ ; >vention is also advantageous withfeopper Ialloys,
containinghighe'r and lowerpercentages o! phos
phorus. however, and 'I have" found >that especially. "
' -ductile welds are obtained' by :the _use `ofE an
` o0 ano'yrooutoiuiug about ‘iI or taper oeut phot
'
.
'
50
„£15 -pungent hernan
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an
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ma
~’rho ¿uovo moet 'ure plottedlu m. 1 or the
’- accompanyingdrawing.
results on
2
annoso
are obtained when other percentages o! phos
phorus within the preferred range (from about 2
loys because of their fluidity, ductility, searching
per cent to about 8.3 per cent) are used. _
I am aware that alloys of copper and phos
phorus are known to the prior art as welding and
brazlng media. as disclosed, for example, in U. S.
In addition >to their improved ductility, I have
also found that alloys of my preferred composi
tions have melting polnts considerably lower than
that of the eutectic copper-phosphorus alloy, and
are therefore more readily employabie for weld
ing, brazing, soldering, ñllins, and the like. For
10 example. I have found that the ternary alloy
containing 'l per cent phosphorus and 0.5 per
cent tin with the remainder substantially copper
begins to melt at approximately 631° centigrade,
with pronounced periods of arrest in the cooling
15 curve at approximately 634°, 663°, and 709°, being
entirely liquid at about 885° centlgrade, as shown
in Fig. 2.
I have successfully used alloys described here
inabove for welding and brazing ferrous and
20 non-ferrous parts by both they electric arc and
the gas llame methods, for joining brass, bronze,
and copper tubes and sheets, and for the repair
and ñliing of cast objects, both copper base and
iron base. However, due to the unique properties
of these alloys they are adapted to many uses,
and it is not my intention to limit their applica
tion to any particular form or to any particular
power, and strong adhesion to other metals.
Patents 1,652,107 to Eschhoiz and 1,651,709 to
Jones.
I am also aware that ternary alloys of
copper, phosphorus, and tin have been developed
in the past, and such alloys, which are generally
of the type known as phosphor-bronzes, have l0
many uses. 'I‘hey have been used for welding, but
do not produce-the results obtained with alloys
of my preferred composition because of their
generally higher tin content and lower phos
phorus content. Similarly, my alloys are dis 15
tinguished from those disclosed in U. S. Patent
'1,988,422 to Miller by their characteristically low
er tin contents, which produce materially dif
ferent results as shown hereinabove.
When welding with alloys of my preferred oom 20
position, some of the phosphorus is driven out
and serves ss an efficient deoxidizer, but enough
remains to make the weld strong. The tin in
the amounts specified overcomes the brittleness
which would otherwise result from the presence 25
of phosphorus, and makes it possible to peen or
, machine the weld, and the presence of tin in com
The alloys 4 constitutingl my present inventio
bination with the phosphorus makes tinning of
the welded joint readily possible.
may be prepared by processes analogous to those
known to «fthe ‘art for the manufacture of other
alloys. For example, I may melt phosphor-copper
or a mixture of phosphor-copper 'and copper hav
ing the desired phosphorus content with the cor
My new alloys may be employed in welding or
brasing copper, iron. and the like without the use
of a flux. but when brazlng brass or other metals
or alloys containing appreciable amounts of zinc
I prefer to use aiiux of borax or the like, in the
rect amount of tin, or I may melt the tin and cop»
manner known to theprior art.
I claim as my invention: .
purpose.,
`
»
per together and then add the phosphorus. The
resulting alloy in either case is then cast, drawn.
rolled, or otherwise fabricated, into welding rods,
electrodes, or other desired forms. Itis generally
more convenient to employ the alloy in such
forms, but in any case a remarkably strong.
dense. ductile weld is formed by the use of my al
'
An alloy containing from 2 per cent to 8.3 per
'cent phosphorus and 1min 0.25 per cent to 0.75
per cent tin, the balance being substantially all
ALPINE ROSS MACGREGOR.
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