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Патент USA US2125751

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Aug- 2, 1938- I
‘
R. S‘AULNIER
‘
2,125,751
LIQUID COOLING DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Filed Dec. 28. 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Aug. 2, 1938.
‘
‘
R. sALILNIER
.
2,125,751
LIQUID COOLING-DEVICE FOR AIRCRAFT ENGINES
Filed. Dec. 28, 19_ss
2 sheets-shat 2
" .dl'z'arneys
Patented Aug. 2, 1938
2,125,751
UNITED STATES PATENT ‘OFFICE
LIQUID COOLING 2.125.751
DEVICE
_
FOR Amcnm,
ENGINE
_
Raymond Saulnier, rem, Rrance
Application December as. 1936, Serial No. 11%,945
InFrance December 27, 1935
5 Claims. (Cl. 123-170)
(Granted under the provisions of 8005314, act of
March 2, 1827; 357 0. G
The present invention concerns improvements the volume oi’ the feed chamber and uncovers the
in liquid cooling devices for airplane engines, top of the rear cylinders of the group. ' '
‘with a view to obtaining the constant presence '
oi’ the liquid in question in all the parts 0!! the
5 engine, whatever be the position of the air
plane. Of course the present invention can be
applied to airplanes of all kinds but it is more
especially applicable to the case of low-wing or
‘ cantilever airplanes.
‘
It is known that the cooling elements, in the
case of liquid cooled engines, are generally made,
in high-wing monoplanes and biplanes, in the
manner diagrammatically shown by Fig. 1 of the
ppended drawings. In this example, engine A
16 includes one or several groups of cylinders C, a
liquid circulation circuit‘ including pipes B and
F, a radiator D and a pump E. When, before
‘starting the engine, all the pipes are-?lled with
liquid, same as the cylinder Jackets and the ra
The object of the present invention is to pro
videv a cooling device for airplane engines, and
especially low-wing airplane engines, which per U!
mits the airplane to take any position without
any risk oi’ the level .0! the liquid uncovering the
top of the cylinders that are to be cooled by said
liquid. This device is arranged in such manner
that the desired result‘is obtained without it be 0
ing necessary toplace the feed chamber in a ‘
high position which cannot be obtained in this
kind 0! airplane. ,
'
,
According to the present invention, the cooling
device includes, on the one hand, a feed chamber
located at the front of the group ofv cylinders,
substantially in the known manner disclosed by
Figs. 2 and 3, and on the other hand a second
teed chamber located at the rear of the group
of cylinders and the upper part of which is con
0
20 diator, it is absolutely necessary that the jackets
01 group C should be ?lled up. However, when ' nected with the upper part of the front; feed
the liquid becomes heated and expands, it is ab
chamber. The bottoms "01' both of these feed
solutely necessary to provide an expansion space chambers
are located substantially at the same
which is located above the cylinders. Usually, level'as the
top of the group of cylinders and
25
this expansion space consists of a small tank G, their upper parts at the same level as the‘highest
which will be called “i'eed chamber" in the 101-, part of the engine.
,
'
lowing description. This feed. chamber G is
According to a preferred arrangement, the
connected through a tube H with the cooling connection of the whole‘ of the circulation sys
circuit and communicates with the atmosphere tem with the atmosphere is obtained through
'30
through a small pipe I. In highewing mono.
a tube starting from the top of the front feed 0
, planes and biplanes, this feed chamber G- is pro
chamber, extending toward the rear of the en
vided in the upper wing and therefore has a glue and opening outwardly under said engine,
su?icient head for keeping the liquid level above a suitable valveopening in an outward direction
the tops of the cylinders, whatever be the posie , under the eii‘ect 01' a predetermined pressure,
35 tion of the airplane. If this condition were not so as ‘to control the exhaust of the vapours to
complied with and the liquid level could drop the atmosphere.
I
,
below the upper point oi’ cylinders C, the heads
A preferred embodiment of the present inven
of said cylinders would cease to be immersed in tion will be hereinafter described with reference
the liquid and, consequently, would quickly heat to the accompanying drawings, given merely by
up, risking to produce serious injuries of the way of example, and in which:
engine.
'
'
. Figs. 1 to 3 show arrangements as used prior
_In low wing monoplanes there is no high point,‘ ‘ to this application;
.
outside of the fuselage, permitting to place the
Figs. 4 to 8 show the cooling device according
feed chamber in the desired position. As, on the to the invention. and in particular:
,
45 other hand, for aerodynamicreasons, the hood
Fig. 4 shows the whole 0! the circulation sys 45
or fairing-oi’ the engine is always close to the tem;
‘
cylinders, the feed chamber located in the fuse
Fig. 5 shows a detail of the device for con-'
lage of airplanes of this type, as 'shown by Fig. 2, meeting the circulation circuit with the atmos
may, under some conditionsof ?ight, allow the phere;
'
50 upper liquid level to drop below the upper parts
Fig.
B'shows
details
otthe
front
feed chamber;
of the cylinders. In Fig. 3, such a case has
Fig.
7
shows
an
airplane
?tted
with
the cooling;
‘been shown diagrammatically by way of ex
system
according'to
the
invention,
said
airplane
ample. In this ?gure, it is visible that, when being on the ground: ‘
>
?ying along a; downward path, the liquid present
.Flg. 8 is a diasrammatical viewoi! this( airplane ,
66 in the Jackets 01' cylinders C fills up the whole of ?ying valong a downward ‘path.
a:
2,125,751
In these ?gures, reference character I desig
nates an engine including cylinders 2. The cool
ing system includes the inside space 3 of the
cylinder jackets, a tube 4 leading from, the jack
ets, a radiator 5, a pipe 6, a, pump 1' and a sec
ond pipe I.
According'to the present invention, the cooling -
circuit further includes a front feed chamber
! and a rear feed chamber It, both of these feed
10 chambers communicating with the upper part
of the circulation proper, respectively through
pipes II and [2.
These feed chambers com
municate together through a pipe II. The posi
tion of the feed chambers is determined by the
15 height of the space provided for the engine, and
it corresponds generally to the cover of the cam
shafts actuating the engine valves. When the
system is ?lled with liquid, the level of said liq
uid is established in the manner diagrammatical
ly shown by Fig. 4. The front feed chamber is
preferably connected with tube 4 through a sup-'
plementary tube It. The whole of the circula
‘tion system is connected with the atmosphere
through a tube II leading from the upper part
The operation of this system for connecting
the cooling circuit with the outside atmosphere
takes place as follows:
The tube l5 starts from the top of the front
feed chamber. This is because the vaporization
and the excessive pressures resulting therefrom
always take place when the airplane is climbing
along a steep path, when the engine is working
at full power and the airplane is flying at low
speed. The steam then produced therefore ac 10
cumulates in the front feed chamber. It is
evacuated when the pressure becomes suihcient
for producing the opening of valve i'l. Pipe l5
evacuates only steam. This pipe I! opens to
the atmosphere behind theengine, as above
stated, in order to avoid having valve I'I sub
jected to dynamic pressures due to stunt ?ying._
This is because, this kind of ?ight, in the case
of a valve located at the front, might produce
opening thereof and therefore involve losses of 20
liquid.
I:
Finally, this pipe It opens below the engine
and the radiator, in order to permit of flying
upside down without producing .a loss of liquid.
' It should be well understood that the inven
of front feed chamber I, extending toward the
rear of the engine and opening, as‘ shown at It,
under said engine. In this tube is interposed a
illustrated in the appended drawings-and that
valve II, which is shown more in detail in Fig.
5. This valve opens outwardly and is spring
cooling system including two feed chambers lo
loaded in such manner as to open under the
effect of a predetermined pressure.
011 the
other hand, in order to avoid the crushing’ of the
feed chambers,‘ in the case in which the inner
pressure would happen to drop below the ,out
side pressure v(case of an airplane ?owing back
to the ground after a ?ight at very high alti
tude) , there is provided in the front feed ‘chamber
a valve ll opening inwardly. This valve may
be ?tted in the plug serving to ?ll up the cooling
tion is not in any way limited to the example
it covers, in a very general manner, an engine
cated one at the front and the other at the rear
of the engine and which do not project from the
highest point of the engine. The invention also
covers an advantageous device for connecting the
cooling device with the outside atmosphere, con
sisting of a tube leading from the top of the
front feed chamber, extending in a substantially
horizontal plane beyond the rear end of the en
gine and then opening vertically below said en
gine, a valve being interposed in the vertical part
of the tube.
This device operates in the following man
ner: when the airplane is lying on the ground,
it is, as shown in Fig. 7, in a position in which its
Finally, the invention includes, as a new struc
40
ture, in a monoplane low wing engine provided
with a water or liquid cooled engine, a liquid
front part is turned upwardly. The cooling sys , cooling system made as above described.
What Iv claim is:
'
tem being ?lled with the amount of liquid neces
45
1. In an airplane engine of the liquid cooled
sary for ensuring the cooling, the rear feed
type,
a
cooling
system
which
comprises,
in
comchamber is wholly ?lled with liquid and the front
feed chamber has a part which is not ?lled with bination, jackets for the cooling fluid surround
liquid, as shown in Fig. '1. In this position, as ing the engine cylinders, a feed tank for the
also shown by this ?gure, the jackets of the cooling liquid at the front end of the engine, a
cylinders are wholly ?lled with liquid, which 0feed tank for the cooling liquid at the rear end
fully covers the tops of the cylinders. When the
airplane is ?ying along an upward path, even
vertically, the cylinder jackets are wholly ?lled,
as‘it can easily be understood,
’
Oh the other hand, when the airplane is diving
even vertically (see Fig. 8), the liquid present in
the rear feed chamber ?lls the whole of the front‘
feed chamber, and the level is x-x of Pig. 8,
still covering the tops of the cylinders.
It is therefore clear that, with the device ac
cording to the. present invention, there is no
risk whatever of having the tops of the cylinders
uncovered as the airplane is dying, and this
without involving the necessity of placing any
part above Lthe normal outline of a low wing
aeroplane.
‘
_
Although the essential feature of the present
of the engine, said feed tanks being so located
and dimensioned as not to project upwardly be
yond the highest point of the engine and being
located above the engine cylinders, means for 55
interconnecting the upper parts of said feed
tanks, and means. for connecting the respective
lower parts of said feed tanks with said jackets.
2. In an airplane engine of the liquid cooled
type, a cooling system which comprises, in com
bination, a circulation system including jackets
for the cooling ?uid surrounding the engine cyl
inders, a radiator and conduits connecting said
jacket with said radiator, a feed tank for the
cooling ?uld at the front end of the engine, a
feed tank for the cooling fluid at the rear end
of the engine, said feed tanks being so located
and dimensioned as to be located above the en
invention is the provision of two feed chambers ,, gine cylinders without projecting upwardly be
yond the highest point of the engine, means for
70 located one at the front and the other at the " interconnecting the upper parts of said feed
rear of the engine, said invention further in
.15
cludes a particularly advantageous device for tanks, and means for connecting the respective
connecting the circulation system with the at- . lower parts of said feed tanks with said jackets.
3. A cooling system according to claim 2 which
.mosphere. Th's device includes the elements
further comprises means for directly connecting 7|
above mentioned.
I 1,120,751”
the lower‘part of the front feed tank with the
front’ part of said conduits.’
-
-
4. In an, airplane engine of the liquid cooled
type, a cooling system which comprises, in com
bination, a Circulation system including jackets.
for, the cooling liquid surrounding the engine
cylinders, a radiator, and conduits connecting
said jackets and said radiator, a feed tank for the 1
3
said jackets, a pipe opening in the upper part
o! the front feed tank and extending ?rst to-,
ward the rear beyond the. rear end of the em
gine and then downwardly beyond the lowest
point of said engine, and a spring valve on the
downwardly extending portion of said pipe,
adapted to open outwardly under the e?ect of_
cooling liquid at the front end of the engine; a‘ a predetermined pressure in said front feed tank;
5. A cooling system according to claim 2 fur
‘ teed tank for, the cooling liquid at the rear end
including an inwardlyopening safety valve
of‘said engine, said feed tanks being so located ther
provided on the front i'eed tank, so as to permit
and dimensioned as to be located‘ above the en;
in?ow of air from the outside in case of a
gine cylinders without projecting upwardly. be— . the
predetermineddiiference
of pressure between the
. yond the highest point of' said ‘engine, means
pressure and-the pressure in said
for interconnecting the‘uppertparts' of said re atmospheric
, _
spectiveieed tanks. means for connecting the feed tank.
‘
RAYMOND SAULNIER. respective lower parts of said teed tanks with
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