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Патент USA US2125944

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Aug. 9, 1938;
M. M. MERRITT
v2,125,944
'
' TANNING-0F HIDES AND SKINS,
Filed June 21, 1955
F1 1.
iwavraq
' kW M. M
2,125,944
Patented Aug. 9, 1938 ’
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,125,944
TANNING or nnms AND SKINS
Matthew M. Merritt, Middleton,
assignor
.to The Tanning Process Company, Boston,
Mass., a corporation of Massachusetts
Application June 21, 1935, Serial No. 27,733
7 Claims. (01.‘ 149-6)
This invention relates to the tanning of hides ity in other respects, while the tanning material
and skins. While the invention will be described
with reference to the chrome tanning of skins, it
will be understood that the invention and various
5 characteristics thereof may have other applica
tions and uses.
.
In the chrome tanning of hides and skins, and
in certain methods employed in the vegetable
tanning of skins, it has heretofore been the prac
is being fixed in or upon the hide or skin ?bers.
It is a further object of the invention to provide
against uneven shrinkage in portions of the hides
or skins as compared with other portions of the 5
same or other hides or skins, and to obtain a bet-
‘
ter product as a result of the tanning operation.
To these ends, and in accordance with an im
portant characteristic of the invention, the hides
or skins, at the completion of treatment by liquid 10
tanning material, are supported, individually in
an atmosphere substantially saturated with mois
ture, for a period of, hours to secure uniformity in
_ or skins and allow them to stand from twenty
four to forty-eight hours to drain and to permit ' the distribution of tanning material throughout
15 ?xation of the tanning material with respect to the hides or skins and its ?xation with respect to 15 I
10 tice to remove the hides or skins from the tanning
drum or paddle at the end of the treatment by the
tanning solution and then to horse up the hides
' the collagen ?bers of the hide or skin substance.
Alternatively, the hides or skins have been piled
do'wn ?at and allowed to drain from twenty-four
to forty-eight hours during which the tanning
20 material becomes set in the hide or skin substance.
In either case, the hides or skins do not receive
_ uniform treatment, it being obvious that those
lower in the pile are under greater pressure than
those at or near the top of the pile so that drain
25 age must be very uneven. Furthermore, the hides
.or skins at or near the top and the marginal
portions of many of the hides or skins are exposed
the collagen ?bers of the hide or skin substance.
Since the hides or skins are individually supported
there is no undue pressure of one hide or skin
against another‘ as in prior methods of treatment.
Furthermore, there is substantially uniform treat- 20
ment of the hides or skins from the standpoint of
the moisture and temperature content of the sur- >
rounding air. In practice, each hide or skin is
folded ,over its own supporting rod with the back
bone portion thereof resting on said rod and sub- .25
stantially equal portions of the hide or skin de
pending from the rod on'each side thereof, the‘
work pieces and rods being arranged in series side
to the air and are thus dried-out more than hides
or skins lower in the pile and more than those by side and one above another so that the depend
30 portions of the hides or skins which are entirely ' ing portions of the hides and skins in each verti- 3o
covered by hides or skins above them in the pile. - cal series are in overlapping contact with each
This is a matter of considerable importance since ‘other, but without pressing unduly upon each
the well-known tendency of tanning liquids to other in either lateral 'or vertical directions since
become uniformly diffused throughout hide or skin the weight in each case is sustained by the in- )
5 substance is upset and even reversed where'the dividual rod, the whole series of hides or skins 35
being enclosed in a space having walls adapted
rate of ‘drying of one part of the skin is substan
tially greater than in an adjacent portion. As a
matter of fact, marginal portions of hides or
skins which have dried too quickly are com
40 monly hard even to the point of brittleness be
cause of increased tanning material collected
therein. Furthermore, if oxidation of the col-_
lagen constituent of the hide or skin takes place
during or after the treatment by vegetable tan
45 ning material, as certain authorities contend, it
would appear undesirable to expose certain skins
or parts oi.’ skins to the air while other skins or
parts of ‘skins are covered, since under such con
ditions uniformity is apt to be lacking in the
50 ?nished leather.
It'is an object of applicant’s invention to pro
vide for such treatment of the hides or skins at
this period of tanning operations as will secure
much more uniform distribution of the tanning
5|; material in the hides or skins, and more uniform
to retain the moisture from the skins so that
there is substantially no evaporation during the
many hours that the hides or skins are allowed
to undergo this treatment, during which equaliza- 40
tion and substantially complete ?xation of the
'
tanning substance takes place upon the hide or
skin ?bers.
.
‘
The invention resides also in a cabinet or other
enclosure,v for treating hides and skins, having a 45
plurality of rods in both horizontal and vertical
rows and disposed in the cabinet-so closely adja
cent to each other in the vertical rows that hides
or skins supported thereby will overlap each other '
from top to bottom of said vertical rows. In the 50
illustrated construction, the rods are supported
by brackets projecting from one or more walls
of the cabinet and adapted to support a plurality
of series of rods and the work pieces carried
thereby in both vertical and lateral arrangement 55
2
2,125,944
whereby the cabinet may be packed or almost
completely ?lled with hides or skins, the brackets
being so closely spaced with respect to each other
in the vertical direction that the hides or skins
Cl supported on the rods overlap each other from
top to bottom of the cabinet in a plurality of
series arranged side by side, each hide or skin
thus having its own individual support, and the
cabinet being substantially air-tight so that the
10 hides or skins are maintained in a substantially
uniform condition of temperature and humidity
during the setting of the tanning substance upon
the hide or skin ?ber.
These and other features and characteristics
15 of the invention will now be described in detail
in the speci?cation and then pointed out more
particularly in the appended claims.
In the drawing,
hours.
It is to be understood, however, that
hides or skins which have been properly tanned
may be kept in moist condition in this cabinet for
a number of days, a week or more, without dele
terious effect.
While the skins are shown draped over the rods
I2, they may be secured to said rods or to other
suitable equivalent supporting members by fas
tenings or by sharp pointed devices permanently
secured to such supporting members or rods. 10
With this method of supporting the skins, the
latter will hang from one edge and will ‘depend
from one side of the supporting member or rod
I2. In that case, the brackets I0 will normally
be spaced somewhat further apart than those 15
shown in the drawing. However, the skins in
each vertical row or series will overlap each other
Fig. 1 is a front view of a cabinet illustrating
one embodiment of the invention, the doors of
the cabinet being open to show skins in place
from top to bottom of the cabinet.
Since the skins are normally quite wet with
liquid tanning material when placed in the cab
20 A
inet, it is desirable to have a container such as
‘ that shown at I6 in the bottom of the cabinet
Fig. 2 is a more or less diagrammatic view
to receive any drippings from the skins.
showing the disposition of the skins draped over
It will be observed upon inspection of the draw
25 supports located within the cabinet; and
ing that the skins supported as described upon 25
Fig. 3 is a sectional view also taken along the
individual rods I2 do not press upon each other
therein;
line III_—III of Fig. 1, but without any skins in
the cabinet.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention,
which is specially designed for the treatment of
skins such as sheep-skins, there is shown a cabi
net 4 which is a box-like structure haying door 6
hinged to side frames of the cabinet and con
structed and arranged to close in such manner as
35 to form a substantially air~tight box.
Within
the cabinet, and conveniently attached to end
walls 8 of the cabinet, are brackets I0 arrangedin
pairs, the brackets of each pair being in alinement
with each other horizontally so as to support in
the desired manner a plurality of rods or bars
I2, the latter being adapted to support skins I4,
as clearly shown in both Figs. 1 and 2. While
rods I2 are shown as supported by brackets I0, it
is clear that they may be supported in other ways.
In the method of supporting the skins shown
in the drawing, each of the latter is draped over
a rod or bar I2 in such manner that the backbone
portion of the skin rests on the rod with approxi
mately equal portions of the skin depending upon
Preferably, and as shown,
50 each side of the rod.
the brackets III are positioned so closely to each
other in the vertical direction that the skins in
each vertical series or row overlap each other
from top to bottom of the supporting brackets
It will be understood that in assembling the
skins shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawing, the
operator begins at the bottom, placing a skin
55 II].
upon a rod and inserting it in place upon the
lowest pair of brackets Ill and at the back of
the cabinet. Then the next skin is placed upon
a rod and put in position upon the next pair of
brackets above the lowest pair, and these opera
tions are continued until a vertical series or row
of skins has been placed in the cabinet.
Other
rows or series of skins are introduced into the
cabinet in a manner similar to that described
until the cabinet is substantially ?lled with skins.
Then the doors 6 are closed, thus retaining within
the cabinet a relatively small body of air thor
70 oughly saturated with moisture which has evapo
rated from the skins. The skins are allowed to
remain in this moist atmosphere for a period
which may be as long as two days, although com
monly-chrome tanned skins will be found to be
75 thoroughly tanned at the end of twenty-four
unduly. Hence, the tendency of the liquid tan
ning material to become distributed uniformly
throughout the skin is not interfered with by
pressure from other skins as it would be if the 30
skins were piled ?at or horsed up in a pack in
accordance with commonly accepted methods.
While there is some tendency, of course, for the
liquid tanning material to collect in the relative
ly looser flanks and shanks of the skins this is not 35
a drawback, it having been found by actual test
that these parts are not overtanned as a result
of this method of treatment in a moisture ~re
taining cabinet.
On the contrary, they clearly
appear to be tanned in a manner that is sub
stantially uniform with the denser body portions
40
of the skins. Due to the fact that the skins are
maintained at ordinary room temperatures and in
a moist condition throughout the period of treat
ment within the cabinet, there is ample time for 45
the tanning material to distribute itself with
substantial uniformity throughout the whole sub
stance of the hide or skin. Experience has proven
that this would not take place if some part of
the hide or skin were allowed to dry to a sub— 50
stantial extent as compared‘ with other adja
cent portions of the same hide or skin. Further
more, when these skins, after having received the
described cabinet treatment, are subjected to a
test such as that consisting in the well-known 55
boiling test, theywill be found to be thoroughly
tanned.
This boiling test is founded upon the
well-known fact that a piece of a row skin or of
an imperfectly tanned skin will shrivel and be
destroyed by boiling water, whereas a properly
60
tanned piece of skin will stand the effect of boil
ing water for ?ve minutes without apparent dam
age.
It is true that skins which have been allowed
to dry following treatment by an adequate tan 65
ning preparation will become thoroughly tanned
in the drying operation, without this preliminary
treatment in a cabinet.
But there is not the
same uniformity in the tanning effect, it being
quite common to ?nd marginal portions of the .70
skins overtanned, as shown by hardness and even
brittleness of these parts. Furthermore, the dried
skins must be wet back in order to continue ?n
ishing operations. On the contrary, the skins
coming from the cabinet herein described are so 75
Search R00
B. BLEACHING 6; DYEING; FLUHT
TREATMENT & CHEMICAL MODl-Fl;
,
CAlION OF TEXTILES & FIBERS,
2,125,944
"uniform in their?tanned condition and in their tight
94.3
moisture content that they take other ?nishing
treatments, such as dyeing and fat liquoring,
quickly and with uniformly good results.
Having described my invention, what I claim as
enclosure, draped over rods or bars in
vertical rows with the skins in each row over
lapping each other from top to bottom of the
substantially air-tight enclosure, and adding to,
the number of rows until the enclosure is sub
United States is:
1. That improvement in methods of tanning
stantially ?lled with skins, whereby all of the
skins are allowed to become thoroughly and uni
formly tanned while in an atmosphere saturated
skins which comprises removing skins from a
with moisture.
tanning solution, where they have been subjected
to treatment for the \requisite length of time,
draining the skins to remove such tanning liquid
5. A cabinet or other enclosure for treating
freshly tanned hides or skins, while they are still
wet with the tanning liquid, provided with a
plurality of horizontal rods arranged in both hori
zontal and vertical rows and disposed in the
cabinet so closely adjacent to each other in the
new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the
10
3
as ?ows freely therefrom, placing the skins upon
individual supports, maintaining the air sur
rounding the skins substantially saturated with
moisture at'ordinary room temperatures, and sub
jecting the skins to this moist air treatment for a
period of about twenty-four hours to secure ?xa
tion of the tanning material on the skin sub
stance.
2. That improvement in methods of tanning
skins which comprises removing skins from a
tanning solution, where they have been subjected
to treatment for the requisite length of time,
25 hanging the skins up individually in overlapping
contact with each other in a row from top to
bottom of a substantially air-tight enclosure, and
adding to the row of skins thus formed other
similarly formed rows until the enclosure is sub
30 stantially ?lled with skins, whereby the skins
are kept in an atmosphere substantially saturated
with moisture.
I
vertical rows that hides or skins supported there
by will overlap each other from top to bottom of
said vertical rows.
,
6. A cabinet or other enclosure for treating
freshly tanned hides or skins, while they are still 20
wet with the tanning liquid, provided with a
plurality of brackets arranged in vertical rows
in the cabinet, rods extending transversely of
said brackets in a plurality of vertically disposed
series of said rods, said brackets being so closely 25
adjacent to each other in the vertical direction
that the hides or skins supported by said rods
are disposed in overlapping contact with each
other from top to bottom of said brackets, and
the cabinet being substantially air-tight to re 30
tain the moist condition of the hides or skins
substantially unchanged during the period of
3. That improvement in methods of tanning’ treatment of the latter.
skins which comprises removing skins from a
35 tanning solution, where they have been subjected
to treatment for the requisite length of time,
draining the skins to remove such tanning liquid
as flows freely therefrom, and hanging the skins
up in a substantially air-tight enclosure in a
40 plurality of vertical rows in which the skins of
each row overlap each other and in which the
skins of successive rows are in contact with each
other, whereby the tanning material becomes
uniformly distributed in the skins and set on
45 the ?bres thereof while the skins are in an at
mosphere saturated with moisture.
4. That improvement in methods of tanning
skins which comprises removing skins from a
tanning solution, where they have been subjected
'7. A cabinet or other enclosure for treating
freshly tanned hides or skins, while they are still 35
wet with the tanning liquid, provided with a
plurality of brackets extending from a wall of the
cabinet in such closely spaced relation to each
other in the vertical direction that hides or skins
supported by said brackets will overlap each other 40
from top to bottom of said brackets, a plurality
of hide or skin carrying rods arranged side by
side in such close relationship on said brackets
that the cabinet may be substantially ?lled with
hides or skins individually supported in over 45
lapping relation in vertical planes and in contact
with, each other transversely of said vertical
planes, the cabinet being substantially air-tight
to retain the moisture in the hides or skins dur
to treatment by a tanning solution for the
ing all of the period of their treatment in said 50
requisite length of time, draining the skins to
cabinet.
remove such tanning liquid as ?ows freely there
from, hanging the skins, in a substantially air
MA'I'I'HEW M. MERRI’I'I'.
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