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Патент USA US2125991

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Aug. 9,1938.
'
A. J. CAWLEY
> v2,125,991
AUTOMATIC TELEVISION'SYNCHRONIZING APPARATUS
Filed June 18, 1932
‘
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Aug. 9, 1938.
‘
2,125,9917 I
A. J. CAWLEY
AUTOMATIC TELEVISION SYNCHRONIZING APPARATUS
Filed June 18, 1952
s Shgets-S?eet 2
"
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INVENTQR.
Aug. 9, 1938.
v
‘
'
A. J. CAWLEY
-
>
,
2,125,991 ,
AUTOMATIC TELEVISION SYNCHRONIZING APPARATUS
‘
Filéd June 18,- 1932'
*
a Sheets-Sheet s
Patented Aug'.9,1938"
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‘
1
2,125,991
,
‘
4 UNITED STATES] PATENT OFFICE
2,125,991
, AUTOMATIC TELEVISION SYNCHRONI-ZING
,
APPARATUS
'
Aloysius J. Cawley, Pittston, Pa.
Application June 18; 1932, Serial No.‘.617,95'l
25 Claims. '(ci. 178—-69.5)
This application is a. continuation in part ap-
a friction drive, a rheostat or other electrical
plication of my application for Television; Serial
No. 455,127, filed May 23, 1930, which is now U. S.
motor controlling means.
Although the synchronizing .apparatus is shown
Patent No. 2,026,610 of January 7, 1936 and of
5 Serial No. 468,117, ?led July 15, 1930 for .Tele-
as being used with a television broadcasting sys—
tern wherein the broadcast is periodically inter- 5
vision, both of which disclose synchronizing ap-‘
rupted, thus rendering a separate wave channel
paratus.
unnecessary, the invention includes any of the
_
The invention relates in general to the trans-,
mission of images by wire or wireless methods
10 from one place to another.
More particularly,
synchronizing means in a Separate Wave channel
without any interruption of the television broad
cast.
'
it is concerned with the maintenance'of a rotating element at a receiving station in absolute
A rotatable scanning element provided with a
pair of electrical contact strips or segments hav
‘ synchronism with a rotating element at a transmitting station without any attention on the part
ing an insulated segment between them and a
Contact brush normally in Contact with this in
15 of the operator. Some of the objects of the invention are as follows, ‘
- 2°
.
.
10
sulated segment it the disk isin synchronism With 15
" a similar disk at the transmitting station.
The
The maintenance of synchronism without the
use of a separate wave channelor separate con-
contact segments acting to actuate an electro
magnetic apparatus for altering the Speed Of the
ducting circuit.
‘
The production of synchronism by means of the
rotatable element, one of the segments bringing
about acceleration of the speed and the other seg- 2o
regular television broadcast current by means of
ment bringing about retardation of the Speed Of
a periodic interruption in the latter.
A television scanning element provided with
the rotatable element. The electromagnetic ap
Daratus may also simultaneously or singly Oper
' transparent segments bearing symbols‘ or colors, ate a rheostat controlling the speed of the motor.
,
25 or both, or other identi?cation means, which in- ' A relay switch at the receiving station which 25
dicate the relative position of the rotating element at the receiving station with relation to a
stationary light source which is illuminated at
the time ‘of interruption of the broadcast televi30 sion current at the transmitting station.
The maintenance of synchronism by means of-
photoelectric cells and circuits in cooperation‘
- with transparent segments carried on a rotating
scanning element,‘ the photoelectric cells being
acts to maintain the synchronizing circuit open
for the greater Part Of the Period of rotation of
the scanning disk, the synchronizing circuit be
ins closed for' a brief interval corresponding to
the period of interruption of the television broad- 2.0
cast at the transmitting station.
.
A stationary stroboscopic light source at the
receiving station which illuminates the rotating
element for a very short period corresponding to '
35 in cooperation with means for controlling the _'the period of interruption of the broadcast at the 35
speed of the rotating element.
‘
transmitting station. This gives the illusion of
A rotatable scanning element bearing trans- the rotating element standing still in the posi
parent segments and re?ecting means in coop- tion it occupies relative to the disk at the trans
. erative relation to ‘said segments to re?ect'the
‘19 light‘traversing those‘ segments into proper photoelectric cells.
_
/
‘
mitting station as regards synchronism;
This
constitutes an excellent synchronisrn indicator.
4O
A contact strip placed on- the rotatable ele
An automatically controlled friction drive in
ment at the receiving station at a point on the ro
cooperative relation with a rotatable scanning
tatable clement or'diSk which will be directly 09
element. consisting of a friction wheel in adjust- ' P051158 two Statlonary Contact brushes when the
ti; ii able Contact or engagement with the ‘Scanning . rotatable element is insynchronism, the brushes 45
element, and electromagnetic mechanical means ‘being ifnnett‘if tgignnigrllgijgzgce ,ggiznaliffgg:
for adjusting the position of this friction drive gage; ggygcell‘fent synchronislh ind16 atbr
with relation to the rotatable element, in order
50. to vary the speed of the ‘rotatable element and‘
.
.
thereby bring it into Synchronism- A mtata-ble
?mnnmg element pmvided with transparent 5%‘
merits controlling the operation of photoelectric
cells, and the latter controlling the operation. or
»
>
.
'.
Also‘ light sources or electromagnetic mdmat
_
ing means in cooperative relation with the con- 56
tact segments carried upon the rotatable element
whereby, as the latter are ‘actuated, either a light
isi?ashed or-else a pointer indicates whether the
rotatabievelgment 15' ahead of 013 behindsyhchro
56 electromagnetic‘, mechanical means for adjusting nism.‘
55
2,136,991
An adjustable friction drive provided with a
lever controlled by electromagnetic means, the
lever also acting to operate a motor controlling
concentric shafts of the synchronizing appara
rheostat or other controller.‘
tlcation of Figure 8.
tus.
'
tween a receiving station ands, transmitting sta
tion is illustrated in Figure 1. No separate wave
channel is required for the attainment of syn
chronism. At the transmitting station the
in conjunction with a friction speed drive to fur
ther regulate the speed of the rotatable scanning
.
'
“
A switch operated by the centrifugal speed
control means whereby the synchronizing current
broadcasted television waves are interrupted dur
ing a short portion or period of each revolution
of the scanning disk. As in most television sys
is‘ not turned on until the speed of the rotatable
element has reached a speed approximating syn
tems, a revolution of the disk generally com
chronism.
pletes a single picture, it necessarily follows that
An electrical switch operated by the centrifu
15 gal speed governor controls the speed of the mo
after each image is televised, there is a very
short interval during which no broadcast takes
place. This does not introduce any more serious
difficulty or defect than that already existing in
ordinary motion pictures, as there, between im~
ages there is a short interval of darkness dur 20
ing which the ?lm is shifted.
The standard Nipkow disk is mounted as shown
at l upon shaft 4. The holes or lenses in this
tor either by means of a rheostat or other motor
speed controlling means.
A rotatable scanning element consisting of a
?at disk to which lenses or prisms, or the like
20 are cemented, the disk being coated with opaque
paint or the like. Such a disk is very easily and
cheaply manufactured as compared to an ordin
nary scanning disk employing lenses, or even
those employing holes for scanning purposes.
25
disk are shownv at L.
lamp 2 is shown in cooperation with the image 25
area in the usual manner. Collector ring 3 is
which accommodates a shaft of irregular cross
mounted upon shaft 4 but insulated very care
the invention.
'
ning apparatus which is provided with means'for
indicating synchronism consisting, of a light
mounted on said disk.
,
Figure 1a is a side elevational view of the ap—
paratus shown in Figure 1.
.
50
television current, after being ampli?ed, is sup
plied to the neon lamp 2 by means of the wires 35
A and B. Part of this current 'is shunted to
the synchronizing indicating lamp 9 by means of
wires 1:. and 0. As before stated, the television
broadcast is interrupted for a short interval dur
ing. each revolution at the transmitting station. 40
lected as at the extreme lower portion of the
orbit of the lamp as indicated by i, then, if the
receiving disk is in synchronism with the send
ing station disk, the scanning lamp y will de 45
scribe a path of light p which is interrupted at
nism with the transmitting disk, then’the point
synchronizing apparatus.
of interruption in the path of light 9 will be
either to the right or to the left of the position 50
shown in Figure ‘i. For instance, if the receiv
ing disk (shown in the figure) is in advanced
Figure 3 is an elevational view of the inter
rupting apparatus at the transmitting station,
t
Figure 4 is a side elevational view partly in
cross section of the scanning apparatus shown
55 in Figure 2 in part.
'
-
Figure 5 is a front elevational view of a scan
ning apparatus provided with synchronizing
means consisting of a variable speed friction drive
controlled by photoelectric means. Fig. .50 is
a view of the apparatus shown in FiBure 5 with a
motor rheostat control added.
-
drive in conjunction with electric contact ele
_
_
-
Figure 7b is a cross section of a special scan
ning
disk.
_ t
the synchronizing lamp 0. The lamp 0, since it
?ashes only during a small portion of the rev 65
olution period 01' the disk I and since the disk ,
'
Figure 7a is a modi?cation of part of the iris
tion drive.
retarded isochronism, the point i will be any
where between a and the lamp 2 in the right
half of the circle. If the receiving station disk
is in asynchronism with the transmitting station
diskpthen as the interruptions are occurring at 60
. will be no gap f in the path of light described by
65 ning apparatus provided with a variable speed
,
9 will be anywhere between a and the glow lamp .
I in the left half of the circle. ' If the disk is in 55
distinct interruption will be discernible, and there
Figure 7 is a front elevational view of a scan
ments carried on av rotatable disk.
isochronism, the point of interruption in the path
different points during each revolution, no clear -
-
Figure 6 is a side elevational view of the ap
paratus illustrated in Figure 5.
'
Figure 8 is a front elevational view of a scan
ning apparatus employing a variable speed fric
' tion drive and a centrifugal speed governor.
75
ed upon the disk I and is in electrical connec
tion by means of wires 11 and c with the shaft
4 and the collector ring 3. The broadcasted
ning apparatus provided with a photoelectric
shown in Fig. 2 in part.
70
the shaft 4. The synchronizing lamp g is mount 30
' i. If the receiving disk I should be in isochro
Figure-2 is a front elevational view of a scan
.
fully from it. Brush b makes contact with this
ring, while ‘crush 0 makes contact directly with
i Assuming that this interruption is arbitrarily se
Figure l is a front elevational view of a, scan
45
The neon, or other glow
A driving means consisting of a motor provided
with a hollow shaft of irregular cross section,
section, the latter being attached to a, centrif
ugal governor. A variable speed friction drive
30 wheel is carried on inner shaft. The variable
speed friction drive and the centrifugal governor
thus act jointly to maintain the apparatus in
synchronism and at constant speed.
Other advantages and objects of the arrange
35 ments will be apparent from a consideraion of
the following speci?cation and claims when read
in connection with the accompanying drawings
wherein the various ?gures thereof represent in
‘a conventional manner the principles covered by
40
.
An apparatus for indicating synchronism be
,A centrifugal speed controlling means acting
element.
‘
Figure 9 is a front elevational view of a modi
Figure 8a is a cross sectional view 0! the two
makes about twenty revolutions per second, con
stltutes the equivalent of a stroboscope with the
rotating disk I. If the disk I is in absolute syn
chronism, there will always be a dark area at i, 70
. and the path 9, consisting of a broken circle will
appear stationary. The synchronizing lamp 0
takes a very small amount ofthe television broad
’ cast current. as it is made very small.
Figure 1a is a side elevational view of the apps 76
3
2,125,991
. ratus illustrated in Figure 1.
The reference char
acters have the same meaning. The apparatus
illustrated and described in connection with the
‘above two ?gures. discloses merely a synchronism
may desire. Transparent'segment 6 may be I
colored blue and suitable reference characters
printed upon it.- The segments may be made
much smaller, i. e., only a little larger than the
diameter of the shaft 4, if desired. smallness is
indicating means.
Figure 2v illustrates another modi?cation,
which includes means for maintaining the disk in
synchronism with the disk at the transmitting
station. The television broadcast is received by
'10
desirable, as the speed of the brushes in cont
t
with the collector rings in the modi?cations to.
be later described, will thereby be greatly re--lv
duced.
The segments are shown as increasing in '
the usual wireless apparatus including an antenna width as the distance from. the opaque portion in
and is illustrated at d. An amplifying apparatus ' creases. ' Theobject of this is to increase the
is shown at K, which intensi?es the broadcast amount of light that reaches the photo cells (to
current’ as much as possible. Wires E and D‘ be described shortly) the farther the disk is out
conduct the ampli?ed current to the'glow lamp 2, . of synchronism, and therefore to correct the asyn
which is shown in the usual cooperative relation chronism as quickly as possible.‘ The segments 15
‘with the scanning diskll provided with holes‘or may increase uniformly in width, instead of in a
lenses L. A portion of the amplified current is stepped manner as illustrated. As the lamp ‘I is
shunted by the wires F and G'to the relay R, only ?ashed on for a short interval of time, and
which acts to open a circuit including a syn
as this interval is ‘always in accordance with the
20 chronizing lamp 1, shown in dotted'lines on the‘ time during which a certain portion of the disk 20
opposite side of they disk I. The current at. the is successively opposite the lamp ‘I during each
transmitting station is interrupted for a short’ revolution, at virtuallyithe same point, a strobe
interval during the revolution of the disk at the scopic eifect is produced. Suppose that 45 is
transmitting station. This inerruption will take opposite the lamp 'l at each revolution, then it
place at a de?nite, prearranged point of the path will be seen as stationary at that point. The
of. rotation of the disk, and is indicated in the
same is- true of any other reference character
?gures of this application at the extreme lower
portion of the circle described by the disk. The
relay R is so designed that it will respond readily
at any other point on the disk if that particular
point is opposite the lamp 1 during a series of
successive revolutions. As synchronism is estab
30 to a vibration rate of twenty per second.
lished by proper adjustment,‘the character 45
The
conventional representation of a relay is shown,
'. however, the armature of the relay together with
its spring or other equivalent is such that it will
readilyv vibrate at the frequency of television
image change, which is from ten to twenty per
second according to the degree of continuity of
image that is desired. When the broadcast is
being received, the armature of the relay R is'
attracted towards the electromagnet and the cir
composed of the wires H and I, the source
40 cuit
of power Pr and the lamp ‘i is opened. However,
during the short interval of a revolution that
the broadcast is interrupted, the lever of the
relay R is released and is attracted by its. spring
(not shown) to the right and the above circuit is
closed. The lamp ‘i is then illuminated. Disk i
is provided withtwo transparent segments 5 and
6. Those transparent segments are separated by
a relatively small portion of opaque disk. This.
50 latter is shown as just covering the lamp 1!.
Therefore, when the receiving disk is in synchro
nism with the sending disk, the lamp 1 is illumi
nated only when the short opaque space between
the two transparent segments is just in front
55 of the lamp, and its light cannot be seen. Syn
would move to the position shown in the illus
tration from that in front ofv lamp l. Thus the
degree of advanced or retarded isochronism is
readily determined by this apparatus. The seg
ments b and t need not be of a ‘size equal to ap
proximately a semicircle, as shown, but may be‘
much shorter. ' For instance, they may be only
45 or, 90 degrees in extent.
several different ways. By one method, photo 40
cells P and P’ are arranged to ‘be excited, de
pending upon whether the disk is in advance or
behind that at the transmitting station. A prism
r. or a series of such prisms is placed over the
windows or transparent segments 5 and 6. That
over window ‘5 is illustrated by dotted lines in
‘ Figure 3, which illustrates the fact that the light
is reflected downward into the photoelectric cell
45
P’. Segment 6 has a’ prism rb placed over it with
its base turned inwards towards the center of the 50
This is illustrated in Figure 4 and shows
that the light is re?ected upwards into ‘photocell
P. The photocells are shown as being of ‘the
. circle.
> cylindrical type.
chronism is, therefore, indicated by absolute
darkness. If the disks are rotating in adminnism and the receiving disk is behind ‘the trans
60
'
, Automatic synchronism may be attained in
It is to be noted that the width
of the transparent segments 5 and 6 increases
towards their opposite'ends. The result is that, 55
the'greater the disk is out of synchronism, the
more light that will be admitted to the photo- .
mitting disk, then the transparent segment 5 will
cell and the greater the corrective response
encroach upon the lamp 1 and be interposed be~
. rought about by the circuits associated with the 60
tween the- lamp and the observer. The re
cells. ' Accordingly, the wire T leads to an ac
suit is that the light of the lamp will be seen. i celerating means, while the wire S leads to a
The segment 5 may be colored red, or any other retarding means. If the disk is behind, cell P’
color,v and the appearance of this color will indi is actuated and the accelerating means brought
65
cate that the disk is behind the transmitting disk.
In addition, reference characters, such as num
bers indicating the number of degrees the receiv~
ing disk’ is behind the sending disk mliytbe added, i
as for instance45 shown in the ?gure, ‘when it is
70 in position opposite the light itw'ill-show that
the disk is 45 degrees behind. - The arrow turned
backward in‘ relation with 45 indicates that the
disk is behind. 4_5_~and the arrow. therefore, in
dicate that any "reference characters may be
75 placed on the transparent segments. that one
into play, while if the disk is ahead,‘ cell R is 65
actuated and the retarding means brought into
play.v Wire C is a common return wire for both
circuits, i. e., acceleratingand retarding.
Figure 4 illustrates the fact that the disk I
may be made of any transparent material, such as 70
Bakelite (transparent) plate glass, or other, and
the prisms rand rb cemented to them.‘ The
prisms-r and T1) may be arranged side by side seg
mentally over the entire extent of the transpar
.ent_sectlons 5 and 6. The cement used for at 76
2,125,991
. 4
taching the disk and the prisms or other optical
elements, such as lenses, may be Canada balsam.
Lens making, prism making and plate glass mak
ng have all reached the dignity of ?ne arts. They
are almost perfect. The lenses, prisms and plate
glass can therefore be made very cheaply and
accurately. It is only necessary to cement the
various optical elements to the disk. A very de
sirable' combination is that of a disk made of
10 transparent Bakelite to which cylindrical lenses,
or other optical elements are cemented. This
gives a disk which is of itself very light, but the
peripherally located lenses lend peripheral weight
which‘will develop when in motion a desirable
15 centrifugal force which will tend to maintain the
disk in uniform motion. The portions of the
disk which are unoccupied by lenses, prisms, etc.,
may be painted by means of dark, opaque paint.
Thus the expense of drilling holes in a disk in
20 order to mount the lenses is dispensed with. An
other desirable quality of the Bakelite disk is that
it is not nearly so fragile'as glass, consequently,
a much thinner disk may be used.
Figure 5 illustrates another modi?cation of the
25 invention and also shows a means of correcting
asynchronism by means of an electromagnetic
arrangement. The amplified television current,
whether received by wire or wireless means, is
conducted by wires A and B to the neon or other
30 glow lamp 2 and also to the relay R. The scan
ning disk I is here shown as being provided with
transparent segments of different sizes, i. e., they
are segments of circles of different diameters
in order that each operates a diilerentphotocell
without using prisms. Each transparent _ seg
ment can only be opposite its own speci?c cell,
and can never be opposite the other cell. The
television broadcast is interrupted periodically
at the transmitting stationv during a very short
40 interval during each revolution of the disk, as
before stated. The point in the revolution of the
disk at which this interruption may take place
will be agreed upon by the various broadcasting
result that the jaw J since the lever is pivoted at
1‘, will move to the right. The motor M is shown
as provided with a square, or rectangular, or other
irregular cross section shaft u. The wheel W
is‘ slidable laterally on this shaft but cannot ro
tate upon it. It will be seen that the jaw J moves
the wheel W with which it engages, towards the
center of the disk I. This means, obviously, that
the speed of the disk will be increased. Pr repre
sents any desirable source of power or amplifying 10
means. If the disk I should gain over the speed
at the transmitting station of the disk located
there, then transparent segment 6 will be opposite
the lamp 1 when it is illuminated and its light
will reach the photoelectric cell P’ with the result
that solenoid 9 will be actuated and a tug at its
armature attached to the lever I will cause the jaw
J and wheel W to move to the left towards the
periphery of the disk I, resulting in a reduction of
the speedof the disk. The ?ashes of the lamp ‘i 20
take place about twenty times per second or more
if the best television reception is to be attained.
However, a lower speed may be used. The wheel
W is mounted upon shaft u in such manner that
it must rotate with the shaft. It is slidable upon 25
the shaft and can therefore be shifted to new
positions. The friction wheel W engages with the
disk I which is provided with a suitable surface
to prevent slippage, such as leather, rubber, etc.
The wheel W may be provided with a peripheral 30
ring of adherent material such as leather or rub
ber as shown more clearly in' Figure 6. If de
sired, a special friction disk may be attached to
disk I. As the transparent segments 5 and 6 are
provided with reference characters, such as those 35
described in connection with Fig. 2 above, and
since the light is ?ashed on during a very, very
small fraction of a second and repeated about
twenty times per second; the particular reference
character will be seen opposite the light and will 40
be perfectly legible, as the light is extinguished
during the time thatvthis particular character
moves around with the revolving disk. The ref
companies, but it is here shown (according to ' erence character will apparently be standing still
due to this stroboscopic effect. It is to be noted 45
which is illustrated) as taking place when the that there is a constant adjustment of the posi
opaque portion located between the two transpar tion of the wheel W relative to the shaft 11.. Just
ent segments is at its extreme lower position. as soon as there is the slightest deviation from
As before explained, the circuit containing the 'synchronism the corresponding photoelectric cir
cuit is actuated and the friction wheel W is shifted
50 source of power Pr and the synchronizing glow to a position to correct this deviation. This oper
(or other) lamp ‘I, which are connected by the
wires H and I, is broken during the period of ation is carried out in a purely automatic man
interruption of the television broadcast from the ner. The motor M may be a synchronous motor
when the question of synchronism is mostly in
central station. If the receiving disk I is in ab
volved in a correction of isochfronism'or a con
55 solute synchronism with the transmitting station
disk, then the lamp 1 will be illuminated'only version of isochronism into synchronism. The
motor may be a phonic motor. The motor M may ,
while the opaque portion between the two trans
parent segments is directly opposite thevlamp, be provided with an independent'speed govern
ing apparatus so that its speed is constant, as
and no light will be seen. Two cylindrical photo
electric cells P and P' are placed directly opposite .illustrated in Fig. 5a. However the present dis 60
the lamp 1. If the disk I is in synchronism with closure is concerned with means for keeping the
the disk at the transmitting station, neither cell scanning disk in cooperative relation with any
will receive any light.‘ If the disk I should lag type of motor in absolute synchronism without
behind the disk at the transmitting station, then any attention whatever on the part of the oper
segment 5 will be found opposite the ato'r. This feature will be described in greater 65
as transparent
lamp ‘I when itis illuminated and the light will detail in connection with later ?gures.
Figure 6 is a side elevational view of Figure 5.
enter photoelectric cell P. Depending upon the
type of cell (the speed of response of selenium The television broadcast is received by the wire
cells-has been greatly increased of late) either less apparatus d and amplified by suitable cir
current will be permitted to flow, or in the vacuum cuits at K and the ampli?ed current led to the 70
w tube
type of cell a. small current of electricity neon or other lamp 2 by wires A and B and to
will be generated in the cell and this will be ampli; ‘ the relay R. The relay breaks the circuit con
?ed by the amplifying or power circuit Pr’, and taining the ampli?cation or power element P1’,
the solenoid I will receive this current and tug which is connected by the conductors H and I to
at the armature attached to lever l, with the the synchronizing lamp ‘I. This lamp is there 75
45 the position of the disk. at the receiving station,
w
I
2,125,991
‘ fore, only illuminated during a very small por
tion of the revolution of the disk I. Disk I is
mounted upon the shaft 4; the latter is sup
ported by two ‘strong bearings. The friction
wheel W with its peripheral ring of adherent
material is ‘shown mounted upon the shaft u of
irregular cross section, which is here shown as
square. However, a very desirable cross section
' of a shaft would be a rectangle.‘ Another form
would be that of a cross. The motor M rotates
the shaft 1!. and the friction wheel W. The latter
j engages'with the surface of the disk I, which also
' may be provided with an adherent surface.
The
lever l with its fulcrum is clearly shown with its
15 jaw J engaging‘the wheel W. It is to be noted
that the lever 2 should be designed to be per
fectly balanced so that it will stay in any noel
tion in which it is placed. The invention is not
limited to this feature of the lever however. The
synchronizing lamp ‘I is shown opposite to-the
20
two photocells, one of which is designated P.
The accelerating solenoid is shown at 8. The
' photoelectric cells are shown as being of the cy
lindrical type.
.
5
battery. However, since the disk I is in syn
chronlsm with that at the transmitting station,
the brush V rests upon the nonconductingin
terval between the two contact strips 5a and 6a
and no current can pass from the battery Y or
other source of power. The glow lamp U is con
nected to wire l0 which is in turn connected to
the relay R so that when the latter closes, the
synchronizing circuit, ‘even though no current
?ows through the contactstrips, still the lamp 10
U will be ‘momentarily illuminated ‘for its stro
boscopic effect of illuminating the disk which
may have various symbols located upon it indi
cating its position. as regards synchronism. In
fact, the position of the contact elements them 15
selves thus serve. The lamp U may be a glow
lamp of any desired type, but is not limited there
to. The disk i is supposed to be made of ‘some
insulating material, such as Bakelite. However,
if it is made of metal it should be covered with 20
a disk of insulating material upon which the
contact strips 5a and 6a are ‘mounted.
Suppose the disk I is lagging behind the trans
mitting disk, contact strip 5a comes in'contact
with the brush V, and the battery or other cur 2,5
The lever I may, in one modi?cation be that
of a rheostat governing the speed of the motor rent passes from Y to the relay switch R'to wire
Ill, to brush V to contact strip 5a to wire 8 to
M. This may be used in an arrangement where
in the motor M is directly attached to the shaft collector ring 20, to brush X and by wire to the
solenoid 8 which exerts a torque upon the arma
4 upon which the disk I is mounted. Orpthe ar
' ture of the lever I which is pivoted at f. The 30
rangement
shown
in
Figure
5a
may
be
used
and
in
30
which the lower half of the lever l constitutes current returns from the solenoid 8 to the bat“
virtually the arm or crank of a rheostat Ta. or tery or other source of power ‘Y. The motor
actuates such a rheostatlc'arm or crank. Or it
may actuate any type, of motor speed control. >
35
A modi?cation "of the invention which dis
penses with the use of photoelectric cells in the
synchronizing circuits is illustrated in Figure ‘l.
M- is provided with a shaft of irregular cross sec
tion, as already explained and has the slidable
wheel W mounted upon it. The wheel W. makes 35
frictional contact with the disk l and drives it.
When the solenoid 8 attracts the armature at
.The television ‘broadcast current is led into the tached to the lever I, it causes the clutch J to
amplifying apparatus K by means of the wires move the wheel W towards the center of the
disk I, with the result that a greater speed is im
40 A and B; The ampli?ed image varied current is
then supplied to theneon lamp 2 and'the second parted to the latter. If the disk i is gaining
amplifying apparatus K’. The current is then on the transmitting disk, then contact strip Ba
supplied to ‘the relay R. The conductors E and will engage with brush V and the current will
D connect the glow lamp 2 in circuit. ‘The Nip~ pass from the battery Y to the relay R, to wire
45 kow disk or its equivalent is shown at l. The ’ Ill, to brush V, to contact strip 6a, to wire t» 45
, holes or lensesare shown at L and are arranged to collector ring. 12, to brush Z,-to solenoid 9 and
in a spiral line in the usual manner. Instead of r back to Y. The solenoid causes the lever to be
' .the transparent segments described in connec» ‘moved to the right with the result that the jaw
tion with the previous ?gures, ‘two contact strips J moves to the left and the wheel W is shifted.
- 5a‘ and 6a are attached to the disk I.'. Those strips towards the periphery of the disk i which re“ 50
are shown of varying width, which is shown as duces the speed of the latter. There is thus a
increasing progressively from the lower end of
the strips to the upper in the ?gure. The object
of this is to provide a greater contact area to
the various brushes V and thus to furnish a
greater current to the synchronizing circuits in
proportion to the degree of asynchronism pres
ent. A single wide brush or a plurality of small--
constant automatic effort. on the part‘ of the
synchronizing apparatus to keep the disk in ab
solute synchronism. No attention is required on
the part of the operator and thisis true regard 55
less, of the type of motor used. Although no
separate synchronizing current is required with the disclosed apparatus, still the invention covers '
the use of the apparatus in a separate synchro»
nizing currentarrangement. The attainment of
If brushes of highresistance are used, the vary
ing area of contact of 5a and to will cause cpr ‘ synchronization by the interruption of the broad
respondingly varying‘ amounts ‘of electric cur: cast of the television is an invention over the ‘
rent to pass. , As described in connection with employment of a separate synchronizing wave
the previous figures, the broadcast current is channel or separate synchronizing circuit, if the
apparatus is used with wires. The invention 65:
periodically interrupted at the transmitting sta
tion at a predetermined point of the revolution therefore, covers the use of the apparatus with a
er or narrower brushes may be provided at V.
of the transmitting disk. This isfor the present.
separate wave channel or circuit.
-
disclosure assumed to be at the lowest point'in ' The wheel W may be provided with means for .
the circle described by the rotating disk. Con holding it more securely in the position on the '
sequently, the apparatus illustratedin Figure '7 . shaft in which'it is placed, and at the same time 70 is in a position that it should occupy when the being readily shiftable to a new position by the
disk I is in synchronism with the transmitting law or clutch .1. Figure '7a shows the wheel
equipped with very delicate ?exible strips of metal
disk. The interrupted broadcasted‘image cur
rent has permitted the relay to move its arma . ,2! which make'contact with the shaft 14. The
-75 ture to the left and close the circuit through the ?at face of the shaft u may be roughened or pro- 15
6
2,125,991
vided with fine ridges as shown at 22, which are
depressed below the surface of the shaft u in
. order not to interfere with the movement of the
wheel W. The lever I should be well balanced
with regard to its fulcrum ,1‘, just as the arm of a
balance, so that it will have a tendency to re
main at rest in any position in which it may be
placed. A handle his shown for manual adjust
ment of the position of the wheel W inorder to
10 manually attain synchronism, if desired.
mg I‘! in order to permit it to shift or slide through
the Journal bearing. The end of the shaft u will
project farther and farther to the left beyond the
journal I'Ia as the speed'is accelerated. All of the
shaft that passes through the governor I6 is
‘rounded. Thus a centrifugally operated speed
governor is added to the previously described ap
paratus. If desired the governor I6 may have
attached to it the contact brush 23 which makes
contact with the contact point or strip 25 when
The disk I may be made of plate glass or trans . the motor has been brought up to full standard
parent Bakelite. The lenses La may be of glass synchronizing speed. The brush and contact
and plane-convex and their ?at surfaces cement
strip are connected to the synchronizing circuits
ed to the disk I. The portions of the disk which in such manner that contact is not made between
Hand 25, and consequently the latter are not
15 are unoccupied by any lens or other optical ele
ment may be painted with an opaque paint or its energized until full speed has been attained by
equivalent. A transparent Bakelite disk I with the motor M and wheel W. The disk I is shown
glass prisms and lenses is a good construction. in synchronism with the transmitting disk and at
The expense of boring holes in the disk to accom
the point it should occupy if it is in synchronism
'20 modate the lenses or other optical elements is with the transmitting disk when the broadcast is 20
done away with. In manufacturing such a disk, interrupted. The relay R has closed the circuit
a form is made which consists of a flat board, or and the current passes from the battery Y to
the like, having spherical depressions located relay switch R to brush V to contact strip 11, to
therein and the depressions arranged in a spiral. brush a: to electromagnet I9 by means of wire ISa
and back to Y. The armature-indicator I5 is 25
25 The lenses are simply placed in those depressions,
.which they ?t snugly and their flat, upturned attracted to its position indicating synchronism
faces coated with a suitable cement, such as on its dial (not shown). It will be noted that the
Canada balsam. The disk I is then laid upon this‘ contact metal or other conducting strips 541 and
?at surface including the cement covered lens 6a are made much smaller than those previously
shown. If the disk I is lagging behind the trans 30
30 surfaces and left to harden, when it is removed
together with the ?rmly adherent lenses. The mitting disk, then the strip 5a is in contact with
cost of manufacture is thus greatly reduced. If the brush V during the time thatthe relay R
such a disk were moulded of glass, for instance in closes the circuit and the current passes through
one piece, the lenses (since they are molded)
strip to to collector ring w to brush X to electro
magnet I 9, which attracts the armature-indicator
35 would be unsatisfactory from an optical stand
point. To grind the lenses which have been cast
I5 to the position indicating retarded isochro
in one solid piece with the disk would be pro
nism. If the disk I is running ahead of the trans
hibitive and almost mechanically impossible. By .mitting disk, then contact strip Ila makes contact
the present method, the lenses have been manu
factured in accordance with the best principles
set down by optical manufacturers, the same is
true of the plate glass or the Bakelite disk.‘ The
disk andthe optical lenses or other optical ele
ments are then combined by the simple process of
45 placing the lenses in the depressions in the form
and simply coating their upturned faces with ce
ment and the disk laid on. All of the expense of
“laying out” the spiral, boring the holes in the
disk and ?tting the lenses into the holes is dis
pensed with. Oviously a disk made of Bakelite
'50 with
cemented lenses could not be moulded in a
single piece. This is a very desirable embodiment
of the invention. After the disk is formed, the
unoccupied portions are coated with opaque paint.
Another modi?cation of the invention is illus
55
trated in Figure 8. The motor is shown at M.
It is provided with a hollow shaft ua of square,
rectangular or other irregular cross-section. The
square or other irregular cross-sectioned shaft u
60 fits into this hollow shaft and is unrotatable rela
with brush V, and the current passes from Y to
relay switch R, to brush V, to collector ring or
contact strip 60, to brush Z, to electromagnet 20.
The latter attracts the armature-indicator I5 to
the position indicating advanced isochronism or
accelerated asynchronism. The current then
passes from 20 to the solenoid 9, which attracts 45
the armature attached to lever l and pulls the
latter to the right with a resultant shifting of the
wheel W by means of the clutch J towards the
periphery of the disk I, and the latter is slowed
down. In the former case, where the disk I was 50
running behind the transmitting disk, the cur
rent returned from the electromagnet I9 to the
solenoid 8 and from thence to the source of power
Y. The solenoid 8 attracted the armature at
tached to lever l to the left, with a consequent
shifting of'the wheel W to the right and towards
the center of the disk I with a resultant speeding
up of the latter. Thus a means is provided for
indicating by means of a pointer and dial, the
character of asynchronism, lsochronlsm or syn~ 60
tive to the shaft M. It may be readily slid in and ‘ chronism that may'exist at any time.
out of the hollow shaft ua. The shaft it turns in
The jaws of the clutch J are turned down In the
the journal I‘! and it is here of a round cross plane of the paper and two wheels Ja are rotat
section tolaccommodate the 'journal bearing sur
ably supported on small shafts that are attached
65 face. The shaft ‘is further journalled at I'M. A ' to the turned down ends. The wheels Ja may be
centrifugal governor I6 of any desired well known coated with a ring of leather or rubber or other
type is shown in cooperative relation with the adherent surface. The purpose of those wheels
shaft u. As the speed increases, the balls fly out? is to eliminate the friction that would otherwise
' ward from the shaft in the well known manner.
70 In sodoing they pull the shaft it towards the left
and consequently shift the friction wheel W to
the left, or towards the periphery of the disk I
With‘a ‘resultant decrease of the speed imparted
by the shaft u to the disk I. The shaft, it is to be
75 noted isrounded for some distance from the bear
exist between the clutch J and the wheel W.
The synchronism indicator consisting of the
elements I5, I0, I9 and 20 may be omitted if
desired. It is a very convenient and useful part
of the apparatus, however.
.The solenoids 8 and 9 in conjunction with the
‘lever I operate the friction drive W for the pur- 75
V
2,125,991
7
pending upon the interruption of the television
broadcast to maintain s'ynchronism.
pose of maintaining synchronism. However, in
one modification of the invention, the lever I may .
The arrangement of the transparent or con
ducting segments with the opaque or insulating‘
segment located at the lower portion of the va
rious ?gures of the drawings is such that it might
be regarded as a means of determining the posi
be used to operate a rheostat or other speed con
trolling means governing the speed of the motor
M. In another modi?cation, the lower end of the
lover I may be arranged to operate a rheostat, or
other motor controlling means in connection with
tion of the disk during the stroboscopic illumina
motor vM. Thus then, the solenoids and lever
would control the speed by means of the friction
v10 drive and motor current control, while the cen
trifugal governor It would regulate the speed
tion of the disk. - (The upper portion or interval
is to correct the irregularity of speed in an elec
tric motor known as “hunting”, which is well
known and understood to those skilled in the art.
between the two segments may be much closer, 10
in fact the contact segments are placed as nearly
as possible to each other without actually making ,
-contact with each other.) This arrangement
may therefore be regarded as a position indieating arrangement, as it indicates the position 15
in which the disk is located during the momen
provided with roller bearings m, which ?t close
Many modi?cations?f the relationship of the
from a standpoint of momentum.
A very im- ‘
portant function performed by “the governor I6
Figure 8a illustrates a cross section of the two tary illumination produced by-the intermittent
vshafts tar and u. The hollow-shaft ua is shown as _' synchronizing current.
ly to the inner shaft it. Thus the two shafts are ' centrifugal ‘speed governor to the disk are pos-' 20'
absolutely unrotatable relative to each ‘other, and sible. For'instance, Figure 8 may be regarded as
yet shaft u may be slid in and out of the hollow turned on its right side, when the centrifugal
shaft ua with very little resistance, due to the governor would be found to be located at the top _
roller‘ bearings.
25
of the revolving disk. The operation would then
»
be such that when the balls are centrifugally I'D-r 25"
In the operation of the apparatus, the solenoids
and lever I act to maintain synchronism between tated outward, the shaft is permitted to vdrop
the transmitting disk and the'receiving disk I. ' downward through the journal H. The wheel W
then, instead of being located in the upper half
They are constantly at work correcting all irreg
ularities of synchronism. They cannot, however, of the disk as illustrated in the ?gure, ‘would be
in contact with the lower half of the disk. Then,
correct the speed irregularity known as “hunt
ing” and it is principally for the correction of ‘this . when the increased speed rotated the balls or
other centrifugal elements out‘wards, the wheel
‘irregularity that the centrifugal governor i6 , is
provided. It is to be noted that the lever Z shifts W would be lowered to a point nearer the periph
the wheel W on the shaft it, while the governor l6 ery of the disk and the speed slackened. Many
other modifications‘ readily suggest themselves 35
-, shifts the shaft 11. and wheel W as a single unit.
There is therefore, 'no interference between" the
without departing from the spirit of the inven- -
operation of those two speed controlling elements.
tion.
In another modi?cation, the Jaw J might be '
The brush 23 attached to the centrifugal speed a
governor and the contact 25 may be connected. in . placed on guide rods, as described in my applica
tion Serial No. 468,117 or July 15, 1930, and an 40
110 the synchronizing circuit between Y and R as
illustrated in Fig. 9, and the latter will thus not armature fastened to the jaw. The solenoids ll
be operative until the disk has been brought up and 9 or their equivalents would be placed in co
operative relation with a pawl and ratchet, by
to approximately synchronizing speed under con
trol of the centrifugal governor It. The contact ' means of which it would be moved to new posi
tions.
'25 is shown as a strip. but it may be a button,
thus making contact for ashorter interval of
speed variation. The end of the governor i6 ‘ad
jacent the bearing Illa is provided with a groove
into which a tongue forming part of Ila projects
and thus holds the ring of the governor always
adjacent the hearing "0). ‘The shaft u is there
fore, pulled to the left as the speed increases.
However, the position of the motor M and the
governor l6 might be reversed as shown in Fig
ure 9, and in that case, the ring of the governor
adjacent "a would not be attached thereto while
it rotates. Instead, the ring oi‘ the governor It
adjacent the bearing i1 would always be in con
tact therewith, and the opposite end or ring of
60 the governor would move with the variations in
speed. An increase of speed would then push the
shaft away from thegovernor, and the wheel W
would be pushed peripherally with a decrease of
‘ speed, since the position of the motor M and the
governor it would be reversed. Many other mod
i?cations readily suggest themselves to ‘those
skilled in the art, and they are all within the
spirit of the invention.
.
1
Attention is called ‘to the fact that ‘although the
70 impulses in the synchronizing circuit are of short
duration, still they are repeated at the rate of
twenty per second and are‘ somewhat similar to
~ a Farradic current and possess a cumulativeei'iect
while they last. As previously mentioned,‘ a sep
75 arate wave channel might be used instead of ee
45
The disks shown in the various figures might be
regarded also as the disk portion of a cylinder-_
disk scanning element, the scanning holes or‘
'lensesbeing carried on the cylindrical surface,
while the synchronizing elements would be car
ried on the disk portion of theelement.
50'
Although the synchronizing apparatus is shown
in the .?gures as being arranged to operate dur- »
ing the time that the televisionbroadcast is in
terrupted, it is to be distinctly understood that 55
a separate wave channel or a separate circuit may
readily be used without departing from the spirit
of the invention.
,
.
The brush 23 in Figure 8 is supposed to be
mounted upon a. pair of stationary guides and 60
engages in a. groove in the ring of the ‘governor
i6. Howeirer, many modi?cationssuggest them
selves.v , For instance, the end oi.’ the lever or
shaft it moves to the left of the journal i‘lo to
various extents depending‘ upon ‘the speed. ‘One 65
or more fulcruxned levers having one of their ends .
in firm contact by means‘ of a spring or the like
against the end of the shaft may be. used for
the operation'ofspeed controlling means whether
rheostats or other. Their free endsmay con
stitute part of ._a rheoatat arm, or may be in con
tact with various contact segments of speed con
trolling means.
'
'
»
_
a
e
The present disclosure is especially concerned
with thdmaintenance of synchronism of television 75
8
2,195,991
sets in isolated places where no synchronous mo“
reproducing an image from a periodically inter
tors operated by conventionally phased currents
rupted image varied current, two transparent
are available. In cases where a motor is operated
segments carried on said rotatable element, an
opaque interval separating said transparent seg
ments, saidv opaque interval being opposite a
. by a dry or a storage battery, means are disclosed
whereby the set is maintained in synchronism
without any attention on the part of the operator
other than initially turning on the current. The
rheostatic control of the motor by means of the
centrifugal governor will correct ‘speed variations
10 due to battery deterioration or other change.
At the transmitting station, as illustrated in
Fig. 3, the disk or other rotatable element I
de?nite point when said element is in synchro
nism, a stationary light source at said de?nite
point and in cooperation with said transparent
segments, means for illuminating said light
source, electrical means actuated by said image 10
varied current for illuminating said light source
only during the'period of interruption of said
would be provided with a contact segment RI
image varied current and a pair of photoelectric
consisting of a circle‘ which would be broken at
cells on the side of said rotatable element oppo- I
15 a point corresponding to the opaque or insulat- " site said light source, each of said cells being 15
ing segment in the various ?gures. It would be ’ adapted to be energized by the light of said source'
similar to the path “:1” of Figure 1. A collector
ring R2 of any type would also form part of
the rotating element and be connected to the
20 segment by conductor C3. The broadcasting
current would be supplied to the contact segment
by brush b2 and taken from the collector ring
by brush bi. This would produce the desired
interruption.
In Figure 8, contact strip 1/ and associated
brushes may cause a light to be illuminated in
stead of the indicator I5 and I9. Moreover,
this light may have a specially signi?cant, color.
The relay R covers any known means ‘of in
terrupting current.
Having described my invention, I claim as new
and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. In combination: means including a rotat
able element for reproducing a television image
35 from an image varied current, a pair of trans
parent segments on said rotatable element the
width of said transparent segments being pro
gressively increased in order to increase their
asynchronism correcting function, an opaque
40
when said transparent segments permit the light
of said source to reach its specific cell and a
speed adjusting means in cooperative relation
with said cells and said rotatable element whereby 20
synchronism is maintained.
4. In combinationf a rotatable element, means
in cooperative relation with said rotatable ele
ment for reproducing an image from an image
varied current, the diiferent portions of the sur
face of said rotatable element being rotatable
at di?erent uniform speeds, a variable position
rotatabladriving means in cooperative relation
with said rotatable element making driving con
tact with any of said portions of said surface to
drive said element at any desired uniform speed
and photoelectric means in cooperative relation
with said rotatable element and said variable
position rotatable driving means said photoelec
tric means including light influencing means
borne on said rotatable element and a stationary
photoelectric element in cooperation therewith
by means of which the position of said driving
means is varied in order that speed of said ro
segment separating said transparent segments,
tatable element is adjusted to attain synchro
a stationary light source in cooperative relation
nism and isochronism.
with said transparent segments and said opaque
segment and means connected with said light
source for illuminating said light source only
45 during a portion of the revolutionary period of
said rotatable element and vwhen said opaque
segment is opposite to and obscuring said light
5. In combination:
.40
means including a ro
tatable element for reproducing an image from
an image varied ‘current, the different portions
of the surface of said rotatable element being
rotatable at different uniform speeds, a variable
position rotatable driving means in cooperative
segment separating said transparent segments, a
stationary light source in cooperative relation
with said transparent segments and said opaque
relation with said rotatable element, making
‘driving contact with any of said portions of said
surface, mechanical means for varying the posi
tion of contact of said rotatable driving means,
a pair of transparent segments on said rotatable
element, an opaque segment separating said
transparent segments on said rotatable element,
a stationary light source in cooperative relation
with said transparent segments, said light source
being adapted to be illuminated only during a
short period of each revolution of said rotatable
segment and means connected with said light
element, a pair of photoelectric cells on the op- '
source when said rotatable element is in syn
chronism, said light source being when illumi
50 nated opposite to‘ either of said transparent seg
ments during asynchronism. '
2. In combinationigeans including a rotatable
element for reproduii'ing a television image from
an image varied current, a pair of transparent
segments on said rotatable element, an opaque
60 source for illuminating said light source only
during a portion of the revolutionary period of
said rotatable element and when said opaque
segment is opposite to and obscuring said light
source when said rotatable element is in syn
65 chronlsm, or when either of said transparent
segments are opposite said light source when
said rotatable element is in asynchronism and a
pair of photoelectric cells, each of said cells be
ing in cooperative relation with one only of said
70 transparent segments to be in?uenced by the
light of either of said transparent segments dur-'
ing asynchronism' of said rotatable element said
cells being connected to synchronizing apparatus.
3. A synchronism indicating apparatus consist
75 ing of means including a.yrotatable element for
posite side of said rotatable element to and in
cooperative relation with said light source to be 60
operated by the light from said source and elec-‘
tromagnetic means in cooperative relation with
said mechanical means for ‘varying the position
of said variable position rotatable driving means
and electrically connected to and under the con
trol of said photoelectric cells to adjust the speed
of said rotatable element in order to maintain
synchronism and isochronism.
6. In combination: means including a rotat
able element for reproducing an image from an
image varied current, the'dii’ferent portions of
the surface of said rotatable element being
rotatable at different uniform speeds, electrical
contact means carried on said rotatable element,
i
2,125,991
, 9
during a fraction of. each revolution of said ro
means including a rotatable driving member mak
ing driving contact with one of said portions of tatable element, means including a secondm
said surface at a time for imparting synchronous ' tatable element for converting said image varied
and isochronous motion speed to said rotatable current intov an-image, synchronizing means in
element, suitable electrical circuits including a cooperative relation with said second rotatable
stationary'brush in cooperative relation with said element and operated by separate energy, means
electrical contact means for producing corrective associated with said second rotatable element for
holding open a synchronizing circuit by means
synchronizing currents when said rotatable ele
ment‘is not rotating synchronously, means ‘in of and during the ?ow'of said image varied cur
rent and ‘means for closing said synchronizing
10 cooperative relation with said means for pro
circuit during said interruptions.
‘‘ '
ducing, corrective currents and with said ro
11. A television apparatus consisting of a‘ ro-‘
-tatable driving member for changing the posi
10’
tion of said variable position rotatable driving
tatable element, means for rotating said rotat
member, and a centrifugal speed governing ele
ment in cooperative relation with said rotatable
able element, a pair of current in?uencing s'eg-v ‘
ments borne on said rotatable element, a non'-‘ 15
driving means in order to correct speed irreg
ularities of said. rotatable driving member.
7. :A synchronism indicating‘means consisting
in cooperative relation with said current in?u- .
of means including‘ a rotatable element for re- '
encing segments and said means for rotating said
an‘image from an image varied cur
20' ‘producing
rent, an electrical contact strip placed at a syn
in?uencing segment‘ separating said segments
and stationary synchronism controlling means
rotatable element, said nonin?uencing segment
being disposed opposite said stationary synchro-‘
20
chronisr'n indicating point on said disk, electrical nism- controlling means when a synchronizing
means in‘ cooperative relation with said strip‘ current is received while said rotatable’ielement'
for transmitting a periodic current received from rotates synchronously in order that said cur- ,
rent influencing segments may be prevented from 25
25 a distant station through said contact strip when
said rotatable'elen'ient is in synchronism' and a in?uencing said stationary synchronism_ 'con
synchronism indicating means in cooperative trolling means when said rotatable element
relation with said electrical means which is ac
rotates in synchronism.
»
(
12. A television apparatus consisting of, means
is in contact with said electrical means when including a rotatable element for/reproducing an 30
image from an image-modulated electric current,
said current is transmitted. ,
the di?erent portionsfof the surface of said ro
8. A television synchronizing apparatus ‘con
sisting ‘of means including a rotatable element, tatable clement moving at di?erent uniform
for reproducing an image froml an image varied speeds, contact means borne on said rotatable
current, the di?’erent portions of the surface of element including a pair of arcuate contact seg 35
tuated by said current when said contact strip
as said element being rotatable at di?erent' uni
form speeds, a variable position friction drive in
cooperative relation with said rotatable element
and matting driving contact/With any of said por
40 tions of said surface to impart uniform speed‘
thereto, a centrifugal speed governor in cooper
ative relation with said variable position friction
ments, an insulating interval separating said
arcuate contact segments, stationary contact
means including a brush normally in position on
said insulating interval when said rotatable ele
merit rotates in synchronism, a pair of electro
' magnetic-mechanical means for'operating said
magnetic elements, means for furnishing a
periodic synchronizing current operativeiy con~
nected to said brush and to said pair of elec-'
tromagnetic elements, a variable position Ero-.
tatable driving means making driving contactv
variable position drive and electrical contact ele
with any one of said ‘portions of said surface of
drive ‘to vary the position of ' said friction drive
‘ to correct speed irregularities therein, electroments carried on said rotatable element in elec
trical cooperation with said electomagnctic-me
.chanicai means for operating said variable posi~
tion drive, in order to maintain said rotatable
50 element in synchronism by speed adjustment.
said rotatable-element at a time and a clutch in
cooperative relation with and operated by said
pair of electromagnetic elements and connected
with said variable position rotatable driving
means in order to shift said “driving means to
so
engage any one of the said di?erent portions of ‘
tatable element for reproducing an image from ' said surface to cause said rotatable element to
9. In combination: means including a re
an image varied current, the different portions
of the surface of vsaid element being rotatable
rotatev in synchronism.
‘it. a television apparatus consisting of means
including a rotatable elementfor reproducing an 55
at different uniform speeds, speed 'control'elec
trical contact elements carried onsaid rotatable image from an image modulated current, the
element, electromagneticemechanical means in
different portions of a. surface of said rotatable
cooperative relation with and under control of
said'speed control contact elements, a variable
position friction drive in cooperative relation
with said electromagnetic-mechanical means to
vary the position of said variable position ro
element being rotatable at, diderent uniform
tatable drive, said drive making driving contact
with any of said portions of said surface, a motor
65 controlling means in cooperative relation-with
said
eiectromagnetic-mechanical
means
for
varying the speed of said motor and a centrifugal
spccd governor in cooperative relation with said
variable position drive to correct irregularities‘
"Ill in the speed of said rotatable element.
. .
iii, A television synchronizing system consist
ing of means including a rotatable element for
transmitting an image varied current, means as
sociated with said rotatableelement for inter
rupting said image varied current periodically
speeds, a rotatable driving means in cooperative
relation with said rotatable element and mamng
driving contact with anyof said portions of said _ '
surface at a time, electrical contact means borne
von said rotatable element including two contact
segments, an insulating interval disposed be
tween said, segments, a stationary contact brush
normally making contact with said insulating
interval when said rotatable element rotates in
synchronism, shifting means for shifting the po
sition of said rotatable driving means to attain
and maintain said rotatable element in synchro
nism and 'means for operating said shifting
means in cooperative relation therewith and elec
tricaliy connected to said electrical contact
means and said stationary contact brush in or-
vb
1O
2,125,991
der to cause said rotatable element» to rotate
surface of which move at different uniform
synchronously.
speeds, said rotatable driving element making
14. A television apparatus consisting of means
including a rotatable element for reproducing an
image from an image-modulated current, the
different portions of a surface of said rotatable
element being rotatable at different uniform
speeds, a rotatable driving means in cooperative
relation with said rotatable element and making
,10 driving contact with any of said portions of said
surface at a time, electrical contact means borne
on said rotatable element including two contact
segments, an insulating interval- disposed between
driving contact with any of said di?'erent por
tions of said surface at a time, a centrifugal speed
governor in cooperative relation with said second
shaft and acting to cause said shaft to enter
more or less deeply in said hollow of said hollow
shaft to move said rotatable driving element to
contactv with different portions of‘said surface
to correct speed irregularities therein, a clutch 10
for shifting said rotatable driving element into
contact with any of said portions of said surface,
electromagnetic means for operating said clutch
said segments, a stationary brush in cooperative - and suitable electrical switching means 'in co
relation with said segments and said insulating » operative relation with said rotatable scanning
1,5
element and connected by suitable circuits to
said electromagnetic means to operate said clutch
contact rings borne on said electrical rotatable in accordance with speed ‘variations in said ro
element and connected to said contact segments, tatable scanning element.
18. An automatic television synchronizing ap 20
a pair of stationary brushes making contact with .c
paratus consisting of means including a rotatable
said contact rings, a ‘clutch engaging said rotat
able- driving means to bring said driving means in scanning element for forming an image from an
image-modulated current, means for rotating‘
contact with said different portions of said sur
face, electromagnetic means in cooperative rela
said rotatable element at uniform speed, syn
tion with and operating said clutch and connected chronizing means for maintaining said rotatable 25
element in synchronism, a switch connected to
by suitable circuits to and controlled by said con
tact segments said electrical contact brushes and and controlling said synchronizing means in order
said contact rings in order to maintain said to out said synchronizing means in or out of
rotatable element in synchronism.
circuit and a speed governing means in coopera
15. A television apparatus consisting of means tive relation with said switch to bring said syn 30
30
including a rotatable element for forming an chronizing means into action when said rotatable
image from an image modulated electric current,’ element rotates at approximately synchronous
interval, said brush being situated on said insu
lating interval during synchronism, two electrical
means for uniformly rotating said rotatable ele
ment, synchronizing means including suitable
C12 Cl electrical circuits and a controlling switch for
operating said means for uniformly rotating said
rotatable element at synchronous speed and a
speed governing means operatively connected to
said controlling switch to close said switch and
40 circuits when said rotatable element is rotated
‘at approximately synchronous speed.
16. An automatic television synchronizing ap
paratus consisting of a motor, a longitudinally
shiftable shaft rotated by said motor, a rotatable
driving element slidably mounted upon said shaft
and being unrotatable relatively therewith, a ro
speed.
19. An automatic television synchronizing ap
paratus consisting of means including a rotatable 85
scanning element for forming an image from an
image-modulated current, a rotatable driving ele
ment slidably mounted upon a shaft and making
driving contact with the surface of said rotatable
scanning element, the different portions of the
surface of said scanning element being rotatable
at different uniform speeds and said driving ele
ment making driving contact with any of said
portions of said surface at a time, a clutch for
shifting the position of said driving element to 45
bring it into contact with any of said portions,
tatable scanning element, the different portions
electromagnetic means for operating said clutch, '
of a surface of said scanning element being mov»
able at different uniform speeds, said rotatable
suitable switching means in cooperative relation
with said rotatable scanning element'and con
50 driving element making driving contact with any
nected by suitable circuits to said electromagnetic
~ a time, a centrifugal speed governor'in coopera
speed irregularities in the motion of said rotatable
one of said different portions of said surface at
tive relation with said shaft in order to longi~
tudinally shift said shaft in accordance with
speed variations to bring said rotatable driving
'
.
20. An automatic television synchronizing ap
paratus consisting of a uniformly rotatable driv 55
ing means, a. centrifugal speed governor in co
gaging with and acting to shift said rotatable
operative relation with said driving means, to
correct speed irregularities therein, a variable
position rotatable contact element in cooperative
relation with and driven by said driving means, 60
electromagnetic means operating said clutch and
suitable electrical switching means in coopera
tive relation with said rotatable scanning element
and connected by suitable circuits to said elec
tromagnetic means to operate said clutch in 'ac
cordance with speed variations occurring in said
65
scanning element.
element into new driving positions, a clutch en
driving element 'to different drivlng' positions,
60
means to operate said clutch in accordance with
rotatable scanning element.
'
-
‘
1'7. An automatic television synchronizing ap
paratus consisting of a motor a hollow shaft
rotatable by said motor, a second shaft in co
operative relation with said hollow shaft and
70 making slidable engagement in the hollow of said
hollow shaft, said shafts being relatively unrotat
able with each other, a rotatable driving element
slidably mounted upon said second shaft and
being unrotatable relatively thereto, a rotatable
75 scanning element the different portions of 9.
means for shifting the‘ position of said variable
position rotatable contact element to impart dif
ferent desired uniform speeds to said rotatable
contact element, means including a rotatable
scanning element for reproducing an image from 65
an image modulated current, the different por
tions of a surface of said scanning element being
rotatable at different uniform speeds and being
in cooperative relation with said variable posi
tion contact element, electrical means including
suitable contacts borne on said rotatable scanning
element in cooperative relation with said means
for shifting and a switch in cooperative relation
with and controlling said electrical means andlin
cooperative relation with and to‘ be operated by
aiaqaoi
11
said centrifugal speed governor
close said
‘switch when said rotatable scannlngelement ro
operative relation with a stationary light source
tates at approximately synchronous speed.
24. A- claim in accordance with claim 21 but
in which said means for producing corrective syn
21. In combination: a ‘rotatable element,
means in cooperative relation with said rotatable
element for reproducing an image from an image
- varied current, the different portions of the sur- >
face of said rotatable element being rotatable at
different uniform speeds, a variable position ro
10 'tatable ‘driving means in cooperative relation with
and photoelectric cells.
'
chronizing adjustments includes transparent por- ,
tions borne on said rotatable element and sta-
tionary photoelectric cells in cooperative rela-.
tion with electromagnetic means.
a 25. In combinationz'a rotatable element, means
in cooperative relation with said’ rotatable ele 10
said rotatable element making driving contact
ment for reproducing an imageiirom an image
with any of said portions of said surface to drive
varied current, the diilerent portions or the sur- '
said element at any uniform speed and means for ‘ face of said rotatable element being rotatable at
producing corrective synchronizing adjustments
15 in the position of said variable position rotatable
driving means in cooperative relation with said
rotatable element and said variable position ro
tatable ‘driving means where said rotatable ele
ment is not rotating synchronously.
22. A claim in accordance with claim 21 but in
which said means for producing corrective syn
chronizing adjustments includes transparent por
di?erent uniform speeds, a variable position ro
tatable driving means in cooperative relation with 16
said rotatable element making driving contact
~ with any of said portions of said surface to drive
said element at any'uniiorm speed and means
for producing corrective synchronizing currents
when said rotatable element is not rotating syn
chronously, and means in cooperative relation
with said means for producing corrective currents
23. A claim in accordance with claim 21 but
in which said means for'producing corrective
and with said variable position rotatable driving
means to re-establish synchronism by‘ changing
the position of said variable position rotatable
synchronizing adjustments includes transparent
driving meana,
tions on said rotatable element.
_
r
portions borne on said rotatable element-in co
-
.
‘
\iAI-OYSIUS J. CAWLEY.
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