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Патент USA US2126091

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' "Aug. 9, 1938.,
H. s. CLAYBAUGH'
2,126,091
FOOTER CONSTRUCTION
Filed March 6, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet l
INVENTOR
H WARD 6. C LAYBAU 6H
BY
ATTO FYNEYEI
Aug“ 9» 1938-
H. s. CLAYBAUGH
2,126,091
FOOTER CONSTRUCTION
Filed March 6, 1937
2' Sheets-Sheet z
INvENTdR
HOWARD vS-CLAYBAUGH
ATTORNEYS
Patented Aug. 9, 1938
2,126,091
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE '
2,126,091
- FOOTER CONSTRUCTION '
Howard S. Claybaugh, Minneapolis, Minn., as
signor ‘to Lyle Culvert & Pipe Company, Min
neapolis, Minn., a corporation of Minnesota
Application March 6, 1937, Serial No. 129,433
8 Claims. (Cl. 61-16)
This invention relates to improvements in ber connected to the abutment iron of the footer;
footers or abutments or foundations adapted for
supporting metallic arches in the formation of
bridges, culverts, and drainage structures of any
‘ kind, large or small.
Heretoforev such footings have generally been
constructed of concrete, or expensive material
dif?cult and costly to install.
‘
-
This invention provides a structure particu;
10“ larly adapted for that type of bridge or arch com
posed of corrugated plates, both standard or mul
tiplate construction in which a number of plates
can be connected together in lapped relation.
By multiple construction is meant heavy gauge
material in which the corrugations are wider and
deeper.
‘
One of the objects of this invention is to make
footers of corrugated metal, with the corruga
tions extending either crosswise or lengthwise
20 of the footers, and using the corrugated mate
rial in a manner to obtain reenforcement or ex~
tension and increased area of contact with the
earth. Uncorrugated or plain sheets can how
ever be used, and no limitation is intended. The
size of the footer depends entirely on the hear
ing power of the soil, it being of course under
stood that the diiferent types of soils require dif
ferent widths or areas of thrust surface, for sup
porting the load of a given weight of bridge or
30 arch.
w
An important feature of the invention is the
provision of the outwardly and downwardly fac
ing concave elements as footers, the areas of
which can be varied thereby providing thrust
35 surfaces of suitable area. Another feature is the '
manner of bracing the concave surface-forming
elements to prevent ?attening under stress.
,
Features of the invention include all details
of construction shown along with the broader
40 ideas of means inherent in the disclosure. ‘
Objects, advantages and features will appear
in the description of the drawings forming a part
of this‘ application, and in said drawings,
Figure 1 is a sectional elevation showing the
device imbedded in the earth and supporting a
corrugated metal arch which in turn supports
a road flanked by a brick facing;
Figure 2 is a perspective view of one form of
my invention showing a corrugated arch element
501 in operative relation thereto;
a
‘ Figure 3 is a detail cross-section of one of the
footers, taken on line 3—3 of Figure 4;
Figure 4 is a sectional elevation looking from
line 4-4 toward the inner side of one of the
55 i members and showing the corrugated arch mem
Figure 5 is a perspective view of a modi?ca
tion in which two corrugated elements are over
lapped for reenforcement and for varying the
thrust area ‘of the footer;
Figure 6 is a perspective view of the portion
of the structure of Figure 5, and
Figure '7 is a diagrammatic view illustrating
the relative position of the footer with respect to
the resultant line of force of the arch thereon.
Referring ?rst to Figure 1, numeral I indicates
a corrugated or other suitable metal arch ele
ment in which the long dimension of the corru
gations run circumferentially, see Figure 2. This
arch supports suitable material of brick, stone 15
or earth work 2 which may represent the road
for which the arch is a culvert-forming element.
Numeral 3 generally indicates the unit of this
invention which includes two transversely spaced
arch thrust-sustaining footers. These footers
are cross-connected to prevent separation.
_
Referring to Figure 3 each footer is herein
shown as composed of two sheets of corrugated
steel with the long dimension of the corruga
tions extending lengthwise of the member. 7 A 25
single sheet may be used and be bent at right
angles substantially to form a horizontal por
tion in and vertical portion II, the sheet as thus
bent being so disposed as to provide a downward-‘
ly outwardly faced concavity, the total surface
area of which is relatively large, and the surface
area of which can be varied.
30'
'
The areas of these surfaces of course depend
entirely upon the bearing power of the soil, and
will vary with different types of soils and with
the amount of load. In this instance the cor
rugated sheet is placed on and attached to a truss
frame composed of a horizontal angle iron 20,
a vertical angle iron 2|, the irons being mitered
and connected as by welding at 25.‘ They are
braced by a‘ diagonal member 22, related to the
concave surface, formed by the elements I0, If,
as the chord to its arc and designed to resist
strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity
of the thrust sustaining faces of the footer.
The structure constituted by, elementsZEl, 2|
and 22 may be considered a bracket and any suit
able number of such brackets or trusses may be
spaced lengthwise of each footer. For a short
footer three is a good number, one placed at 50
each end and one in'the middle; These elements
are conveniently constructed of angle iron or
may be constructed of channel iron. Numerals
26 indicate rivets securing the metal to the brack~
ets.‘ When greaterarea With more strength is
2,126,091
2
required, two or more corrugated sheets can be
nested or lapped and longitudinal extension may
be had by lapping the ends of contiguous sheets.
This is a valuable feature.
At or near the region of, overlap between the
portions l0 and H, the structure is ?attened
as at 28, and this ?attened portion slants in
wardly and downwardly and is placed to obtain
the most advantageous thrust transmission and
10 distribution to the footer.
On this portion 28 is suitably secured an an
gle iron 29 as an abutment for the foot of the
arch.
This abutment extends the full length
are closed by plates 53, and such plates are used
for bracing the elements at points intermediately
of their ends. The abutment is indicated at 55,
the arch at 56. The arch is riveted as at 51 to
the channel iron abutment. The corrugations of 5
the elements 50, 5| are nested and can be slid
on one another to vary the thrust area.
a valuable feature.
This is
The elements 5| and elements 53 together
form a hollow box-like construction providing an 1O
open side which faces downwardly and outwardly.
The construction not only gives a broad area of
thrust contact, but serves to con?ne and com
of the footer and is suitably bolted or riveted pact the material and prevent lateral spreading.
This box-like concavity has a relatively large to- 15
15 as indicated at 30. Its concave side faces up
tal concave surface area.
wardly and toward its companion of the oppo
The elements 22 in combination act in a similar
site side, see Figure 2. The resultant of load may‘
be generally represented by the line 3| which lies manner not only to prevent ?attening of the
between the margins 32, 33 of the concave ground
20 engaging thrust surface.
Means is provided for cross-connecting the
thrust members to prevent separation and to
equalize the load. This means includes angle
irons 40 which may have the form of a channel
25 iron. In this instance three irons are used, but
it is understood that any number may be used,
and the number will be varied to correspond to
the number of trusses used. Sets of cross irons
and trusses are composed of three elements ly
ing
in the same vertical plane. The ends of the
30
irons 40 are connected by suitable fastening de
vices 4|, 42.
The, fastener 4| passes through
the abutment iron 29. and the fastener 42 passes
through the vertical iron 2|. Braces or struts
45 are arranged at the inner sides of the footer
35
and connect the cross members 40 with the
flanges of the elements 2| by means of rivets
passing through elements I I. The horizontal di
mension of Ill‘, the vertical dimension of H and
lengths of these elements vary as before
4.0 the
stated with the bearing power of the soil and.
with the load. The elements ID in this case are
shown as separate elements overlapped as at 41
and this is a preferred way of constructing this
. member rather than by making it in a single
piece. It. has the advantage that the smaller
parts are. easier to handle and to ship and to
assemble, either in singles or nested pairs,’ or in
end lapped relation. The element || extending.
; vertically in the ground prevents undercutting of
the bridge at this point and acts as well as a
thrust surface and acts- for con?ning the mate
rial. An unusually large thrust area is provided
structure but to provide a boxing effect whereby
to con?ne and prevent lateral spread of the ma— 20
terial.
An important feature is to have each foot of
the arch apply its thrust to a hollow or trough
like member having its open side directed out
wardly and downwardly.
speci?c construction shown, and may be broadly
said to consist of the combination of an arch
with footers having outwardly and downwardly
concave ground engaging surfaces. The box-like 30
configuration is also important. The use of foot
ers having outwardly and downwardly directed
concave faces or recesses, with or without box
like con?guration is believed to be new.
Figure '7 diagrammatically illustrates the rela 35
tive positions of the footers with respect tothe
arch. In this ?gure, the line a—a indicates the
resultant line of force imposed upon the footer
by the arch and the line b-b represents a plane
intersecting the edges of the footer, and which
line b-—-b it will be noted, is substantially at right
angles to the line w——a.
In Figure '7, X represents the span of the arch
and Y, the rise. The inclination of the line H
will vary in accordance with changes in the 45
values of X and Y. In other words, if the rise
Y is increased in height, without increasing X,
the resultant line a—a will be of less angle with
respect to the vertical. Conversely, as the rise
is lowered and the span increased, the line a-a
will be disposed at a greater angle with respect
by the concavities. The braces 45 prevent turn
to the vertical. It will thus be noted that the
footers are always set at an angle, determined
by the resultant line of force a¢—a. When thus
. ing of the structure and their ?anges as well as
‘ the ?anges of the elements 4|! resist sinking and
ance to spreading and settling of the arch and
displacement.
They thus add thrust resisting
surface to the device as a whole.
. The arches of course as wellas the footing may
vary in size, the arches may have a span of seven
or eight feet and may be twenty-?ve or thirty
feet in length. The device of course being con
structed to take care of the load but the ar
rangement of the outer and downwardly faced
concave surfaces is an important feature of the
' invention as is also the use of corrugations and
of angle or channel irons for increasing thrust
surface and preventing spread displacement etc.
In the form illustrated in Figure 5 the out
7.04
wardly downwardly faced concaved footersur
faces are providedby curving a corrugated metal
element. The corrugations extend circumferen
tially in this case.
The curved elements are
lapped; One element is indicated at 50, the other
at 5|. Rivets 52 secure the elements. The ends
25
The invention is therefore broader than the
positioned, they will offer the maximum resist
55
will readily support the load imposed on the arch
without the use of expensive cement work or
masonry, now commonly used in structures of
60
this character.
I claim as my invention:
1. A device of the class described comprising, a
pair of transversely spaced footers each arched
and disposed to provide an outwardly downward
ly directed concavity, means related as chords to
the concave surface of and respectively connect
ing the outer marginal portions of each footer in
a manner to resist strains tending to lessen the
degree of concavity, means cross-connecting the
footers to prevent separation under load,‘ each 70
footer having an arch-foot-receiving abutment
placed to transmit the thrust to the footer so as
to be distributed most advantageously relatively
to the concave surface.
2. A device of the class described comprising, a 75
2,126,091
pair of transversely spaced footers each compris
ing a sheet of corrugated metal with the corru
gations running vlongitudinally, each footer be
ing arched and disposed to provide an outwardly
downwardly directed concavity, means related as
, chords to the concave surface of and respectively
connecting the outer marginal portions of each
footer in a manner to resist strains tending to
lessen the degree of concavity, means cross-con
10 necting the footers to prevent separation under
load, each footer having an arch-foot-receiving
abutment placed to transmit the thrust to the‘
footer so as to be distributedmostadvantageously
‘relatively to the concave surface.
15
3. A device of the class described comprising,
a pair of transversely spaced footers each com
20
prising two overlapped sheets of corrugated metal
with the corrugations running‘ longitudinally,
one sheet being vertically disposed and one be
3
being arched and disposed to ‘provide an out
wardly downwardly directed concavity, means re
lated as chords to and respectively connecting the
outer marginal portions of each footer in a man
ner to resist strains tending to lessen the degree
of concavity, means cross-connecting the footers
to prevent separation under load, each footer
having secured thereto about midway between its
upper and lower margins a longitudinally extend
ing reenforcing angle iron with the concave side 10
facing inwardly and upwardly and acting as an
arch-foot-receiving abutment placed to transmit
the thrust to the footer so as to be distributed
most advantageously relatively to the concave
surface.
~
6. In a structure of the class described,‘ an
arch, a footer for supporting each leg of the arch,
15
said footers being substantially trough-shaped in
cross section, and means for securing said footers
ing horizontally disposed, said sheets cooperating I to
the lower edges of the. legs of the arch with
and being disposed to provide an outwardly
their concave sides facing outwardly and down 20
downwardly directed concavity, means related as
chords to the concavity and respectively connect
ing the marginal portions of each footer in a
25 manner to resist strains tending to lessen the de—
gree of concavity, means cross-connecting the
footers to prevent separation under load, each
footer having an arch-foot receiving abutment‘
disposed in the region of the overlap of the sheets
30 to transmit the thrustto the footer so as to be
distributed most advantageously relatively to the
concave surface.
,
4.‘In a device of the class described compris-'
‘ing, a pair of transversely spaced footers each
35 arched to provide an outwardly downwardly di
rected concavity, irons related as chords to the
concave surface of and connecting the marginal
portions of each footer in a manner to resist
strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity,
40 and irons cross-connecting the footers to prevent
separation under load, each footer havingan
arch-foot-abutment iron placed to transmit the
thrust to the footer so as to be distributed over
the concave surface, the chord-forming and cross
45 connecting irons providing concave sides facing
downwardly, and arch-foot abutment irons pro
viding opposingly faced upwardly directed con
cave
sides.
a
_
i
5. Ina device of the class described comprising
50 ‘a pair of transversely spaced footers each com
prising a ‘sheet of corrugated metal with the cor
rugations running longitudinally, each member
wardly in the general directions of the resultant
lines of thrust thereon by the arch, whereby the
footers will offer maximum resistance to settling
and spreading of the arch.
'7. In a structure of the class- described, an
arch, a footer secured to the lower edge of each
leg of the arch, each footer being trough-shaped
in cross section and having a concave load sup
porting surface facing in the general direction 30
of the resultant line of thrust thereon by the
arch, whereby the footers will offer maximum re—
sistance to settling and spreading of the arch,
and means whereby the effective area of the load
supporting surfaces of the footers may be varied 35
in accordance with the load to be supported, by
the arch or the character of the material upon '
which the arch is to be supported.
8. In a structure of the class described, an
arch, a footer for supporting each side of the
arch, said footers being formed of corrugated
sheet metal curved to provide inverted trough
ike members having the corrugations running
crosswise thereof, thereby to strengthen said
members against straightening, when subjected
to a load, and said footers having means on their
outer convexed surfaces for securing thereto the ,'
lower edges of the arch and whereby the concave
sides of the footers will face in the general di
rection of the resultant lines of force imposed on
50
.said footers by the arch.
HOWARD S. CLAYBAUGH.
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