Патент USA US2126091код для вставки
' "Aug. 9, 1938., H. s. CLAYBAUGH' 2,126,091 FOOTER CONSTRUCTION Filed March 6, 1937 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR H WARD 6. C LAYBAU 6H BY ATTO FYNEYEI Aug“ 9» 1938- H. s. CLAYBAUGH 2,126,091 FOOTER CONSTRUCTION Filed March 6, 1937 2' Sheets-Sheet z INvENTdR HOWARD vS-CLAYBAUGH ATTORNEYS Patented Aug. 9, 1938 2,126,091 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ' 2,126,091 - FOOTER CONSTRUCTION ' Howard S. Claybaugh, Minneapolis, Minn., as signor ‘to Lyle Culvert & Pipe Company, Min neapolis, Minn., a corporation of Minnesota Application March 6, 1937, Serial No. 129,433 8 Claims. (Cl. 61-16) This invention relates to improvements in ber connected to the abutment iron of the footer; footers or abutments or foundations adapted for supporting metallic arches in the formation of bridges, culverts, and drainage structures of any ‘ kind, large or small. Heretoforev such footings have generally been constructed of concrete, or expensive material dif?cult and costly to install. ‘ - This invention provides a structure particu; 10“ larly adapted for that type of bridge or arch com posed of corrugated plates, both standard or mul tiplate construction in which a number of plates can be connected together in lapped relation. By multiple construction is meant heavy gauge material in which the corrugations are wider and deeper. ‘ One of the objects of this invention is to make footers of corrugated metal, with the corruga tions extending either crosswise or lengthwise 20 of the footers, and using the corrugated mate rial in a manner to obtain reenforcement or ex~ tension and increased area of contact with the earth. Uncorrugated or plain sheets can how ever be used, and no limitation is intended. The size of the footer depends entirely on the hear ing power of the soil, it being of course under stood that the diiferent types of soils require dif ferent widths or areas of thrust surface, for sup porting the load of a given weight of bridge or 30 arch. w An important feature of the invention is the provision of the outwardly and downwardly fac ing concave elements as footers, the areas of which can be varied thereby providing thrust 35 surfaces of suitable area. Another feature is the ' manner of bracing the concave surface-forming elements to prevent ?attening under stress. , Features of the invention include all details of construction shown along with the broader 40 ideas of means inherent in the disclosure. ‘ Objects, advantages and features will appear in the description of the drawings forming a part of this‘ application, and in said drawings, Figure 1 is a sectional elevation showing the device imbedded in the earth and supporting a corrugated metal arch which in turn supports a road flanked by a brick facing; Figure 2 is a perspective view of one form of my invention showing a corrugated arch element 501 in operative relation thereto; a ‘ Figure 3 is a detail cross-section of one of the footers, taken on line 3—3 of Figure 4; Figure 4 is a sectional elevation looking from line 4-4 toward the inner side of one of the 55 i members and showing the corrugated arch mem Figure 5 is a perspective view of a modi?ca tion in which two corrugated elements are over lapped for reenforcement and for varying the thrust area ‘of the footer; Figure 6 is a perspective view of the portion of the structure of Figure 5, and Figure '7 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the relative position of the footer with respect to the resultant line of force of the arch thereon. Referring ?rst to Figure 1, numeral I indicates a corrugated or other suitable metal arch ele ment in which the long dimension of the corru gations run circumferentially, see Figure 2. This arch supports suitable material of brick, stone 15 or earth work 2 which may represent the road for which the arch is a culvert-forming element. Numeral 3 generally indicates the unit of this invention which includes two transversely spaced arch thrust-sustaining footers. These footers are cross-connected to prevent separation. _ Referring to Figure 3 each footer is herein shown as composed of two sheets of corrugated steel with the long dimension of the corruga tions extending lengthwise of the member. 7 A 25 single sheet may be used and be bent at right angles substantially to form a horizontal por tion in and vertical portion II, the sheet as thus bent being so disposed as to provide a downward-‘ ly outwardly faced concavity, the total surface area of which is relatively large, and the surface area of which can be varied. 30' ' The areas of these surfaces of course depend entirely upon the bearing power of the soil, and will vary with different types of soils and with the amount of load. In this instance the cor rugated sheet is placed on and attached to a truss frame composed of a horizontal angle iron 20, a vertical angle iron 2|, the irons being mitered and connected as by welding at 25.‘ They are braced by a‘ diagonal member 22, related to the concave surface, formed by the elements I0, If, as the chord to its arc and designed to resist strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity of the thrust sustaining faces of the footer. The structure constituted by, elementsZEl, 2| and 22 may be considered a bracket and any suit able number of such brackets or trusses may be spaced lengthwise of each footer. For a short footer three is a good number, one placed at 50 each end and one in'the middle; These elements are conveniently constructed of angle iron or may be constructed of channel iron. Numerals 26 indicate rivets securing the metal to the brack~ ets.‘ When greaterarea With more strength is 2,126,091 2 required, two or more corrugated sheets can be nested or lapped and longitudinal extension may be had by lapping the ends of contiguous sheets. This is a valuable feature. At or near the region of, overlap between the portions l0 and H, the structure is ?attened as at 28, and this ?attened portion slants in wardly and downwardly and is placed to obtain the most advantageous thrust transmission and 10 distribution to the footer. On this portion 28 is suitably secured an an gle iron 29 as an abutment for the foot of the arch. This abutment extends the full length are closed by plates 53, and such plates are used for bracing the elements at points intermediately of their ends. The abutment is indicated at 55, the arch at 56. The arch is riveted as at 51 to the channel iron abutment. The corrugations of 5 the elements 50, 5| are nested and can be slid on one another to vary the thrust area. a valuable feature. This is The elements 5| and elements 53 together form a hollow box-like construction providing an 1O open side which faces downwardly and outwardly. The construction not only gives a broad area of thrust contact, but serves to con?ne and com of the footer and is suitably bolted or riveted pact the material and prevent lateral spreading. This box-like concavity has a relatively large to- 15 15 as indicated at 30. Its concave side faces up tal concave surface area. wardly and toward its companion of the oppo The elements 22 in combination act in a similar site side, see Figure 2. The resultant of load may‘ be generally represented by the line 3| which lies manner not only to prevent ?attening of the between the margins 32, 33 of the concave ground 20 engaging thrust surface. Means is provided for cross-connecting the thrust members to prevent separation and to equalize the load. This means includes angle irons 40 which may have the form of a channel 25 iron. In this instance three irons are used, but it is understood that any number may be used, and the number will be varied to correspond to the number of trusses used. Sets of cross irons and trusses are composed of three elements ly ing in the same vertical plane. The ends of the 30 irons 40 are connected by suitable fastening de vices 4|, 42. The, fastener 4| passes through the abutment iron 29. and the fastener 42 passes through the vertical iron 2|. Braces or struts 45 are arranged at the inner sides of the footer 35 and connect the cross members 40 with the flanges of the elements 2| by means of rivets passing through elements I I. The horizontal di mension of Ill‘, the vertical dimension of H and lengths of these elements vary as before 4.0 the stated with the bearing power of the soil and. with the load. The elements ID in this case are shown as separate elements overlapped as at 41 and this is a preferred way of constructing this . member rather than by making it in a single piece. It. has the advantage that the smaller parts are. easier to handle and to ship and to assemble, either in singles or nested pairs,’ or in end lapped relation. The element || extending. ; vertically in the ground prevents undercutting of the bridge at this point and acts as well as a thrust surface and acts- for con?ning the mate rial. An unusually large thrust area is provided structure but to provide a boxing effect whereby to con?ne and prevent lateral spread of the ma— 20 terial. An important feature is to have each foot of the arch apply its thrust to a hollow or trough like member having its open side directed out wardly and downwardly. speci?c construction shown, and may be broadly said to consist of the combination of an arch with footers having outwardly and downwardly concave ground engaging surfaces. The box-like 30 configuration is also important. The use of foot ers having outwardly and downwardly directed concave faces or recesses, with or without box like con?guration is believed to be new. Figure '7 diagrammatically illustrates the rela 35 tive positions of the footers with respect tothe arch. In this ?gure, the line a—a indicates the resultant line of force imposed upon the footer by the arch and the line b-b represents a plane intersecting the edges of the footer, and which line b-—-b it will be noted, is substantially at right angles to the line w——a. In Figure '7, X represents the span of the arch and Y, the rise. The inclination of the line H will vary in accordance with changes in the 45 values of X and Y. In other words, if the rise Y is increased in height, without increasing X, the resultant line a—a will be of less angle with respect to the vertical. Conversely, as the rise is lowered and the span increased, the line a-a will be disposed at a greater angle with respect by the concavities. The braces 45 prevent turn to the vertical. It will thus be noted that the footers are always set at an angle, determined by the resultant line of force a¢—a. When thus . ing of the structure and their ?anges as well as ‘ the ?anges of the elements 4|! resist sinking and ance to spreading and settling of the arch and displacement. They thus add thrust resisting surface to the device as a whole. . The arches of course as wellas the footing may vary in size, the arches may have a span of seven or eight feet and may be twenty-?ve or thirty feet in length. The device of course being con structed to take care of the load but the ar rangement of the outer and downwardly faced concave surfaces is an important feature of the ' invention as is also the use of corrugations and of angle or channel irons for increasing thrust surface and preventing spread displacement etc. In the form illustrated in Figure 5 the out 7.04 wardly downwardly faced concaved footersur faces are providedby curving a corrugated metal element. The corrugations extend circumferen tially in this case. The curved elements are lapped; One element is indicated at 50, the other at 5|. Rivets 52 secure the elements. The ends 25 The invention is therefore broader than the positioned, they will offer the maximum resist 55 will readily support the load imposed on the arch without the use of expensive cement work or masonry, now commonly used in structures of 60 this character. I claim as my invention: 1. A device of the class described comprising, a pair of transversely spaced footers each arched and disposed to provide an outwardly downward ly directed concavity, means related as chords to the concave surface of and respectively connect ing the outer marginal portions of each footer in a manner to resist strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity, means cross-connecting the footers to prevent separation under load,‘ each 70 footer having an arch-foot-receiving abutment placed to transmit the thrust to the footer so as to be distributed most advantageously relatively to the concave surface. 2. A device of the class described comprising, a 75 2,126,091 pair of transversely spaced footers each compris ing a sheet of corrugated metal with the corru gations running vlongitudinally, each footer be ing arched and disposed to provide an outwardly downwardly directed concavity, means related as , chords to the concave surface of and respectively connecting the outer marginal portions of each footer in a manner to resist strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity, means cross-con 10 necting the footers to prevent separation under load, each footer having an arch-foot-receiving abutment placed to transmit the thrust to the‘ footer so as to be distributedmostadvantageously ‘relatively to the concave surface. 15 3. A device of the class described comprising, a pair of transversely spaced footers each com 20 prising two overlapped sheets of corrugated metal with the corrugations running‘ longitudinally, one sheet being vertically disposed and one be 3 being arched and disposed to ‘provide an out wardly downwardly directed concavity, means re lated as chords to and respectively connecting the outer marginal portions of each footer in a man ner to resist strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity, means cross-connecting the footers to prevent separation under load, each footer having secured thereto about midway between its upper and lower margins a longitudinally extend ing reenforcing angle iron with the concave side 10 facing inwardly and upwardly and acting as an arch-foot-receiving abutment placed to transmit the thrust to the footer so as to be distributed most advantageously relatively to the concave surface. ~ 6. In a structure of the class described,‘ an arch, a footer for supporting each leg of the arch, 15 said footers being substantially trough-shaped in cross section, and means for securing said footers ing horizontally disposed, said sheets cooperating I to the lower edges of the. legs of the arch with and being disposed to provide an outwardly their concave sides facing outwardly and down 20 downwardly directed concavity, means related as chords to the concavity and respectively connect ing the marginal portions of each footer in a 25 manner to resist strains tending to lessen the de— gree of concavity, means cross-connecting the footers to prevent separation under load, each footer having an arch-foot receiving abutment‘ disposed in the region of the overlap of the sheets 30 to transmit the thrustto the footer so as to be distributed most advantageously relatively to the concave surface. , 4.‘In a device of the class described compris-' ‘ing, a pair of transversely spaced footers each 35 arched to provide an outwardly downwardly di rected concavity, irons related as chords to the concave surface of and connecting the marginal portions of each footer in a manner to resist strains tending to lessen the degree of concavity, 40 and irons cross-connecting the footers to prevent separation under load, each footer havingan arch-foot-abutment iron placed to transmit the thrust to the footer so as to be distributed over the concave surface, the chord-forming and cross 45 connecting irons providing concave sides facing downwardly, and arch-foot abutment irons pro viding opposingly faced upwardly directed con cave sides. a _ i 5. Ina device of the class described comprising 50 ‘a pair of transversely spaced footers each com prising a ‘sheet of corrugated metal with the cor rugations running longitudinally, each member wardly in the general directions of the resultant lines of thrust thereon by the arch, whereby the footers will offer maximum resistance to settling and spreading of the arch. '7. In a structure of the class- described, an arch, a footer secured to the lower edge of each leg of the arch, each footer being trough-shaped in cross section and having a concave load sup porting surface facing in the general direction 30 of the resultant line of thrust thereon by the arch, whereby the footers will offer maximum re— sistance to settling and spreading of the arch, and means whereby the effective area of the load supporting surfaces of the footers may be varied 35 in accordance with the load to be supported, by the arch or the character of the material upon ' which the arch is to be supported. 8. In a structure of the class described, an arch, a footer for supporting each side of the arch, said footers being formed of corrugated sheet metal curved to provide inverted trough ike members having the corrugations running crosswise thereof, thereby to strengthen said members against straightening, when subjected to a load, and said footers having means on their outer convexed surfaces for securing thereto the ,' lower edges of the arch and whereby the concave sides of the footers will face in the general di rection of the resultant lines of force imposed on 50 .said footers by the arch. HOWARD S. CLAYBAUGH.