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Патент USA US2126150

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Aug. 9_, 1938.
Filed Sept. 30, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet >1
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., 9, 1938.
Filed Sept. 30, 1935
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
W‘ ,e- 5764/55
Patented Aug. 9, I938
Albert R. Stryker, Mariemont, Ohio, assignor of
one-half to Chester Tietig, Covington, Ky.
Application September 30, 1935, Serial No. 42.7%
r Claims. ' (Cl. 48-210) ‘
This invention relates to a process-for produc
ing and reforming combustible gases.
Among the objects of the invention are to
provide a process for making any gas of prede
producer-retort.v The shell in has preferably the
high, double conical shape shown and in prac
termined composition and heating valuefrom any tice may be 80 to 90 ‘feet high and 11 feet in a
carbonaceous volatilizable and combustible ma
diameter at its widest zone tapering to about 4
terial that is capable of being very ?nely divided ‘feet in diameter at the top. The invention is
throughout a wide range of hydrogen content of
not limited to such dimensions. The shell is
such gases.
supported by three outside legs which‘ are not
One object isvto provide a process for volatil
shown. Support of this character leaves a free in
izing hydrocarbonaceous matter for reforming ' space
i l between the bottom of the shell and a
the resulting gas in the same apparatus.
wall H which surrounds it at, the base,
Another object is to provide a process in which and also allows free communication between the‘
the rate and extent of reformation of the gas is
' under exact control.
Another object is to provide a process in which
the carbon produced by reformation of gas is de
posited in an advantageous position for its uti
lization in the further production of gas.
Another object is to provide a process for pro
ducing industrially pure hydrogen from hydro
carbon raw material.
Another object is to utilize for such purposes
certain low grade carbonaceous materials which
will be hereinafter mentioned and which have
not heretofore been utilizable to produce gases
of high heating value or'high hydrogen content.
My apparatus is an improvement on, the'sub
ject matter of my U. S. Patent 1,855,034 and the
improvement comprises means for obtaining par
tially or-completely reformed gases from various
levels of the solid fuel bed, which levels can be
easily selected.
Brie?y stated, my process comprises passing
divided volatilizable and/or combustible
at hydro-carbonaceous
material thru a highly heat
ed zone then thru an incandescent bed of solid
fuel and cracking the volatile constituents there
in and then leading out the gas desired from that
level of the fuel bed at which it is formed.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, Fig.
1 is a somewhat diagrammatic elevation, partly
in section, of a producer-retort according to my
invention, and the accessories necessary for its
producer as well as a retort. Ill and its acces
sories are therefore hereinafter referred to as a.
ducer-retort along the line 2—-2 of Fig. 1 and
Fig. 3 is a detail in vertical section of the pro
Fig. 4 is a front elevation of one of the pierced
refractory bricks ‘used at the fuelwzone for lead
Referring again to Fig. 1, I0 is a retort shell
55 which also serves as the main memberof a gas
of the circular wall I 2 into an ash pit as the grate - '
revolves. No novelty is claimed for the rotary
grate or ash handling arrangement per se.
Shell it is provided with a plurality of inclined
ports it for charging and maintaining the fuel 30
These are fed with coal from a- hopper i9
from which a branched delivery pipe 20 leads,
and which ends in a plurality of dump gates 2!;
From the latter charging buckets 22 can be ?lled
and these can be dumped thru the ports it after 35
‘hydraulically controlled valves 23 covering the
ports, are opened. A control board 24 is pro
vided for operating these valves. Such fuel as
is charged in thru ports I8 for the purpose of
establishing and maintaining the fuel bed, is 40
hereinafter called “maintenance fuel.”
At the top of shell II! is a port 25. thru which
solid fuel intended to-operate the gas making
process is charged. Such fuel may be anything
If it is liquid it is charged in thru pipe
26; if it is gaseous thru pipe 21. One or more
kinds of fuel can be here introduced together or
intermittently. or singly.‘ The fuel introduced at
50' ducer-retort taken. on the line 3-3, of Fig. 2.
ing off the gas.
fall into the space Ill are pushed over the rim 25
of a hydrocarbonaceous nature and need not be 45
Fig. 2 is a horizontal cross section of the pro
shows the walls of the fuel zone.
inside of the shell and the space within wall M
which in operation is ?lled with water. Shell it
it is of steel construction and is refractory lined
except near the bottom, where there is a zone
that is encircled by a water jacket i3, A bed of
vfuel ll'l, preferably coal, is carried in the lower
conical end up to the line 2-2, i. e., just under 20
an air inlet it which is tangential to the shell.
At the base of the shell there is a rotary eccen
tric grate iii, driven by an electric motor l6 and
a scraper blade (not shown). The ashes which
the top of the retort for, operating the process, I 50
call “operating fuel”. l.
At the upper left side of Fig. 1 there is shown a
coal powdering plant 28 which is conventional.
It has ‘a delivery hopper 29 for coal dust'which
dust is transferred to the producer-retort by 557
means of screw'conveyor 30. 3| is a motor driven
spreader drive. As the dust falls it encounter
revolving spreader 32 which can also serve as a
valve to close port 25 when desired. 'Below the
top of shell ll] there is an o?take 33 which runs
thru a waste heat boiler 34 having a steam drum
35 and a steam delivery pipe 36 in which there
is a diaphragm regulating valve 31, said pipe
carrying steam to a turbine 61. Offtake 33 runs
10 to a wash box 39 having an outwardly opening
hydraulically operated flap valve 40, a gas de
livery pipe 4i and a water replenishing and dust
disposal system 42. Suitable valves 43 may be
arranged in the gas delivery pipe.
In the offtake 33 between the. top of shell l0
and waste heat boiler 34, there is a hot valve 44,
i. e., a valve adapted to operate at high tempera
tures. It is controlled by a. hydraulic cylinder
_and piston 45 and its function is to close off the»
o?take 33 during the gas making step of .the
About the shell in at the upper part of the
zone of maintenance fuel there is a plurality
of circular manifolds 43. Each of these connects
to a downcoming manifold 41 and each circular
manifold may be shut off from the latter by a
valve 48. Each circular manifold taps the shell
in at four equidistant points. The circular mani
folds may be of any selected number, but each
30 is at a different level and connects by means of
a short extension 49 to a gas channel 53 which is
within the shell ill at a point below the top of
the fuel bed. The inner wall of channel 50 is
While my process may be ‘carried out in other
apparatus, when it is executed in that shown
the operation is as follows:
Lump fuel, preferably coal, but permisslbly coke
is ?rst charged into the producer-retort and ig
The degree of subdivision of this fuel
should be between pea‘(1/2" x 3A") and furnace
lump (4" x 6").
After ignition ,the air blast is turned on from
pipes 58 and 62 and the charging process is con 10
tinued until the fuel bed reaches the desired level,
which is thereafter maintained. Secondary air
fed in through tangential opening I4 is limited in
amount so as to be only sufficient to burn the CO
above the fuel bed to CO2. Heating is thus con 16
tinued until the producer retort above the fuel
bed is heated at least in part to about 1400° F. plus
400° or minus 100°. During this operation valves
44 and 40 are open permitting smoke to be vented
off thru a stack 12 without going thru the water 20
in the wash box.
As soon as ash formation or
clinker formation begins electric _motor I6 is
started, thereby rotating eccentric grate l5 so as
to catch and crush clinkers between the grate
and the shell H]. The scraper blade (not shown)
transfers ash from the space between the ring‘ l3
and the shell 80 to an annular ash pit surround
ing same.
Enough steam has now accumulated in waste
one of. which is shown in front elevation in Fig. 4
and several in section in Fig. 3 and in plan in
heat boiler 34 to operate exhauster 61 thru its 30
turbine until the next “blow" or healing period.
If the quantity of steam should be insufficient
auxiliary energy may be supplied from without
the system. Exhauster 61 is now started, blower
53 stopped, valves 63, 54 and 44 closed, thereby
automatically closing valve 40 and all valves in
the gas discharge lines 41, 6B and 4! are opened;
Fig. 2.
those in' the latter line at least to some consid- '
de?ned by a circular row or rows of the pierced
refractory brick 5|,’ preferably of silicon carbide,
Each brick or block 5| is provided with three erable extent.
Finely divided operating fuel is now fed from 43:3
rows of three transverse holes 52. The holes
communicate with a longitudinal channel 53 conveyor 33, thru opening 25 into the top of the
which extends along the rear of the block, this producer-retort and allowed to fall as freely as ‘
channel constituting a means whereby the gas it may but still under in?uence of the suction
from the holes 52 may be collected into a single created by exhauster 61, to the top of the fuel
Carbonizatlon and liberation of gas takes
45 stream. In my apparatus channel 50 may be bed.
place during the descent and after the particles
identical with channel 53 or it may be and prefer
ably is a channel additional thereto but in free have come to rest on the surface of the fuel bed
communication therewith at all points. Suitable or in its interstices. Charging of operating fuel
dividing blocks 54 are shown which may also be is so conducted that a minimum of air is ad-,
employed to support the brickwork from the shell ~ mitted with the fuel, i. e., the sealing and revolv
l0 and these supports may be of any suitable ing spreading bell 32 is raised to a point that
form. The brickwork is however provided with
tongues 55 and grooves 56 which contribute to
its stability.
The depth of the gas oiftakes below the level
will allow continuous .dropping into the pro
ducer-retort of the desired amount of fuel with
- little or no‘ air.
Gas delivery pipe 80 runs to a steam-turbine 55
driven exhauster 61 and before it reaches the lat
of the fuel bed is of importance. If a bed of
ter, it is joined by'gas delivery pipe 41 from the
.maintenance fuel of 9 to 11 feet deep is used, .
the topo?take, .i. e., the top rows of pierced
brick should be from 2 to 3 feet below the top
60 of the _fuel bed, the second from 3 to 5 feet below
and the third from 5 to 7 feet below.
Beneath the grate l5 there is a generally conical
manifolds 43. From the exhauster pipe 60 ex
tends to the wash box 39.
Steam for driving the exhauster 61 is supplied 60
from the steam drum 35 of- waste-heat boiler 34 ‘
thru a pipe 68in which there is a. diaphragm
controlled spring loaded regulating valve 31
inverted bell 51 into which an. air‘delivery pipe 58 ' shown in exaggerated size on Fig. 1.
from a blower 53 and a gas exit pipe 50 are fitted.
There is also a steam supply pipe 6| ?tted into
This valve
is conventional and may be either the one sold 65
by the Chaplin-Fulton Mfg. Co. of- Pittsburgh,‘
the exit end of the air pipe 58. The latter pipe
has a branch 62 which connects with the tangen
tial air inlet l4 above the fuel bed. Both air
Pa., under the name of "Duplex Steam Control
for Gas'Producers” or that made by the' Fisher
pipes are provided with shutoff valves 33 and 84
1560, "Low' Pressure Diaphragm Actuated Valve." 70.
respectively and butter?ies 35 and 63 respec
A steam'supply pipe ‘I2 having a valve 13 is
arranged near- the top of shell III for a. purpose
.75 later to be described.
Governor Co.'_.o'f Marshalltown, Iowa. as Type
. From the diaphragm chamber 10 of valve 31 a
pressure-communication pipe‘ 'Il ms to the in
terlor of shell ID to a point just above the fuel
bed. The valve 31 is so arranged that the in
terior of shell I. shall maintain as closely as pos
Bible 11. minus pressure of 0.2 inch of water.
This value may be varied at the will of the op—
While the operation of my apparatus is con
but is recommended for ordinary opera
tion. The valve regulates the steam supply to tinuous during the gas making period, that pe
the exhauster turbine so that if the pressure in. riod lasts only until there is insufficient heat left
shell Ill rises to an undesired value, more steam in the upper walls of the producer-retort to drive 5
will be admitted to the turbine, the exhauster off the vol'atile‘rnatter from the operating fuel
will increase its speed and consequently lower dropped past them. When this occurs, the ex
hauster B1 is either shut down or valved off.
the pressure within the shell Ill.
The level of the fuel bed from which the gas Valves 14 and 13 are preferably closed, ports l8
is to be taken is selected by opening the valves and .25 are closed and hot valve 44 is opened. 10
W at the levels desired to withdraw gas thru Valves 43 are closed. Blower 59 is started and
the holes and channels in the pierced bricks or “,, air fed to the producer-retort both above and
opening a valve '83 in line 6t. Any desired blend below the fuel bed. The tangential inclination
of gas may be made by regulating valves 48 or of port I 4 causes the air to have a scurilng action
- orator,
cation of its nearly pure hydrogen composition.
‘it and if desired also by the use of a valve 74
in pipe M.
The lower the, level selected, the
,higher will be the hydrogen content of the gas
and ii’ the entire depth of bed is utilized bywith
W drawing gas exclusively from the bell 51, indus
trially pure hydrogen will be the product. In any
._ case the gas output passes thru a portion of pipe
it below the exhauster and the remainder of said
pipe above the exhauster to be washed in wash
box M and to make its exit from pipe ti.
The operating fuel may be any kind of coal,
anthracite, bituminous, lignite, mine refuse and
off season stocks. It may also be petroleum oil
or its fractions including fuel oil, gas oil, still
bottoms, gasoline, kerosene, butane,’ ethylene and
others. Natural gas and re?nery gas may be used
since, while these substances undergo a diminu»
tion oil’ heating value when put thru my process.
they also undergo a considerable permanent ex
dd pansion in volume. Wood ?ber,‘ straw, corn
stalks, cocoanut, cottonseed oil, animal fats, fatty
acids, residues from fatty acid distillation, spoiled
fats and any hydrocarbonaceous material capable
of being ?nely divided to prticles of say 1/8”
40 square or smaller, can be used.
The term “hy
drocarbonaceous” as I use it includes fatty car
If freedom from by-products (tars, light oil,
etc.) which might clog city gas lines, is desired
the lower level of the fuel bed should be selected
as the source of the gas.
The lower the level
selected, however, the lower will be the heating
value of the gas obtained, the greater the free
dom from lay-products, the higher the hydrogen
content and the greater the permanent gas vol—
on the walls of the retort and thus any carbonv 15
clinging to the retort walls is e?icientiy burned.
The hot gases produced by the combustion find
their exit thru the o?take or leading off means
33 and in doing so heat the water in'wasteheat
boiler 34 and so to wash box 39. Here, because 20
the gases are under considerable pressure hy
draulically operated valve til opens
and the gases ,
with accompanying smoke and dust, pass up the
stack 12.
‘ A number of common and well known types .,
and combinations of types of gases may be pro
duced in addition to the gases hereinbefore men
tioned. The producer portion of the apparatus
may make either air blown or steam producer gas
independent of or in combination with partially: 30
or wholly ‘reformed hydrocarbon gas, by blowing
air only or air and steam through air inlet 58
and steam supply line Bl. All other connections
remain closed with the exception of o?take valve
and offtake pipe 33 permitting a free ?ow of pro .35
ducer gas to the washbox.
Straight blue gas or combinations of blue gas,
producer gas and partially or wholly reformed
gas may be produced by ‘passing steam only
through the heated fuel bed through steam sup ill)
ply line 6i, and blue gas thus generated is re
moved to the washbox, through oiftake 33 or
.steam may-be admitted to the upper portion of
the retort through seam connection '12 passing
downwardly through the fuel bed and leaving 45
the gas o?take below the grate and allowed to flow
under its own pressure through exhauster bl
and into pipe lill to the washbox.
Oil gas may also be produced by spraying oil
into the upper reaches of the heated retort 50
through pipe 26. With hot valve M open and all
other connections closed the oil gas thus pro
For the production of city gas, of highest heat
ing value, the preferred method would be to take
gas only from the top o?take. For a gas of‘ duced must pass through the washbox under its 7
55 fairly low heating value but carrying little or no
lay-products, gas from the middle or lower side
oil’takes'is to be chosen. For the production of
all hydrogen for process work or for mixing with
other gases for transportation, the offtake below
own pressure.
Oil gas can further be produced and utilized to 55
carburet or enrich producer gas or blue gas be
fore described.
It is evident that if any of the ‘gases described
the grate is to be selected.
, or any combination of gases described“ can be
In the case of reformation of- gaseous fuels, utilized either separately or in combination with 60
with a temperature of 1500” F. at ?rst or top olf
take a 65GB. t. u. coal gas may be cracked back
.to 600 B. t."‘u.
With the same temperature at ?rst offtake and
1700“ F. at the second, a 650 B. t. u. gas may be
cracked back to 500 B.‘ t. u.
With the above temperatures at the ?rst two
oil'takes'and 2000° F. (partially in the incandes-.
70 cent zone) at the third, a 650 B. t. u. gas may be
cracked back to 400 B. t. u.
' Lastly, by drawing the gas thru the entire in
candescentzone (2600°-2800° F.) thru the bot
_ torn oiftake, the gas may be completely cracked
75 to approximately 325 B. t. u. which is an indi
the process of cracking hydrocarbon-gas that
vcarbon deposited in the fuel bed due to cracking
and also residues from solid operating fuels may
be utilized for the production of gas or merely
for the heating of the retort.
Due to the fact that secondary air blast con
nection I4 is tangential to the shell of the retort '
and a swirling motion is imparted to the air it is
possible to properly manipulate butter?y valves
65 and 65 (after ignition is attained above the 70
fuel bed) to pick up solid residue deposited on the
top of the fuel bed after a gas “run” and burn the
?nely divided fuel within the retort much the
same as ?ring a boiler with powdered fuel. The
products of combustion and ash leave through
the oiftake 33 and are vented to the air through
stack 12.
I claim as my invention:
1. That step in the process of making a com
bustible mixture of gases comprising free hydro
gen which comprises dropping ?nely divided
solid hydrocarbonaceous matter thru a space
hot enough and deep enough to volatilize sub
stantially all of the gas producible by the pyroly
4. The process which comprises bringing a
bed of lump fuel to incandescence and the space
above it to a temperature of at least 1400" F.
dropping ?nely divided hydrocarbonaceous fuel
on the top of said bed thru the heated zone
above same, withdrawing combustible gas pro
duced by the pyrolysis of said fuel from a pre
selected level below the top of said bed of lump
fuel and from the side thereof, the gas from‘
each region varying in hydrogen content from
sis of said matter and withdrawing the gas so - that withdrawn from the other regions.
5. The process which comprises dropping thru
produced from a selected level of a fuel bed
maintained at least in part at incandescence at a pyrolyzing zone a ?nely divided hydro-car
the bottom of said space from a region below bonaceous solid fuel onto a bed of lump fuel at
15 the upper surface of said bed.
'2. That step in the process of making a com
bustible mixture of gases comprising free hydro
gen which comprises dropping ?nely divided
hydrocarbonaceous fuel thru a space hot enough
and long enough to volatilize substantially all
of the volatile constituents thereof which can
be freed by the pyrolysis of the said fuel, main
taining a bed of operating fuel at least in part
at incandescence at the lower end of said space
and withdrawing the said gas from a region
below the top of said fuel bed from the sides
' thereof also, simultaneously, from below the bot
tom of said fuel bed and mingling the ‘two
least partially at incandescence, said bed being 15
composed of particles not smaller than pea size
coal and. not larger than lump coal, the bed
being adapted to retain the greater part of the
solid residues of cracking of said ?nely divided
fuel within the interstices of the bed, and then v.
withdrawing from a selected region in said bed
a stream of gaseous products of pyrolysis at a
low velocity from the sides of said bed.
- 6. A process according to claim 5 in which the
operations of gas generation and withdrawal are 25
conducted at a pressure slightly below atmos
'7. That step in the process of making a mix
currents of gas so withdrawn.
3. The process of cracking gas which com
ture of gases comprising free hydrogen, which
prises directing a stream of hydrocarbonaceous
bonaceous fuel thru a space hot enough and
comprises dropping ?nely divided hydrocar
crackable .gas downward thru a bed of fuel hot.
long enough to volatilize substantially all of
_enough to crack said gas and deep enough and
the volatile constituents thereof which can be
composed of particles ?ne enough to retain
freed by the pyrolysis of the said fuel, main
taining a bed of operating fuel at least in part
at incandescence at the lower end of said space
most of the carbon generated by the reaction
and then removing gas which‘ has been cracked
to the‘ extent desired from a selected level and
and withdrawing the said gas from a region
from the sides of said fuel bed, while preventing
further contact of the gas with the fuel bed
below the top of said fuel bed from the sides
during_the step of removal.
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