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Патент USA US2126189

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Aug. 9, 193.8.
v l o. B. GOLDMAN
Filed Deo. 30, 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
Aug, 9, 1938.
Filed Deo. 3o. 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 9, 1938.
_ Filed Dec. 50, 1935
‘5 Sheets-Sheet 5
, ._ APatented Aug. ‘ 9, 1938
_MnANs'roa nnnmNG WELLS
Otto Berger Goldman, Dallas, Tex.
Application neeembell 3o, 1935, serial No. 56,607
r3 claims. (crest-1o)
This invention relates to new and useful im
imposed upon the'bit in passing through the var
provements in methods of and means for drill
ious formations being drilled, the connection be
ing wells.
tween the prime mover and the feeding means
The inventionvis an improvement upon the being such that variations in the speed of rota
method and means for well drilling set forth in tion of the drill stem and bit, due to variations
my Letters Patent No. 1,913,752, issued June 13,
in the character of formation being drilled, will
f be compensated by an immediate adjustment in
One object of the invention is to provide an im
proved method of drilling, wherein the drill bit
is rotated at a substantially constant speed and
preferably at the maximum allowable speed,
the feeding means, whereby a4 substantially con
stant speed of rotation of the drill stem and a
substantially continuous feed thereof will be
which makes for the fastest possible, and thus
.Another object of the invention is to provide
most economical, drilling.
r improved means for rotary drilling which in
An important object of the invention is to pro
vide an improved method of drilling which in
volves constant speed of rotation of the drill bit.
and' wherein variations in the speed of rotation
of the bit, due to variations in the character of
formation being drilled, are reflected in propor.
20 tional variations in the operation of the drill stem
driving means and in the feeding means for the
cludes- a -feeding means connected to the drill
stem and. a counterbalance or compensating 15
means connected to said feeding means and` ex
erting a torque equal to, or preferably greater,
than the torque resulting from the weight of the'
drill stem load, whereby said drill stem is coun
terbalanced; a motor connected with the feeding
means for the operation of the same and serving
drill stem, whereby the speed of rotation of the
to control the lfeed fof the drill bit into the forma
drill bit is maintained substantially constant re
tion being drilled, thereby eliminating the build
gardless of the character of the formation being
ing up of a great momentum due to the weight
of 'the drill stem load and thus eliminating the 25
25 drilled and thereby a faster drilling speed may be
attained than has heretofore been possible.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved drilling method wherein the weight
of `the drill bit on the bottom of the hole is auto
30 matically varied inversely with the hardness of
the formation beingv drilled and wherein -the;
maximum allowable power is delivered to the „bit
at all times.
danger of overfeed.
A construction designed to carry out the in
-vention will be'hereinafter described, togethe
with other features of the invention.
The invention will be more readily understood 30
from a reading of the following specification and
by`- reference to the accompanying drawings, in
which an example of the invention is shown, and
Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide an improved method of rotary drilling where
in the operation of the feeding means for the
carrying out'the improved method constructed
drillstem is automatically controlled by the speed
in accordance with the invention,
of rotation of the drill bit, whereby said means
is operated to provide a continuous feed of said
drill stem.
A further object of. the invention is to provide
,improved means for drilling, coring andreaming
of wells, wher'ein the speed of rotation of the
drill bit is maintained substantially constant,
Figure 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus for
Figure 2 is a plan view and electromechanical
diagram of the complete device,
Figure 3 is an enlarged electromechanical dia
gram, and showing schematically the construc
tion of the various portions of the electrical ap
Figure 4 is an enlarged View, partly in eleva
“ irrespective of the character of formation being
tion and partly in section of the worm, gear and
drilled, while the drilling speed progresses in pro
portion to the variations in the character of the
brake, which control the feed of the draw works,
Figure 5 is a view. similar to Figure 3,- of a
A still further object of the invention is to pro
modified form of apparatus.
vide an improved rotary drilling, mechanism
In the drawings, the _numeral l0 designates 50
which includes a prime mover for rotating the ' the derrick floor on which the conventional drill'
-`„drill stem and bit, and a feeding means connected ing rig is mounted. The rig includes theusual
with and controlled by the speed of said prime rotary table Il, through which the drill stem or
mover for feeding the drill stem into the hole, string of ._pipe l2 extends. The drill Ybit (not
the._prime mover being governed only by the load shown) lis carried on the lower end of the`drill
stem and engages, or bears on, the bottom of the
hole'A. The connection between the rotary ta
ble and drill stem is such that rotation of the
rotary table will rotate the drill stem and the
drill bit carried thereby. lEhe drill stem is
freely movable vertically through the rotary to
wardly from the case 4I and is connected by a
coupling 44 with an electric feed motor 45. It
will be obvious that when the motor 45 is oper
ated, the worm 42 is rotated to drive the worm
gear 49 and rotatethe gear shaft 39. Rotation
of this shaft will rotate the line shaft 34 through
the sprockets 36 and 38 and endless chain 31.
travelling block (not shown) which is suspended » 'I‘he line shaft 34 will, in turn, impart rotation to
by several runs of cable, the dead end of which the drum I4 through the chain 33 and sprockets 10
32 and 34’.
10 is shown at I3. The live end I3' of the cable
For counterbalancing the weight of the drill
is wound on the ordinary draw works drum I4,
and it will be seen that as' said drum is rotated stern and its associate parts, a suitable compen
sating means or counterbalance may be mounted
to pay out the cable, the drill stem will be low
at any point between the feed motor 45 and drum
ered into the hole A.
I4. This compensating means has been shown in 15
stem and bit to perform the drilling operation, a the form of a multiple disk brake 46 which is
mounted in an extension 4 I ’ formed on the Worm
suitable drilling engine I1 is provided. 'I'he en
gine has the usual admission or feed pipe I8 in and gear casing 4I. The brake comprises a plu
which the throttle valve I9 is connected. It is rality of disks 41 rigidly attached to the inside of 20
the extended portion 4I’ of the case, and a plu
20 obvious that adjustment of the valve I9 controls rality of revoluble disks 48 which are secured on
the power of the engine. The engine is provided
with a driving sprocket 20 mounted on the engine the extended end of the worm shaft 43 which is
shaft I1', and an 1endless chain 2I passes overv free to undergo axial movement. It is noted that
this sprocket. The chain also passes over a the stationary disks are alternately mounted with
sprocket2 secured on a transverse 'jack shaft 23 relation to the rotating disks.
- which is mounted in bearing brackets 24. As.
shown in Figures 1 and 2, the shaft 23 is located wound on the drum I4, the weight of said stem
substantially midway between the engine I1 and will tend to rotate the drum I4, whereby the '
rotary table I I, but it is noted that the invention worm will tend to be rotated by said drum. With 30
the mounting of the multiple disk brake on the
30 is not to be limited to any particular- location of
worm shaft, it will be seen that the torque result
any of the parts.
When the engine I1 is operated, the sprocket 20 ing from the weight of the drill stem and its
is rotated, causing rotation of the jack shaft 23 associate parts will cause the worm shaft 43 to
-through the medium of the chain 2I and sprocket move axially to press the disks 48 on the worm
a shaft against the stationary disks 41 secured 35
35 22. The jack shaft also carries a second sprocket
within the casing. The brake is so constructed
25 secured at one end, and this sprocket is con
nected to the driven sprocket 28 of the rotary that the torque of its friction is sufficient to more
table II by an endless chain 21. The driven than neutralize that resulting from the weight
sprocket 26 is keyed on one end of the rotary drive of the stem and its associate parts, whereby said
brake acts as a counterbalance. Therefore, since 40
40 shaft 28, which is supported in suitable bearing
brackets 29. The opposit‘e end of the shaft 28 is 'the stem is countcrbalanced, the rotation of the
operatively connected to the rotary table by draw works drum I4 to pay out the cable I3’ and
means of bevel gears (not shown) , so that rotation
lower the drill stem I2 into the hole is controlled
of said shaft will rotate said table. It will be seen entirely by the feed motor 45. The weight of the
that motion is transmitted from the engine I1 stem is not depended upon to feed the same in
togthe jack shaft 23,*and from this shaft to the the hole. '
rotary drive shaft 28 through the endless chain
It has been the usual practice, in hand drilling,
21 and sprockets 25 and 26, whereby' rotation of to apply a brake to the drum I4 and to inter
the rotary drive shaft 28 andthe resultant rota
mittently release the brake, thereby permitting
tion of the rotary table and of the drill stem and the drum to be rotated to pay out thè cable by
bit is caused b_y the engine, I1. It is pointed out the weight of the drill stem. An automatic
that the engine I1 has no governor and its speed
is controlled by the load imposed upon it which brake-of this type is fully disclosed in my former
load results from the engagement of the drill bit patent, hereinbefore referred to. In such struc
ture, the Weight of the stem is depended upon to
55 with the formation being drilled and the resist
_lower the same, and due to the intermittent re
ance offered to the rotation by such formation.
lease of the brake, the feed of the stem into the
The draw works drum I 4 is fastened on a trans
verse shaft 39 which is journaled in> bearing hole isx intermittent. Also, when the brake is
32 is keyed on the drum released, the weight of the stem and its associated
brackets 3 I. A sprocket
shaft. 'I‘his sprocket has connection through an. parts give an active acceleration to the down feed 60
of the stem,`which results in a high velocity and
endless‘chain 33 with a sprocket 34’ on a trans
verse line shaft 34, which is rotatably supported great momentum. Therefore, when the brake is
ble and has its upper end secured to the usual
in bearing brackets 35. It will be obvious that
- rotation of the line shaft 34 will rotate the drum
65 shaft to rotate said drum' I4, or rotation of said
drum will impart rotation to said line shaft.
~ A second sprocket 36 is secured to the line shaft
34 and an> endless chain 31 passes over this
sprocket and also over a sprocket 38 which is
70 fastened on the end of the shaft 39 of a worm
gear 49. The gear 40 is mounted within a suit
able case 4I which also has a worm 42 mounted
ony a worm shaft 43 in its lower end. The worm
` is iny constant engagement with said worm gear
4I).- One end of the worm shaft 43 extends out
again applied, immediate stopping 'of the down
ward movement of the drill stem is impossible, the
result being that the drill stem over-feeds.
This active acceleration and resultant overfeed
is overcome with the structure herein disclosed by
the counterbalancing of the drill stem. The
multiple disk brake 46 is of such size that it serves
to not -bnly reduce the downward acceleration of 70
the drill stem to zero, but preferably to make the
same negative. Further, by overcoming the
downward acceleration, it is possible to accom
plish a_ continuous feed of the drill stem in the
hole which is positively controlled by the electric 75
through which the drin must pass, it is obvious
'feed motor t5. The rate of the feed may be
that no fixed weight on bottom can be main
faster or slower, but is nevertheless continuous.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that the . tained. That is, as the character of the forma-
tion changes, the weight ,on bottom must change
to attain the proper penetration.` When drill
ing in a hard formation, the weight on bottom
engine drives the rotary table il through the
chains 21‘A and 21, jack shaft 23 and drive shaft
28. 'I'he engine’has no governor and its speed
is controlled only by the load imposed upon the
must be greater than in a soft formation and
¿vice versa; therefore, the weight on bottom
drill bit, which load results from the resistance
must vary according to the formation being
drilled, and this weight must be more or less 10
inversely proportional to the hardness of the
formation. In _addition to the proper penetra
tion, itis imperative, in order to attain the maxi
mum rate of drilling, that the power input to
the' drill bit be maintained substantially con 15
stant and preferably at the maximum allowable,
offered by the formation to the rotation of the
11) bit. The-downward movement of the dril stem
l2, or the feed'of said stem into the hole, is
- controlled by the electric feed motor 45. If said
motor operates at a faster speed, the drum I4
is rotated faster to pay out cable at a faster
Similarly, if the feed motor slows, then
15 . rate.
the cable pay-out is lessened and the stemV is
irrespective of the character of the formation »
fed into the hole at a slower rate. The weight,
or pressure,'of the bit on the bottom of the holeA
through- which it is passing. Since the power
of the drilling engine, at a fixed position _of the
throttle, varies with its speed, it is obvious that 20
constant speed of rotation of the bit, together
is, of course, regulated by the rate of feed of
20 the stem, relative to the rate at which the bit
digs od.
For varying the speed of the electric feed mo
- with proper penetration is necessary to fastest
VAtor t5, which positively controls the draw works ~
drum M, an electrical control generator 50 is
provided (Figure 2). The armature shaft 5i
of this generator is connected by a coupling 52
and ydriven by the shaft 53 of a feed generator
This shaft 53 of this latter generator has
a sprocket 55 on its outer end and this sprocket '
30 has a driving connection through an endless
As above explained, the feed of the drill stem
l2 and bit is controlled by the electric feed 25
motor 45, which in turn is actuated according
to the speed of rotation of the-drill stem and>
bit through the jack shaft. In describing the
operation of the electrical apparatus employed;
~reference is made to Figures 2 and 3, wherein a 30
chain 56 with a sprocket 51 secured on the jack
wiring diagram is shown.
shaft 23.
of electrical apparatus which are employed are,
As has been explained, motion to the rotary
table Il and drill stem l2 from the drilling en
35 gine' l1 .is transmitted through the jack shaft
The several pieces
with slight modification, standard equipment,
and therefore, they have not been illustrated in
detail. However, their main working parts have 35
23. Therefore, since the armature shaft 53 of
the feed generator is connected with the jack
been illustrated and a brief description thereof
shaft, it will be seen that the speed of the feed
and control generators are controlled by the en
entire electrical hook-up will first be described,
after which the various circuits will be set forth.
As has been stated, an electric feed motor 45, 40
feed generator 54 and control generator 50 are
provided. For exciting the fields of the motor
and generator, a constant voltage ‘direct current
gine l1'. The feed generator 54 is electrically
connected' with and drives the feed motor 45,
whereby the speed of said motor iscontrolled
thereby. The worm 42, which is driven by said
motor 45, regulates the paying out of the cable,
and therefore, due to the connection of the parts
as shown, it will be seen that the speed of the
feed motor 45 and resultant pay out of the cable
to feed the drill stem, is regulated according to
the speed of rotation _of the bit and> stein, as
transmitted to the jack shaft 23.
In drilling, the drill bit must perform two
_ functions, first, it must penetrate the formation
and, second, is must remove the material by a
shearing or cutting action.
is herewith given. For the sake offclarity the
excitor generator 50 is provided, (Figure ’3).
This generator maybe either engine or motor 45
Referring now in detail to Figure 3, it will be
seen that the control generator 50 has an arma
ture 6| which has one of its terminals connected
to a binding post 62 by a lead wire Gla, and its 50
other terminal connected with- a binding post
63 by a wire Gib. The field 64 of this generator
,has one side connected by a conductor 64a with
The penetration of - a binding post 65, while its other side is con
the bit is caused by the weight of the bit on the
bottom of the hole, whilethe cutting or shearing
is produced by the rotative power applied to
the bit. If the penetration of the bit is too`
deep, the resistance offered by the formation
60 to the rotation of the bit is so great that the
speed of rotation of the drill bit is ~reduced,
` ythereby reducing the power input to the bit,
with a corresponding retarded rate of drilling,
or else the rotation of said bit and stem may
(„rpbe stopped altogether by the deep penetration,
and a “hang-up” results.l On the other hand,
nected by a Wire 64b with a post 66.
The feed _motor 45 is provided with an arma
ture 61. one terminal of which is connected by
a wire 61a with a post 68, while its other- ter
minal is connected by a wire `61h to a terminal
69. The ñeld 10 of'this motor has one side con 60
nected with the binding post 66 by `a wire '1|Ja..A
The other side of the feed motor field is con
nected by a conductor 10b with a binding post 1|.
'I'he feed generator 54 has one side of its
armature 12 connected by a wire 12a. to the post 65
68, while its other side Áis connected by a wire
if the penetration is not deep enoughfthere` is
12b with the post 69. With such'arrangement,
not suñicient resistance to the ‘rotation and the
it is obvious that the armatures 61 and' 12 of the
bit will rotate without properly performing itscutting or shearing action, which results in a
feed motor and feed generator are electrically
connected. The4 field 13 of the feed generator 70
reduction in the-rate of drilling.
has one terminal connected by a wire 13a to a
Thus, it is evi- '
.dent that for.maximum speed of drilling, the , binding post 14, and its other terminal connected
lpenetration ofthe bit must be neither too great by a wire 13b 4with a binding post 15.
'I'he exciter generator 60 is provided with an
nor too small.
Due to the various characters of formations armature 16, one side of which -is connected by a
' 4
wire 16a with a binding post 11, the. other side
of said amature being connected with a post 18
by a wire 16h. The ñeld 19 of this generator has
one of its terminals electrically connected by a
wire 19a to the post 11 ,while the other terminal
thereof connects by a wire 19b with the binding
. post 18.
A conductor 80 extends from the bind
ing post 18 to the post 66, whereby one side of
the exciter generator is electrically connected to
l0 one side _of the field of the control generator
The contact 91 has a lead wire 91a which is
connected with the binding post 68 to which one
side of the‘armature 6| of the control generator
is connected. A conductor 98a leads from the
Contact 98 to one side of a solenoid 99 lwhich
forms a part of the controller 90. 'I'he opposite
side of the solenoid 99 is connected by a con
ductor 99a with the binding post 62 to which the
other side of the armature of the control gener
ator 50 is connected.
From the above, it will 10
through the wire 64b, and also to one side of the
be seen that with the solenoid 92 de-energized,
ñeld of the feed motor‘ through the wire 10a.
The other side of the exciter generator is con
nected to the other side of the field 10 of the
15 feed motor by a conductor 8| which leads from
the post 11 to the post 1|, to which the field 10 is
connected by a Wire 10b.
current will flow from the armature 6| of the
control generator to the solenoid 99 of the con
troller, and as the output of said generator varies
In other
order 'side
to connect
of the
side 64
of the
of the
20 generator, a conductor 82 leads- from the binding
post 1| to a binding post 83. 4A'variable resist
ance 84 is arranged to connect the post 83 and
binding post 65 which latter is connected by a
wire 64a with the field 64 of said control genera
25 tor. The resistance includes a handle 85 (Figure
2) rigidly attached to a pivoted lever 86, which is
adapted to move along an electrical resistance 81.
The inner end of the lever is electrically con
nected with the post 83,.-while the resistance 81
30 has one end connected to the post 65 by a wire
81a. Thus, it will be seen that current passing
through the conductor 82 must pass through the
resistance to reach the field of the control gen
erator 50.
From the above, it will beV seen that opposite
sides of the fields 64 and 10 on the control'
generator and feed motor are electrically con
nected to opposite sides of the exciter generator,
according to the speed of the jack shaft 28,'the
¿to correspond.
When the solenoid 99 is energized, it is adapted
to attract oneend of an armature bar |00 which -
is pivotally mounted on a pivot pin |0|. The 20
other end of the bar carries a counterweight |02
which ~is adjustable thereon. This end of the
bar also has a rod |08 pivoted thereto and the
lower end of the rod carries a. piston |04 which
is slidable within a cylinder |05, so as to form 25
a dash pot and suitably dampen the movement
of the bar. 'I'he cylinder has an opening |06
in its lower end and the size of this opening may
be varied by a needle valve |01, whereby the
speed of movement of the piston may be regu 30
"ë`end of the bar which is arranged to be
attracted by the solenoid 99, has an insulated bar
|08 pivoted thereto. The lower end of this bar
carries a pair of coiled springs |08' which engage 35
terminals |09 and ||0 which rest on the carbon
pile resistances H3 and IH. The lower ends of
whereby said fields are excited thereby. The
these resistances are connected to each other by
a wire H5. The resistances || 3 and IM are ar
ñeld 13 of the feed generator is also connected
with and excited by said exciter generator but is
ranged to decrease when the solenoid 99 attracts
connected through a reversing switch 88, and
resistances. Similarly, the resistances increase
controller 90- the details of which will be de
magnetic attraction of said solenoid 99 is varie
the bar |00 so as to increase the pressure on said
as said bar moves away from the solenoid 99 to
-relieve the pressure. The contact |09 carried by
scribed later.
_ As has been hereinbefore stated, the armature ' the resistance ||9 is connected by a wire |09a 45
12 of the feed generator 5l is rotated by its
shaft which carries the sprocket 55 (Figure 2),
whereby said generator is operated by the rotation
yof the jack shaft 23. The operation of the con
trol generator 50 is, of course, also controlled by
the jack shaft because its armature shaft 5| is
connected by the coupling 52 with the armature
shaft of the feed generator. The actuation of
» the feed 'motor 45 1s controlled by the feed gen
ci Cl
It will be evidentithat the power output of the 50
control generator 50 regulates the energization
of the controller solenoid 99. This solenoid con
trols the swinging of the armature bar |00,
which in turn increases or decreases the resis
erator 54, the power output of which is regulated
tances ||3 and IM.
by an electrical controller 90.
As was above stated, the ileld 13 of the feed
generator is excited by the exciter generator
The controller 90 is with slight modification in
with the post 18 which is connected with one side
of the exciter generator, while the contact |I0 is
connected by a wire ||0a with a binding post
assembly, the same as the General Electric auto
through an electrical reversing switch 88. Also
matic voltage adjuster, type `G‘r 4. This con
troller is electrically connected with the arma
the resistances ||8 and ||4 are connected in the
feed generator circuit so that variation of these 60/
resistances will vary the power output of the feed
generator 54 to vary the rate of feed of the bit
into the formation.
ture 6| of the control generator through- a sole
noid switch 9|. This switch consists of a sole
noid 92, one terminal of which is connected by a
4wire 9|a to the binding post 83 which has con
nection by wires 82 and 8| to post 11 which connects to one terminal of the exciter generator
. 60. The other terminal of the solenoidisfcon
nected to a binding post 98 by a wire 9 Ib. When
The reversing switch 88 includes an actuating
arm |20 which is pivoted to swing on a pin |2|. 65
'I'he upper end of a rod |22 is pivoted to one end
of the arm |20, while the lower end of the rod
v|22_is pivoted to the end |08’ of the amature
bar |00 of the controller, whereby when said
bar is' swung, through energization of the sole 70
noid 99, the actuating bar |20 is also swung.
ï The opposite end of the actuating bar |20 has
a rod |26 slidable theret ough and the bar has
connected. _Of course, energization of said sole- . insulated cross bars |21 an `|28 at its upper and
the' solenoid is energized, it attracts an armature
bar 9| which carries contacts 95 and 96. These
contacts are arranged to normally engage con
tacts 91 and 98, whereby when the solenoid is de
energized the contacts 91 and 98 are electrically
75 noid electrically disconnects the contacts.
lowe'r ends. 'I‘he rodis providedwith collars |28' 75
thereon, and coiled springs |23' surround the rod
above and below the arm |23, between said arm
and the collars, whereby connection between the
arm and rod is had. It is noted that the springs
is obvious that the speed of the jack shaft reg
ulates the speed of the feed motor. and since
the speed of the jack shaft variesin accordance
with the load imposed on the drill bitpassing
are balanced and exert an equal pressure above
and below the arm. The lower bar |28 carries
`through the formation, it is manifest that the
connected by a lead wire |33a with one side of a
resistance |35, and the opposite side of this re
wire |3'|a, through the contacts |33 and |33,
sistance is connected by a wire '|33a to the bind-_
ing post '|8 which leads to one side of the exciter
through the wire ‘|317 to one terminal' of the field
generator. The contact |33is directly connect
through the field, through wire 13a, post 113, _Wire
speed of the feed motor 35, which regulates the
contacts |28' and. |29 arranged to frictionally feed of the cable from the draw works drum |3,
engage contacts |30 and I3I. The contact |23’ is `is regulated in accordance with the formation
connected by a Wire |2811, with the conductor 8| being drilled.
at a point 32.' lIt is noted the conductor 3| leads
As has been stated, in normal operation `the
from one side of the exciter generator ‘63. The rod |23 of the reversing switch is lowered as
contact |23 is connected by a Wire |2911 with the shown and the field 33 of the feed generator is
_ post H3, which post is connected to the contact excited as above set forth. However, when the
| i3 of the carbon pile resistance ||3. The con
actuating arm |23 is- swung oppositely by in
15 tact |33 is connected by a wire |3|la with the creased swinging of the armature bar |03, then
ybinding post ’I3 which has connection with one the contacts |23' and |23 at the lower end of the 15
side of the ileld '|3 of the feed generator, A wire rod are disengaged from the contacts |33 and
|3|a connects the contact|3| with the post 13, |3|,` while the contacts |33 and |33 at the upper
which postV is connected to‘ the other side of end oi’ said rod engage the contacts |33 and |3'|.'.
20 Ithe ñeld of the generator 53.
In such event, the electrical current ñowing from 20
The upper bar |21 of the rod- |26, carries a the exciter lgenerator B3, passes through the con
pair of ‘contacts |33 and |33. 'I‘he contact |33 is ‘ ductor 3| to the point |32, then through -the
ed by a lead wire |33a with the post T5. The
contacts |33 andY |33 are arranged to frictionally
30 engage contacts |36 and |311, the former having
connection by a wire |36a with the binding post
33, while the latter is connected by a wire |3f|a
with the conductor `3| at the point |32.
Under normalV operation, the rod |26 is in a
35 lower position with the contacts |28’ and |23
through the wire |33a to the post l5, and then y
'H3 of the feed generator. v‘The current then flows
|3311, contacts |33 and ‘ |33, then through wire
|33a, resistancey |33, wire |3311, post '|3 and final- '
ly through‘wire '|311I to the opposite side of the
generator 33. Thus, it is seen that >the terminals
of the generator till are connected to the reverse
sides of the ñeld '|3 to cause the generator to
reverse the direction of its current output, there
by operating the feed motor in a reverse direc 35
frictionally engaging the contacts |33-and |3|. ` tion to cause the motor to rotate the draw Works
However, ifthe armature bar |33 is swung, it drum |3 so as to wind, instead of unwind, the
will be seen that the arm |23 is also swung. Due cable i3’ around said drum and thus lift the
to the frictional engagement of the contacts |23
and _|23 with the contacts |33 and |3|, and also
due to the springs |23', the arm |2||must move
a predetermined distance, that is until the upper
spring |23’ is under suücient pressure to break
the frictional engagement of the contacts. When
45 this occurs, the arm is swung to the opposite
direction to engage the upper contacts |33 and
|33 with the contacts |33 and |33. A similar ac
tion takes place on the reverse actuation of the
Assuming the contacts |23' and |23 are in en
gagement with the contacts |33 and |3|, the
field '|3 of the feed generator is excited bythe
exciter generator 6B.
The current flows from the
drill stem.
To control energization of the solenoid switch 40
3|, which latter interrupts the ilow of current bef
tween the control generator 53 and the solenoid
33 of the controller 33, a time delay device |33
is employed. This device includes a solenoid
| 3| which when energized, attracts an arma,
ture |32 carried on one arm |33 of a pivoted bell
'crank |33. The other arm |33 of said crank is
connected by a link |33 with a pivoted bar |33.
This bar carries a gear segment |33. It is ob
vious that when the .solenoid is energized, the bell 50
crank is swung which actuates the bar |3`| to
swing the segment. When the solenoid |3| is
del-energized, a counterweight '|33 returns the bar
generator 33, through the conductor 3|, to the> |37 to its normal position.
55 point |32, through the wire |22a, through con-A
The segment |33 is in constant engagement
tacts |23’ and |33, wire |3311, post '|3,'wire '33a with a gear wheel |33 which is attached to a larger
to the ñeld 73. The current then passes through
the wires '|311 and |3|a to contacts |3| and |23,
then through wire |2911,-post H3, wire ||||a, con-‘
60 act ||||, through the resistance || 3, wire ||3 and
resistance ||3, contact |09, wire |39a, post’ 'i3 and
then through wire 1Gb to the other side of the
4 exciter
gear |'ó| by a ratchet connection (not shown)
which permits the wheel |53 to rotate reversely
without rotating the large gear | E |. The gear |5|
is in constant engagement with a smaller gear 60
|52 which is rigidlyv attached to a ratchet wheel
|53. An escapement mechanism |53 engages the
generator 6U. Since the resistances H3 ' ratchet wheel 1 and this escapement carries a
and ||4 are connected directly in this circuit, pendulum |55 which has Weights |56 adjustably
65 it is obvious that an increase or decrease there-v secured thereon. By adjusting these weights, the 65
oi.' will aifect the excitation of the field 13 of the periodicity of the swinging movement may be
feed generator to increase or decrease the pow
varied,»which varies the length of time required
er output of said generator. Since this feed gen
for the segment to swing from one extreme posi
eratorcontrols the feed motor, it is obvious that tion to another. The. intricate details of the
70 the speed of said motor is regulated by the re-l time switch are intentionally omitted as this is a 70
sistances H3 and H4 which, in turn, are con
standard switch which may be purchased on the
trolled by the energization of the solenoid 99 of open market. The General Electric switch bear
the controller. This solenoid is energized by the
power output oi' the control generator 50, which
75 is actuated by the jack shaft 23.- .’Igherefore, .it
ing catalogue ,number Cr ¿2953-3 has been found
„ suitable.
The ,pivoted bar Il-'l has a non-conductor rod 75
|51 connected to one of its ends as shown and
this rod carries aaconductor plate |58 at its lower
'I'he plate has a pair of contacts |59 and
|60 which are arranged to engage contacts I6I '
through the post 11, through wire I15a, through
the contacts |15 and |65, and then through the
wire I65a to one side of the solenoid I5I. Then
from the other side of the solenoid through the
and I62.‘~ It is noted that when the solenoid I4I wire I4 la through the wire |62a, post 18, and then
is energized, and the bell crank |44 has been through wire 16b to the other side of the generator
60, whereby the solenoid I4I is energized. There
swung after actuation of the time delay mecha
fore, this solenoid is energized only when the
nism, the contacts |59 and |60 engage the con
tacts I6I and |62 to close an electrical circuit -pointers |64 and |12 have their contacts en 10
10 between the latter two contacts'. Of course, when
For varying the pressure in the tube |61 to
the solenoid I4I is de-energized, the counter
weight |48 has raised the rod |51 to disengage swing the pointer |64, the tube |61 is connected
to a translating device |16 (Figure 2) which is
said contacts.
The contact I6| is connected by a wire I6Ia.I engaged with the dead end I3 of the cable carry
ing the drill stem and which device is responsive
15 with the binding post 93, which, it willbe remem
the variations in the tension of said cable. The
bered,'is connected to one side of the solenoid
92. -The other contact |62 is connected by a wire details of the translating device are clearly shown,
|620. to the binding post 18- which is connected in my former Patent No. 1,766,782, issued on June
with the exciter generator. Therefore, when 24, 1930.` Suflice it to say, therefore, that as the
tension on the cable decreases, the pressure in
20 the solenoid I4I is energized to engage the con
tacts |59 and |60 with the contacts I6I and |62, the tube |61 decreases, which causes the movable
needle |64 to move toward the adjusted or. sta
an electrical circuit to the solenoid 92 is com
pleted to energize this solenoid. Energization of tionary needle |12. If this tension decreases suf
the solenoid 92 will attract its armature 94 to flciently, the pointerswlll move to engage their 25
` contacts, which will close the electrical circuit to
25 disengage the contacts 95 and 96 from the con
tacts 91V and 98 which breaks the circuit between thesolenoid I4 I, as has been explained.
In operation, the power to be delivered by the
the control generator and solenoid 99 of the con
drilling engine I1 is determined bythe adjust
troller to- render both inactive. When the sole
noid 99 is de-energized the armature bar |00 is ment or setting of the admission valve I9 in the
line I8. Operation of the engine rotates the jack 30
30 swung away from the solenoid which causes the , shaft 23, which, in turn, drives the rotary table>
resistances II3 and II4 to increase to stop the
feed motor 45 and thereby stop the feed of the ’ I I to rotate the drill stem I2 and bit, as has been
drill stem I2. Itis noted that under normal con
ditions, the solenoid I4I of the time delay is de
35 energized, in which case. the solenoid switch 9|
is holding the circuit to the solenoid 99 closed._
For energizing the solenoid |4I of the time
delay, a pressure controller |63 is provided. This
is a conventional apparatus and includes a
40 pointer |64 which has an electrical contact |65,
said' A'contact being insulated from the pointer.
` This contact is connected by a wire I65a with one
side of the solenoid I4-|. The other side of the
solenoid is connected by a wire .I4Ia to the wires
45 I62a which leads to the post 18.
The pointer |64 is rigidly secured on a pivot pin
|66 which is operatively attached to a Bourdon
tube (not shown) so as to be rotated by pres
sure variations in a tube |61 (Figure 2) which
A block
50 communicates with the Bourdon tube.
IIìiiy has a toothed segment |69 concentric with
the pivot pin |66, and this segment is in lcon
, stant engagement with a- pinion |10l which is se
cured on a pin having a hand knob I1I on itsV
55 outer end. On one side of the block |68, an arm
or second pointer |12' is pivoted and a coil spring
|13 has one end secured to the pointer and its
other end fastened to the block, whereby said
spring exerts its tension to hold the pointer in
engagement with the block. -Thus, the position
of the arm or pointer |12 with relation to the
dial |14 may be readily varied by rotating the
knob I1I and changing the position of the block.
The arm |12 is provided with an insulated con
tact |15 which is arranged to engage the contact
|65 of the pointer |64 when said pointers `move
into engagement with each other. The contact
|15 is connected by a wire `I15a with the binding
post 11 which has connection with the exciterl
,70, generator 60. It is obvious from the above that
the pointer |12 is manually adjustable while the
explained. The engine is ungoverned except by
the load imposed on the drill bit, and therefore,
a fixed amount of power is delivered by said 35
engine so long as its speedremains constant.
The exciter generator 60 excites the fields of
the feed motor 45, feed generator 54 and control
generator 50. The jack shaft 23 drives the feed
generator 54 and since its field is excited by the 40
exciter generator, said feed generator delivers
power to the feedv motor because of its connec
tion with said motor through the leads 12a and
61a and 12b and 61h. Thus, the feed motor is
actuated which drives the worm 42, andthere 45
fore, the draw works drum I4 is rotated to pay
out the cable and thereby lower the drill stem I2
into the hole, which feeds the bit into the forma
. tlOIl.
'I'he resistance oiïered by the formation to the 50
rotation of the bit determines- the load on the
engine I1 and thus, governs its speed. If the
resistance increases, thereby increasing the load,
the speed of rotation of the bit will decrease,
whereby the engine speed is decreased. This de
crease will cause a decrease in the speed of rota
tion of the jack shaft'23, which decrease will be
transmitted to the feed generator 54 and the
control generator 50 to slow up the same.
Reduction in the speed of thefeed generator 54
will reduce its power output, and this will result`
in a decrease of the speed of the feed motor;
also, the reduction in the speed of the control
generator 50 will reduce the energization of the
coil 99 of the controller 90 and thereby increase 65
the resistances I I3 and I I4 in series with the field
13 of the feed generator 54, thus further decreas
ing the` speed of the feed motor 45. As a result,
the draw works drum I4 will be'rotated at a
slower rate which reduces the rate of downfeed 70
o’f the drill stem. This reduction in the rate of
down feed will reduce the load on the drill bit,
pointer |64 is ,moved or swung by the pressure
within the tube |61. When the contacts of the. which reduction will be reflected by a decreased
load on the engine. As soon as the engine load
pointers are in engagement with each other, elec
75 trical current flows from the exciter generator 60, `is. decreased the jack shaft 23 will again be
speeded up, so that the speed of rotation of the
bit will be again broughtJ up to its original speed.
Thus, it will be seen that if the bit enters a for-
tacts |59 and |60 to move towards the contacts
IGI and |62 at' a rate determined by the adjust
ment of the timing mechanism indicated therein
mation which increases the load, the feed motor' and
after a certain interval, the contacts |59 i
is immediately slowed down to reduce the rate and
|69 engage the contacts |6| and |62 and
of feed of the drill stem until such time as the thus cause the solenoidv 92 to be energized. The
‘ drill bit again attains its original speed of rota- ,
energizing of the coil 92 causes the contacts 95
and 95 to separate from the contacts 91 and 98
If, on the other hand, the drill enters a forma
opening the circuit which energizes the solenoid
tion where the load on the drilling engine is re
99'of the controller 90 and causing the switch 10
, duced, said engine will be speeded up. This in~
88 to go into the reversing position to cause the
creased speed _of the engine increases the speed feed
motor 45 to lift the drill stem and thus to
of the jack shaft 23 which increases the power
output of the feed generator 54 to increase the relieve the weight of the bit on the bottom of the
hole. But as soon as the weight of the bit on the
speed of the feed motor 45; also, this increases
speed of the control generator 50 which causes bottom of the hole is again less than the limit set,- 15
the contacts |65 and |15 again separate, de' increased energization of the solenoid 99, whereby
energizing the coil |4| and the contacts |59 and
the resistances | I3 and ||4 in series with the field
|60 and contacts |6| and |62 again separate due
13 of the feed generator are decreased, which fur
l20 lther causes speeding up of the feed motor. The to the action of they counterweight |49 of the
timing mechanism with the result that the sole
resultant increase in the speed of the motor in
noid 99 is again energized, which returns the re
creases the rate of down feed of the drill stem |2
versing switch 88 to its original Aposition so that
which immediately increases the load on the` the feed motor operates to feed the stem doWn-'
engine | 1, whereby said engine is slowed down
25 to its original normal speed. Therefore, it is Áwardly. It is pointed out that when the switch 88
manifest that irrespective of the character of for
mation throughwhich the drill is passing, the
speed of the drill bit is maintained substantially
constant by varying the rate of feed of the drill
' In drilling, part of the weight of the drill stem
| 2 is supported from above by the travellling
block (not shown) while the remainder of this
weight is supported' on the bottom of the hole.
Thus, the upper part of the stem is in'tension,
but the lower part having a length whose weight
is equal to the weight With'which the bit presses
onthe bottom of the hole is in compression. As
the weight_.-of the 'bit on bottom increases, they
40 length of drill stem which is in compression in
creases, until ñnally a'length so great is had that
this portion of the stem buckles, in which case a
crooked hole results. The revolution of the drill
is `in a reverse position, the resistances ||3 and 25
H4 -are not in the circuit of the field 13_ of the
feed generator but the ñxed resistance |35 is in
the circuit. The purpose of this resistance is to
cause the feed motor to operate at a predeter
mined rate of speed whereby the drill stem is 30
lifted at a predetermined rate. It is pointed out
that the time delay prevents the solenoid 92 from
being energized by the momentary engagement
of the contacts |65 and |15 which may be caused
by “bouncing” of the bit.
The construction of the controller 99 and its
associated parts is such as to prevent the bit from
hanging up. When the load of the engine
reaches a predetermined amount, due to reduc
, tion in speed of the drill stem, the solenoid 99 of
the controller is not energized sufñciently to over
come the weight HBL-because of the reduced
'power output of the control generator 59, due to
stem in a crooked hole results in fatigue failure, '
the reduced rotation of the jack shaft 23. Thus,
or “twist-offs” due 'to the back and forth bending "
which follows when said stem is rotated in a' the bar |00 is swung sufñciently to increase the 45
crooked hole. To remove from the Well parts resistance -of the carbon pile to the maximum,
which have been so broken off involves a great
deal of expense and often results in the loss of the
To avoid this expense, and hazard, it is neces
sary to limit the weight of the bit on the bottom
to such extent that the drill stem |2 will not
'I‘his is automatically accomplished by
means of my controller and its associate parts.
With the bit olf the bottom of the hole, the
movable pointer |64 of the pressure controller
|63, indicates the total weight of the drill stem.
. The stationary pointer |12 is then set at an
460 amount less than this total weight, this dif
ference being equal to the maximum weight of
the bit on bottom that will be allowed. ._For ex
ample, if the pointer |64 indicates 50 tons with the
bit off of bottom and the maximum weight of the
'bit on bottom is to be limited to 3 tons, then the
pointer |12-is set at 50 less 3 tons or at 47. The
drilling equipment is then put into Ioperation and
the bit feeds down. As the `bit presses on bottom,
the weight on the hook is reduced and as a re
sult the pointer |64 lowers on the dial. Should
it ever lower as'much as three points, the contact
|65 goes into circuit closing engagement with the
contact |15 of the pressure controller with the re
sult that the solenoid | 4|` is energized drawing
the armature |42 towards it and causing the con
whereby the yspeed of the feed motor 45 is re
duced to zero. Any further reduction in the speed
of the stem |2 permits further swinging of the
armature bar |80. This additional swing of the
bar, swings the actuating bar |20 to swing the
switch 88 to a reverse position so that the feed
vmotor is operated in the opposite direction. It
is noted that the springs |20’ and the frictional -
engagement of the contacts permits the bar |90 to
be swung a predetermined distance before actu- l
ating the reversing switch, after which time the
switch is snapped into reverse position.
When the motor 4_5 is operated in the reverse
direction, the drill stem is hoisted whereby the
bit is freed sufficiently from its engagement with
the formation so as to permit the speed of rota
tion of the bit to again increase. As soon as this
increaseoccurs the reversing switch is returned
'to its normal position to operate the motor 45 so
as to again feed the stem l2 downwardly. It is
pointed out that the switch 88 may be operated
either by the pressure controller |63,A or bythe
controller 90. In "either case, it serves to hoist
the drill stem.
Froml the-above, it win be obvious'that withl
the improved method herein-set forth, the speed
of rotation of the drill bit is maintained substan
tially constant, irrespective of the character of
formation through which said bit is drilling. The
. feed of the drill stem downwardly in the _hole is
and through the wire |8| to the solenoid. From
the solenoid the current will flow through the
controlled in accordance with the load imposed- -wire |80 to the contact |65, through the contact
on the drill bit in rotation, and since this feed is
positively controlled by the feed motor 45, a con
tinuous feed is had. All danger of the bit “hang
ing up”, or being stopped in rotation due to too
gre'at a resistance, is eliminated by means of they
reversing mechanism. By means of the pressure
controller |63, excess weight which causes the
10 drill stem to buckle, resulting in crooked holes and
twist-offs, is prevented. By means of the time
delay apparatus, it will be obvious that bouncing
of the bit which may occur during drilling will
not affect the normal operation of the entire ap
15 paratus. Therefore, it will be seen that the i'm
proved method permits constant speed of rotation
of the drill bit, whereby
power may be delivered
increases the speed and
It is pointed out that
the maximum allowable
to the bit which greatly
economy of the drilling.
the reversing switch 88,
which raises the drill stem I2 in the event that
there is an excess weight on bottom of the bit,
or too deep penetration, may be eliminated. In
such case, the electrical hook-up would be as
shown in Figure 5. By observing this iigure and
comparing it with the wiring diagram Figure 3,
the differences in the hook-up may be readily
seen. When the switch is eliminated, the field 13
I of the feed generator 54 has one terminal con
30 nected by a wire 13o `to the conductor 8| at the
point 8|'. ~The othe?Jterininal of the field 13 is
connected by a wire 13d with the terminal or
|15, through a wire |1511,- and finally through the
post 11 and wire 16a1tothe other side of the
exciter generator. Thus, it will be seen that
when the time delay switch |40 is omitted, the
energization of Athejsolenoid 02 is controlled di
rectly by the contact en_ the pointer of the pres'
sure controller |63. It h'as been found that this
structure will operate, but. it is more desirable to
have the time delay switch because many times » -
the contacts of the pointer move into engagement
with each other due to bouncing of the bit and
in such case it would not be desirable to actuate ,
the solenoid 92. However, such cases are not very
frequent and the apparatus will operate without
said switch.
What I claim and desire .to secure by Letters'
1. A well drillingapparatus including, a re
strainedly suspended drill. stem having a drill
bit at its lower end vin the well, a prime mover.
for rotating the drill stem and governed by the
load imposed upon it by the drill bit rotating 25
through the formation, means actuated by the
Patent is:
prime mover for releasablyfeeding the drill stem
downwardly as the Áhole is drilled, drill stem
weight self-applied brake means associated with
the feeding means for,~ counterbalancing the 30
weight and decelerating the downward move- f
ment of the drill stem so as to prevent said stem
over lfeeding by gravity, and time controlled
means for automatically reversing the operation
by the resistance |I4. With this arrangement,~ of the feeding'means to hoist the drill stem and 35
binding post I I6, which post is connected by the
wire ||0a with the contact ||0v which is carried
it will be obvious that the reversing switch and its
associate wiring is entirely eliminated. The field
13 of the feed generator is then energized in the
following manner: The current flows ‘from one
side of the exciter generator 60 through the con
ì ductor 8| to the point 8|', then through the wire
13e to the ñeld 13. From the field 13 the elec
trical current passes through the wire 13d to the
binding post | I6, through a wire I I0a, Contact I I0,
through t'ne resistance II-3, wire ||5 and resist
. ance H4, then through contact |09, through wire
bit when the drillingload on said bit exceeds a
predetermined point.
` _
2. A well drilling apparatus‘including, a hoist
ing and lowering drum having' a cable wound
partially thereon from one end, the cable carried
movably over a support, and a drill stem sus
pended from the opposite end of the cable, said
stem having a. bit at its bottom to drill the hole,
a prime mover for continuously rotating the
drill stem, a retainable feeding device including 45
a worm wheel geared to said drum whereby the
|09a to the binding post 18, from which post the
one is rotatable by the other, a worm screw en
current passes through the wire 16h to the op
posite side of the exciter generator 6|). In this
way it will be obvious that the`field 13 of the
said worm screw and constantly set in effective `
gaging said worm wheel, a brake on the shaft of
braking condition by endwise movement of the 50
feed generator is constantly excited by the ex- ' shaft brought about by the weight of the drill
stem tending to unwind its'_supportlng cable
citer generator. _ 'I'he operation of the other parts
when the reversing switch has been eliminated. is
exactly as -has been described.
It is further notedthat although it is most de
sirable to utilize the time delay switch |40, it is
possible to eliminate this switch. For purposes of
illustration, this switch has been eliminated in
Figure 5. In such case, the solenoid 92 of the
solenoid switch 9| is directly connected and ar
ranged to be energized- by the engagement of the
contacts |65 and |15 on the pointers |64 and |12
of the’ pressure controller 9|. A lead wire |80 has
one end connected to the contact |65 and leads to
one side of the so1enoidÍ92.' The ‘other _side of
(55 the solenoid is connected by a Wire |8I with the
from the drum, and a feed motor for continuous
ly rotating said worm screw shaft, said motor
being actuated by electrical controlling elements 55
coordinated with the prime mover whereby
variations in the speed of the drill stem is re
fiected in the feed controlling means and the
feeding of the drill stem is continuous but varied
proportionately to the change in-.character of 60
the formation being drilled and the stem is ro
tated continuously at substantially a constant
3.1The apparatus as set forth in claim 2 and
further including means_time delayed in opera
tion for automatically reversing the feed motor
to operate the drinn to lift the> drill stem when
exciter generator. When the contacts |55 and the drilling load on said bit inthe formation
|15 move into engagement with each other, it reaches a predetermined point._
will be seen that the current will- how from one
70 side of the exciter through the wire 16h, post 18 y
binding post 18 which leads to one’ ~side of the
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