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Патент USA US2126325

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Aug. 9, 1938.
c. E. HAwKE
2,126,325
'RETORT AND RETORT SETTING
Filed Oct. 2l, 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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w“EE.WHmm
C | A R C. N
ATTORNEY.
KE
Aug. 9, 1938.
2,126,325
c. E. HAWKE
RETORT AND RETORT SETTING
Filed Oct. 21, 1936
3 sheets-Sheet 2
25
NLM
‘y
INVENTOR.
CLARENCE E. HAM/_KE
BY M
ATTORNEY.
Aug. 9, 1938.
c. r-:. HAWKE
V2,126,325
RETORT AND RETORT SETTING
Filed oct. 21, 193e
3 Sheets-Sheet .'5l
„n.143
INVENTOR.
CLARENCE E, HAWKE
BY
ATTORNEY.
2.126,325
Patented Aug. 9, `1.938
UNITED STATES
.
PATENT oFFlcEa
aizsszs
'
’
amour AND uproar sn'rrmc
Clarence E.l Hawke, Metuchen, N. J., assigner, by
mesne assignments, to The Carborundum Co pany, Niagara Falls, N. Y., a corporation of Del- _
applicati@ october 21, issn, ser-n1 No. 106,867
s claims.
(ci. 263-37) A
This application relates to improvements in
retorts and retort settings. More particularly the
silicon carbide, which has a high thermal con
ductivity (for a non-metallic refractory) and'
application is concerned with vertical retorts _which
retains great strength to compressive loads
composed of non-metallic refractories, and used at the temperatures to which retorts are ordi
5 for metallurgical purposes or for the calcination narily subjected. This characteristic permits
of minerals. The present applicationis a- con
the use of this material in thin sections. Even
tinuation in part of my copending application this
refractory is liable, however, to the develop
Serial No. 47,381, filed October 30, 1935. (U. S. .ment of hair-line cracks during prolonged'
Patent 2,067.085.)
'
periods of operation in which strains are pro
10
In such industrial applications as have been .
indicated above, gases or vapors _are often given
oil in 'great abundance as in they case of the re
fining of zinc or in the calcining of limestone.
duced by non-uniform heating or by rapid
c'ha'ngesin temperature or by changes in local
' pressure.
15 reasonably gas or vapor tight structure in metal
sary to use non-metallic retorts. '
\
Non-metallic refractories are extensively yused
20 where resistance tovchange of shape at high
temperatures and chemical inertness at high
temperatures are required. It is not possible to
construct a retort of non-metallic refractory ma
terials that will be absolutely gas or vapor tight.
25 Retorts can be built up of lnon-metallic re
Such causes are likely to produce
changes ’in [volume which are not uniform
throughout 'a given >refractory element. `The
There are many diiiiculties Vin ~ maintaining a
lurgical and other retorts during prolonged
periods of operation,.especiallywhere it is neces
10
strains so produced must be relieved, and are re
lieved when the refractory _element cracks or
fractures. These cracks may not be visible when
' they ñr'st occur on account of the minute4 thick
ness of the openingproduced. They will open up .
to a greater extent during prolonged periods of
heating'unless some force is applied tov prevent
the opening.
'
'
-
_
In the case of a vertical retort therefore: the
ilne cracks which occur in a horizontal direction
are not likely to open up to _any serious extent
fractory elements consisting of superimposed
25..
hollow one-piece sections. The walls of a retort », » because of the superincumbent weight which
can also belbuilt up by using»\ combinations of
refractory shapes with both horizontal and vverti
'cal joints `which can `be lapped or which can have
tongue and groove connections. The sections or
` elements oi' a retort can also be cemented to
gether.' Such structures can be made ~reasonably
tight and will show little or no gas or vapor leak
.' age, provided pressures are balanced within an
inch or two of hydrostatic pressure. Such re
torts, however, will not stand prolonged periods
of operation without developing leaks either’
throu'gh‘the opening of the vertical joints, or be
40 cause "of the development and opening of cracks
in_ the body of the refractories employed. .
_x
tends to close the openings. The case is quite
diil’erent with vertical cracks.“ This invention is
concerned principally with lthe development of
practical means for preventing vertical _cracks
from opening up in retorts built of non-metallic
refractories.
.
-
"
Forpurpcses o'f illustration my invention is "
`f_lescribed with reference to vertical retorts hav
ing a rectangular cross-section. The type- of re 35
tort has long sides _(as illustrated4 in the ac- f
companying drawings) and-narrow ends, the4
heat being transmitted from sources of heat situ- ~
`ated outside of the opposite side walls.
In the accompanying drawings: '
_
,
40
I have -discovered that, in retorts of the type
Figure l shows a horizontal section of a retort
just "describe?, little or no'trouble _is caused by mounted in a furnace, the section being taken on
the opening oi' horizontal joints orby the de-` the line I-I of Fig. v2;
_ I i
45 velopment or opening of cracks extending in a»
'Figure 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevation 45
horizontal direction. This is due to the fact> that taken on4 the ‘line II-II of Figure l;
the load imposed upon the refractory elements
Figure 3 isl a fragmentary horizontal section .
by the upper portion of'a retort (including the taken on the line III-»HI of Figure 4 and illus
portion of the retort which extends beyond _and ftrating a modification‘of the means used for ap
above the heating chamber)` prevents the open plying pressure to the end walls;
‘
'
~
50
ing of 'horizontal joints or cracks and the de
Figure 4 _ is a fragmentary sectional elevation
velopment and opening of cracks extending in a taken on the line IV--IV of Figure 3; _
horizontal direction.
o
l
, Among the refractories which are most useful
55 for high temperature work may be mentioned
Figure 5 is a fragmentary horizontal section il
lust'rating means for facilitating movement of a
i
_ompression _member in a vertical Ydirection
55 .
2,126,325
2
where such ïmovement is desirable to reduce
stresses resulting from`temperature changes;
sure in a- horizontal direction to either one or
~ both ofthe narrow ends of the retort by com
Figure .6 is a, fragmentary horizontal section pression means attachedl to the outside struc
of a retort and adjacent setting, the end of the ture of the retort setting. For example, in Fig
1 the movable blocks 1 and Il are urged to
-retort’shown being. oppositely disposed to that ure
ward the respective ends of the retort by means
shown »in Figure 5;
Figures ,7l and 8 are fragmentary elevations of the springs 9 and I0. _The amount of com
may be adjusted, for ex
~partly in section illustrating means for-applying pression in the springs the
member I2 which is
by rotation of
horizontal. forces 'to pairs of compression blocks f ample
threaded in the cap I3. As indicated in Figure 2
which are in contact with end walls of the re
spective retorts, the form of the joints between individual pressure-applying means may be used
adjacent tiles of the retorts being different in the on a number of superimposed tiles in the end
walls.`
two views;
Figure 9 is a horizontal section of a retort and> f
is of part Yof’ the setting and shows side walls of the
retort which can expand or contract horizontally
independently of the end wall shown at the left;
and
,
`
f
Figure 10 is a view similar to Figure 9 but
showing weighted crank means for applying hori
zontal forces. to the side walls instead `of spring
means.-
x
?_
Referring to the drawings in detail there is
shown'in Figure 1 an elongated retort 2 whose
sides 2 are made as long as practicable. Heat
is transmitted to the material inside the retort
through these long sides from combustion cham
bers 4. The distance between the side walls of
» the retort mayvary from 2 inches to 18 inches
depending uponthe process involved. The eñec
tive heating of the material within the retort will
not be much affected by the length of the walls 3,
`that is by the horizontal dimensions of the heat
ing surfaces exposed to the combustion chambers.
On >the other `hand if the distance inside the re
tort between the side walls is too great, the ma
terials near the wall of the _retort will be over
heated before the materials in the center of the
retort reach the desired temperature. " The op
40 timum distance Ibetween the side walls will de
f
In the modification shown in Figures 3 and 4
the end walls of the retort are pressed with the
aid of blocks 1', which in turn are pressed by
means of weightedlevers such as that indicated
at I4.
Pneumatic or hydraulic pressure devices
mayalso be utilized, the hydraulic pressure being
cushioned by means of a spring or by means of
compressed air, as illustrated diagrammatically
in my U. S. Patent No. 2,067,085.
f
Horizontal forces should be applied to a suill
cient number of the end wall. elements to prevent
any vertical cracks or joints from opening up in 25
the side walls as the result of internal pressures
`produced by the load in the retortor by the de
velopment of gases or produced as the result of
the expansion and contraction of refractories
when heated and cooled through extensive ranges 30
ofv temperature.
The means Vused for applying
thesehorizontal'iorces must be flexible enough
to absorb the normal expansion of the refractories
caused by the application otheat thereto and
also flexible enough to maintain the horizontal 35
pressure' in the`event of any contraction due t0
cooling.'l In the case of the modification shown
in Figures 3 and 4 the horizontal forces are ap
plied through rollers Iä which are rotatably
mounted in a lower extension ofthe lever Il. 40
pend on the thermal conductivity of the materials `The end walls are therefore `not prevented from
vertical expansion or contraction by their con
under treatment. y
tact with the pressure-applying means. Where
It has» been found that little or no trouble no such rollers `are shown (as in Figures 1 and 2)
occurs through cracking of the refractories in the the applicationof horizontal forces can be omitted
end walls 5 since these walls are not exposed to during the heating up period until the retort is 45
the combustion gases and are also’ of relatively _
small horizontal dimensions, so that vit is anot
usually necessary to use vertical joints in these
end walls 5. The _difilculties described above have
been experienced in the side walls which are
usually several feet in length and which therefore
have to be built up from tiles with vertical as
-brought to operating temperature. The horizon
tal forces are then applied by tightening up on
the threadedy bolts I2 until the desired compres
sive >force is obtained. With this arrangement, 50
the spring pressure should be released before the
retort is cooled.
In the modification >shown in Figure 5 pro- Y
well as horizontal joints. While in some ofY the . vision is made for the movement of the com
views the retorts have been indicated without
vertical joints, vertical -cracks are `likely to form pression member‘l’ in a vertical direction, where, 55
duringthe operation of the retorts. One of the for example, relief is needed from strains due to
objects of the present invention is to prevent such changes in temperature. In this case the rollers
I8 are carried by brackets I8 which are in. turn
cracks'from opening up.
'
For efilclent operation the side walls of the securely attached to the supporting members 2|
retort have to be-built of a material having a of the retort setting. The plate 22 (to which the
high thermal conductivity while the walls 6 of compression member 1' is attached) is thus per
the combustion chamber are built of a poorly mitted to move in a vertical direction during ex
conducting refractory such as hre-clay. As these` pansion orcontraction of the retort relatively to
supporting members 2l.
_
i’ two types of materials have `in general different `theReferring
to Figure 6, one end of a retort may
rates of expansion, it is essential that the retort
should not bevv rigidly tied in with the structure abut against rollers 23 which are supported on
of vthe setting, -for if this is done the entire the retort setting while' the opposite end of the
retort structure may be subjected to such strains retort is pressed by the resilient means shown in
Figure 5, which means is vertically movable with
as’ will cause destructive cracking of the refrac
Yrespect to the adjacent setting asf‘ explained 70
tories and the opening nup even of horizontal è
f_
joints. It is impractical therefore to hold the above.
In the modification shown in Figure ’I means`
- retort in compression from the sides by» rigidly
tying the retort structure in with the structure are shown for applying a horizontal force to two
compression blocks located adjacent-an end wall
of the‘setting.
‘
'
of a retort by means of a single force mecha-- 75
.In the practice of my invention I apply pres
75.
2,126,325
nism. In this case a weighted lever mechanism
(of the bell-crank type) is indicated in the draw
ings, but other means such as springs or hydro
pneumatic or pneumatic means or hydraulic
means (cushioned by springs) may be used for
applying the horizontal forces, as illustrated
>diagrammatically in my U. S. Patent 2,067,085.
The modification shown in Figure 8 is similar
automatically controlled means disposed between
the setting and a terminal portion of each side
wall for applying independently to each side
wall horizontal pressure tending to close verti
cally disposed joints and cracks.
4. A retort having side walls for heat trans
mission from exterior heating sources and end
walls contacting with the retort setting, means
to that shown in Figure 'i except that the form
disposed between the setting and a terminal por- '
of joint between the tiles that compose the end
walls and side walls of the retort is diilerent.
In the modiñcation shown in Figure 9 horizon
tion of each side wall for applying independently 10
to each side wall horizontal `pressure tending to
close up vertically disposed joints and cracks,
and cavities adjacent to terminal portions of the
side walls containing finely divided material for
sealing under the action of gravity the side walls
with respect to the end walls and the retort
tal pressures are exerted on the side walls
through terminal blocks 34.
The joints in the
end wall that run parallel to the length of the
retort are sealed by means of loose packing in
the chambers 35. Gravity forces this packing
against the members 34 and causes a seal be
tween the members 34 an-d the intermediate
20 portion of the end wall and also between the
members 34 and the adjacent retort setting.
As has been indicated above, the walls of the
retorts are made of a non-metallic refractory
having a low coeñicient of thermal expansion and
25 a high degree of mechanical strength at high
temperatures, such as bonded silicon carbide or
recrystallized silicon carbide.
Other refractories
havinga thermal conductivity greater than 0.006'
calorie/cm3/sec./°C.,may be used if they possess
V30 the required mechanical strength, resistance to
spalling and chemical inertness. The walls, of
the retort setting can be made of ñre-clay backed
with steel beams as indicated in Figure 1 of the
drawings.
35
3
setting.
5. A furnace for the heat treatment of mate
rials comprising an elongated retort of rectangu
lar cross section having extended side walls for 20
heat transmission from combustion chambers
located on each side ofthe retort and having
narrow end walls one of which ñts loosely be
tween said elongated side walls, an outer furnace
wall surrounding the retort and the combustion
chambers, said outer furnace wall having two
movable sections of superposed blocks in contact
with the respective loosely ñtted ends of the side
walls, and yieldable means for pressing said side
walls of the retort in a horizontal direction.
30
» 6. A furnace for the heat treatment of mate
rials comprising an elongated retort of rectangu»
lar cross section having 'extended side walls for
heat transmission from combustion chambers
While I have described several methods by
which the invention may be applied to vertical
located on 'each side of the retort and having 35
narrow end walls one at least of which fits loosely
retorts, the principle underlying these methods l between said elongated side walls, an outer fur»
is applicable to a still wider range of retort types nace wall surrounding the retort and the com
and arrangements with their associated settings. ' bustion chambers, said outer furnace Wall hav
40 'I'he drawings are` intended to illustrate the ing two movable sections of superposed blocks in 40
practicability of the application of the invention
in a Variety of forms.
I claim:
g
1. A furnace for the heat treatment of mate
45 rials comprising an elongated retort of rectangu
lar horizontal cross section and having extended
side walls forfheat transmission from combustion
chambers located on each side of the retort and
having narrow end'walls joining said side walls,
50 said end walls being shielded from the combus
tion gases, an outer furnace wall surrounding the
retort and the combustion chambers, said outer
wall having a movable section of superimposed
blocks adjacent one end of the retort, and a plu
55 rality of weighted bell-crank levers for exerting
horizontal forces against the adjacent end of the
retort and tending to close vertical cracks in the
side walls of the retort.
-
2. The furnace structure described in'claim 1
60 in which the bell-crank lever compression mech
anism transmits pressure through a member
mounted for slidable movement in a vertical
direction with respect to the outer wall of the
furnace.
65
3. A retort having side Walls for heat trans
mission from exterior heating sources and end
walls contacting with the retort setting, and
contact with the respective loosely ñtted ends of
the side walls, yieldable means for pressing said
movable sections of the outer wall against side
walls of the retort in a horizontal direction, and
cavities adjacent to terminal portions of the side 45
walls containing loose granular material for seal
ing under the action of gravity the side walls with
respect to the end walls of the retort and with y
respect to the outer furnace wall.
7. A retort having side walls for heat trans
mission from exterior heating sources and end
walls contacting with the retort setting, and
gravity controlled means disposed between the
retort setting and a terminal portion of each side
wall for continuously applying independently to 55.
each side wall horizontal pressure tending ‘to
close vertically disposed joints and cracks.
8. Agretort having side walls for heat trans
mission from exterior heating sources and end
walls contacting with the retort setting, and re
silient means disposed between the retort setting
and a terminal portion of each side wall for con
tinuously applying independently to each side
wall horizontal pressure tending to close verti
cally disposed joints and cracks.
CLARENCE E. HÀWKE.
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