Патент USA US2126375код для вставки
Patented Aug. 9, 1938 2,126,375 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,128,375 HAIR. TREATING COMPOUND Ernest 0. Frederics, Bronxville, and James 0. Brown, Mount Vernon, N. Y.; said Brown as signer to said Frederica No Drawing. Application February 23, 1935, Serial No. ‘7,842 4 Claims. This invention relates to methods and mate rials for the treatment of hair, ,and particularly those used in the so-called permanent waving of human hair. 1 "i In imparting a permanent wave to the hair, it is necessary to soften the hair, rendering it pli able by chemical means. One widely used method of softening the hair is by subjecting it to the action of ammonia gas, preferably during the entire permanent waving treatment, which oc cupies usually from 7 to 10 minutes. Various expedients have been adopted for producing the ammonia gas in suitable quantity and for the desired period. The present inventionhas for its object the provision of a novel and e?ective method of treating the hair, and particularly of combin ing the softening action of ammonia gas and that of certain salts, such as the normal sul?tes of sodium, calcium, potassium or magnesium, to cause a rapid and highly e?icient softening of the hair. Another object is the provision of a suitable mixture of ingredients for the purposes described. Other and further objects, features and advantages will appear from the description which follows. ' For the purpose of ‘supplying ammonia gas to the hair during the waving treatment, it is usual to wrap the hair in an absorbent pad or wrap 30 per saturated with a water solution of a com pound or mixture capable of releasing ammonia or other vapors bene?cial to the process. Upon the application of heat the vapors of ammonia ‘ and the like are given off. Various ammonium "35 salts may be used to release ammonia upon de composition during the application of heat. However, different ammonium salts have dif— ferent properties,‘ some giving off ammonia rap idly and others slowly, some at relatively low '40 temperatures and others at higher temperatures. ' Some of these salts are hygroscopic and others not. In the case of a non-hygroscopic salt, evaporation of the water of the solution, when exposed to the atmosphere, causes the formation 45 of a‘ crystalline deposit upon the sides and neck of the bottle or other container, and upon the ?ngers of the operator, which deposit is unsight ly and troublesome. In the case of other salts, their instalbility at normal temperatures occa 50 sions considerable loss ofthe ammonia vapors during the process of saturating the pads’ and wrapping the hair. I > In accordance with the present invention, in stead of applying to the pads a‘ solution of an 55 ammonium salt, there is applied'a solution of a (Cl. 167-871) . mixture of ingredients which will react, under proper conditions, to form a very desirable am monium salt for the purpose. The ingredients are also preferably chosen to avoid the disad vantages of the ammonium salts in solution,‘ as described above. For example, it has been found that, aside from its instability, ammonium sul ?te is an-‘exceptionally suitable salt for use in hair waving. It is hygroscopic, thus preventing the crystalline deposits mentioned above, and it IL has the characteristic of giving off ammonia gas at a, rate and at a temperature suitable for the hair waving treatment. However, ammonium sul?te is so unstable at ordinary temperatures that, if used‘in the ordinary way, a large loss 15 occurs during the impregnation and application of the pads. In accordance with the present invention, the advantageous features of ammonium sul?te may be derived in such a way as to obviate the afore said undesirable result. This is accomplished by applying to the pad a mixture of ingredients which, when the pad is applied to the hair and heated, react to a certain extent, to form am monium sul?te, which then, under the action of 25 heat, decomposes to give off ammonia gas. The action of the ammonia supplements and accel crates the action of the other ingredients of the solution, rendering the action of the solution as a. whole much more e?lcient. 30 Materials which may be satisfactorily employed are aqua ammonia and sodium sul?ts, which may be mixed in water solution, at room temperature, without causing reaction. This solution is not volatile nor unstable at ordinary temperatures, and thus the loss of materials due to evaporation or decomposition, during the preliminary han dling of the lotion, does not occur. When a pad saturated with the ammonia-sodium sul?te solu tion is wrapped about the hair,‘and heat is ap 40 plied, a reaction takes place which results in the production of ammonium sul?te. f It is believed that there is a reaction between the sodium and certain protein material of the hair, forming a sodium-protein salt, releasing the sul?te radical which reacts with ammonia to ‘form ammonium sul?te. However, it is not in tended to limit the present invention to any par-' ticular reaction or group of reactions, or by re liance upon vany particular theory. But it is known that ammonium sul?te is formed, and de ‘composes, under the action of the applied heat, in a manner to supply free ammonia. The reaction as a result of which the am monium salt is formed is a progressive one, and 2,126,375 2 does not proceed to completion during the hair waving period, but may involve only a relatively slight proportion of the sodium sul?te or other salt present. However, we have discovered that the action of the ammonia, given of! as a result of the decomposition of the ammonium salt, co operates in some way with the action of the other salt in the solution, and makes for a more e?icient softening of the hair than would be ex 10 pected from either ingredient alone or from a mixture of them. The ammonia and sodium sul?te mixture is not hygroscopic, and it is therefore preferred to add to this mixture a proportion of ammonium sul?te, for the reasons hereinbefore mentioned. The mixture is thus rendered su?iciently hygro scopic, while the small amount of ammonium suliite added does not appreciably a?ect the sta bility of the mixture. If desired, any other harm 20 less hygroscopic material may be used in place of the ammonium sul?te, the latter, however, being preferred for the reason that it is itself a desirable source of ammonia gas. ’ In accordance with the present invention we 25 may use between .5% and 6.0% of each of the three preferred ingredients (1. e., sodium sul?te, ammonia and an hygroscopic material, for in stance ammonium suliite), in the solution, but the total of such ingredients should not exceed The percentage of water will thus range between 90% and 98.5%. As an example, a satisfactory solution may consist of 4.0% so 30 about 10%. dium sul?te, 1.0% ammonia, 1.0% ammonium sulflte, and 94% water. 35 Other suliites, such as calcium, magnesium or potassium sul?te, may be used in place‘of sodium sul?te, and in fact any materials may be used which are not harmful to the hair and which react to form ammonium sul?te under the con 40 ditions obtaining in the permanent waving of hair. It is also apparent that such materials may be chosen as will form ammonium salts other than ammonium sul?te, the invention involving broadly the feature of applying to the pads a solution which does not contain an ammonium salt, but which contains ingredients which will in form an ammonium salt in the course of carry ing out the waving process, which salt will then be decomposed to give of! ammonia gas. Such other ammonium salts may include ammonium citrate and ammonium tartrate, which may be 10 developed under similar conditions from solutions containing either sodium citrate or sodium tar trate and ammonia. ’ The terms and expressions employed herein are used as terms of description and not of limi tation, and it is recognized that modi?cations may be made in the method and materials dis closed herein, without departing from the scope of this invention. 20 We claim: 1. The method of treating hair consisting in applying to the hair a pad. impregnated with a solution containing ammonium hydroxide and a sul?te of an alkali metal, and heating said pad. 2. The method of treating hair consisting in applying to the hair a pad impregnated with a solution containing between 0.5% and 6% sodium sul?te and between 0.5% and 6% ammonium hydroxide, said ingredients totaling not more than 10% of said solution, and heating said pad. 30 3. A hair-treating compound comprising a so lution containing ammonium hydroxide and a sul?te of an alkali metal. 4. A hair-treating compound comprising a so lution containing between 0.5% and 6.0% am monium hydroxide, and between 0.5% and 6.0% sodium sul?te, but said ingredients totalling not more than 10% of said solution. ERNEST O. FREDERICS. JAMES C. BROWN.