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Патент USA US2126375

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Patented Aug. 9, 1938
2,126,375
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,128,375
HAIR. TREATING COMPOUND
Ernest 0. Frederics, Bronxville, and James 0.
Brown, Mount Vernon, N. Y.; said Brown as
signer to said Frederica
No Drawing. Application February 23, 1935,
Serial No. ‘7,842
4 Claims.
This invention relates to methods and mate
rials for the treatment of hair, ,and particularly
those used in the so-called permanent waving
of human hair.
1 "i
In imparting a permanent wave to the hair, it
is necessary to soften the hair, rendering it pli
able by chemical means. One widely used method
of softening the hair is by subjecting it to the
action of ammonia gas, preferably during the
entire permanent waving treatment, which oc
cupies usually from 7 to 10 minutes. Various
expedients have been adopted for producing the
ammonia gas in suitable quantity and for the
desired period.
The present inventionhas for its object the
provision of a novel and e?ective method of
treating the hair, and particularly of combin
ing the softening action of ammonia gas and that
of certain salts, such as the normal sul?tes of
sodium, calcium, potassium or magnesium, to
cause a rapid and highly e?icient softening of
the hair. Another object is the provision of a
suitable mixture of ingredients for the purposes
described. Other and further objects, features
and advantages will appear from the description
which follows.
'
For the purpose of ‘supplying ammonia gas to
the hair during the waving treatment, it is usual
to wrap the hair in an absorbent pad or wrap
30 per saturated with a water solution of a com
pound or mixture capable of releasing ammonia
or other vapors bene?cial to the process. Upon
the application of heat the vapors of ammonia
‘ and the like are given off.
Various ammonium
"35 salts may be used to release ammonia upon de
composition during the application of heat.
However, different ammonium salts have dif—
ferent properties,‘ some giving off ammonia rap
idly and others slowly, some at relatively low
'40 temperatures and others at higher temperatures.
'
Some of these salts are hygroscopic and others
not.
In the case of a non-hygroscopic salt,
evaporation of the water of the solution, when
exposed to the atmosphere, causes the formation
45 of a‘ crystalline deposit upon the sides and neck
of the bottle or other container, and upon the
?ngers of the operator, which deposit is unsight
ly and troublesome. In the case of other salts,
their instalbility at normal temperatures occa
50 sions considerable loss ofthe ammonia vapors
during the process of saturating the pads’ and
wrapping the hair.
I
>
In accordance with the present invention, in
stead of applying to the pads a‘ solution of an
55 ammonium salt, there is applied'a solution of a
(Cl. 167-871) .
mixture of ingredients which will react, under
proper conditions, to form a very desirable am
monium salt for the purpose. The ingredients
are also preferably chosen to avoid the disad
vantages of the ammonium salts in solution,‘ as
described above. For example, it has been found
that, aside from its instability, ammonium sul
?te is an-‘exceptionally suitable salt for use in
hair waving. It is hygroscopic, thus preventing
the crystalline deposits mentioned above, and it
IL
has the characteristic of giving off ammonia gas
at a, rate and at a temperature suitable for the
hair waving treatment.
However, ammonium
sul?te is so unstable at ordinary temperatures
that, if used‘in the ordinary way, a large loss 15
occurs during the impregnation and application
of the pads.
In accordance with the present invention, the
advantageous features of ammonium sul?te may
be derived in such a way as to obviate the afore
said undesirable result. This is accomplished by
applying to the pad a mixture of ingredients
which, when the pad is applied to the hair and
heated, react to a certain extent, to form am
monium sul?te, which then, under the action of 25
heat, decomposes to give off ammonia gas. The
action of the ammonia supplements and accel
crates the action of the other ingredients of the
solution, rendering the action of the solution as a.
whole much more e?lcient.
30
Materials which may be satisfactorily employed
are aqua ammonia and sodium sul?ts, which may
be mixed in water solution, at room temperature,
without causing reaction. This solution is not
volatile nor unstable at ordinary temperatures,
and thus the loss of materials due to evaporation
or decomposition, during the preliminary han
dling of the lotion, does not occur. When a pad
saturated with the ammonia-sodium sul?te solu
tion is wrapped about the hair,‘and heat is ap 40
plied, a reaction takes place which results in the
production of ammonium sul?te.
f It is believed that there is a reaction between
the sodium and certain protein material of the
hair, forming a sodium-protein salt, releasing the
sul?te radical which reacts with ammonia to
‘form ammonium sul?te. However, it is not in
tended to limit the present invention to any par-'
ticular reaction or group of reactions, or by re
liance upon vany particular theory. But it is
known that ammonium sul?te is formed, and de
‘composes, under the action of the applied heat,
in a manner to supply free ammonia.
The reaction as a result of which the am
monium salt is formed is a progressive one, and
2,126,375
2
does not proceed to completion during the hair
waving period, but may involve only a relatively
slight proportion of the sodium sul?te or other
salt present. However, we have discovered that
the action of the ammonia, given of! as a result
of the decomposition of the ammonium salt, co
operates in some way with the action of the
other salt in the solution, and makes for a more
e?icient softening of the hair than would be ex
10 pected from either ingredient alone or from a
mixture of them.
The ammonia and sodium sul?te mixture is
not hygroscopic, and it is therefore preferred to
add to this mixture a proportion of ammonium
sul?te, for the reasons hereinbefore mentioned.
The mixture is thus rendered su?iciently hygro
scopic, while the small amount of ammonium
suliite added does not appreciably a?ect the sta
bility of the mixture. If desired, any other harm
20 less hygroscopic material may be used in place
of the ammonium sul?te, the latter, however,
being preferred for the reason that it is itself
a desirable source of ammonia gas.
’
In accordance with the present invention we
25 may use between .5% and 6.0% of each of the
three preferred ingredients (1. e., sodium sul?te,
ammonia and an hygroscopic material, for in
stance ammonium suliite), in the solution, but
the total of such ingredients should not exceed
The percentage of water will thus
range between 90% and 98.5%. As an example,
a satisfactory solution may consist of 4.0% so
30 about 10%.
dium sul?te, 1.0% ammonia, 1.0% ammonium
sulflte, and 94% water.
35
Other suliites, such as calcium, magnesium or
potassium sul?te, may be used in place‘of sodium
sul?te, and in fact any materials may be used
which are not harmful to the hair and which
react to form ammonium sul?te under the con
40
ditions obtaining in the permanent waving of
hair. It is also apparent that such materials
may be chosen as will form ammonium salts other
than ammonium sul?te, the invention involving
broadly the feature of applying to the pads a
solution which does not contain an ammonium
salt, but which contains ingredients which will
in
form an ammonium salt in the course of carry
ing out the waving process, which salt will then
be decomposed to give of! ammonia gas. Such
other ammonium salts may include ammonium
citrate and ammonium tartrate, which may be 10
developed under similar conditions from solutions
containing either sodium citrate or sodium tar
trate and ammonia.
’
The terms and expressions employed herein
are used as terms of description and not of limi
tation, and it is recognized that modi?cations
may be made in the method and materials dis
closed herein, without departing from the scope
of this invention.
20
We claim:
1. The method of treating hair consisting in
applying to the hair a pad. impregnated with a
solution containing ammonium hydroxide and a
sul?te of an alkali metal, and heating said pad.
2. The method of treating hair consisting in
applying to the hair a pad impregnated with a
solution containing between 0.5% and 6% sodium
sul?te and between 0.5% and 6% ammonium
hydroxide, said ingredients totaling not more
than 10% of said solution, and heating said pad. 30
3. A hair-treating compound comprising a so
lution containing ammonium hydroxide and a
sul?te of an alkali metal.
4. A hair-treating compound comprising a so
lution containing between 0.5% and 6.0% am
monium hydroxide, and between 0.5% and 6.0%
sodium sul?te, but said ingredients totalling not
more than 10% of said solution.
ERNEST O. FREDERICS.
JAMES C. BROWN.
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