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Патент USA US2126498

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Aug. 9, 1938.
Filed June >8, 1934
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Patented Aug. 9, 193s' t'
" .2,126,498
PATENT ori-‘1ct
_Clyde B. Paton, Birmingham, Mich., assigner to
Packard Motor Car. Company, Detroit, Mich., a
corporation of Michigan
Application June 8, 1934, Serial No. 329,567
s claim. wl. ass-34)
` This invention relates to internal combustion
engines Aand more particularly to mechanism for
controlling the iiow of water or other cooling ñuld
through» the cooling system cian engine of this
quently in variations of twenty to thirty degrees
in the temperature within the engineI block, and
the engine, of course, will not run smoothly and
efficiently under these ‘temperature variations.
One object of the present invention is to im- 5
In4 the cooling system of certain internal com
prove the construction and mode of operation
`bustion engines,_a by-pass is provided 'for short of cooling systems of the above character for in
circuiting- the radiator when the engine is cold. temal combustion engines with a view oi elimi
In such engines two `valves'controlled by a ther- ~ natlng the “hunting” action of the thermostat
10 mostat have been provided respectively for con
ically controlled mechanism
trolling the ilow‘of the cooling iluid from the '
Another object of the invention is to provide
engine through the radiator, and for controlling a cooling system of the character referred to for
the ilow of said iiuid through the by-pass. When >_internal combustion engines in which the by-pass
the engine is cold, the ñrst oi these valves is closed l will be maintained in open condition until the
,15 to cut oii'the -ilow of the iluid to the radiator t, cooling fluid reaches a predetermined high tem- 15
and the second ci." said valves isV open to provide perature at which the full cooling capacity of the
radiator is required.
for the free -ilow of the iiuid throughthe by
Another object o1’V -the invention is to provide,
pass. Under these conditions the'engine heats
up rapidly and substantially as the cooling fluid Vfor such engines, mechanism for controlling the
-0 reaches a predetermined. temperature, the ñrst' circulation of the cooling iiuid through the radi- 20 valve, under the Vaction of the thermostat, is _ ator and through the by-.pass having a novel con
opened to allow part 0,1.' `the cooling fluid to pass
through the radiator.
It is desirable lthat the valve controlling the
t by-pass as well as the valve controlling the cir
culation through the radiator should remain in
struction and arrangement of _thermo-controlled
With the above and other objects >in view, the
invention consists in a construction embodying 25
predetermined high temperature at which the
the novel and improved features hereinafter de
scribed and particularly pointed out in the claims,
the advantages of which will be readily under
full cooling capacity oi' the radiator is required.
stood by those skilled in the art.
open position until the cooling 'fluid reaches a
ling the 'ny-pass is often closed when the tern-~
’I'he invention Wlll'be clearly understood-from 30
the accompanying drawing illustrating the in
vention inits preferred form_ and the »following
detailed description oi' the construction therein
perature of the cooling iiuid is considerably be- f
30 The valve controlling devices oi prior construc- '
tions have. not been constructed to secure this
result. In such constructions the valve control
low the latter'predetermined temperature.- With
the by-pass closed all of the cooling fluid is passed
through the radiator and the full cooling effect
i 1
In the drawing, Fig. 1 is a view partly in side r35
elevation and partly in vertical section taken
longitudinally oi an engine and illustrating an
of the radiator 'is obtained. In cold weather the - engine embodyingthe invention and; y „
fluid is returned from the radiator to the engine 3
Fig. `2 is a detail view in vertical section on a
40 jacket at a relatively low temperature. This re
larger scale and illustrating particularly the 40._
sults in the passing of a floodV of reltaively cold Q mechanism ‘for controlling `the flow of cooling
fluid from the radiator into the .engine jacket iluid through the cooling system.
which chills >the engine and may result in the
t In the construction shown in the drawing, the
cracking of the cylinder walls. When the cooling
45 fluid of reduced temperature strikes the thermo
stat the second valve will be opened and part of
the coolingiluid from the engine jacket will then
ñow through. the radiator and part of said iluid
_ invention is embodied in an internal combustion
engine indicated at 2 having a water jacket com- 145‘
-prising 'a chamber 4 vextending over the head and
connected by pipes 6, 8 and i0 with'the upper
chamber lila oi the radiator Il. The lower ~
will be returned to the engine jacket through the > chamber of the radiator ls connected by a pipe
50 by-pass.V 'I'hls will result in an increase in the l2 with that part of the water jacket at the base 50
temperature of the cooling huid within the engine _ o1' the engine. The engine also comprises a ian
jacket and often will cause the- thermostat again i3 mounted on a _shaft il driven by a belt I5 and
to close the second valve. 'I'his intermittent clos
a water pump I6l secured'to the inner end of the
ing and opening of the valve controlling the by
55 pass, which is known as "hunting”, results fre
The pump IG'rotates within a pump casing Il- 55
provided with peripheral openings (not shown)`
the cooling iiuid reaches the latter predeter
mined temperature at which the full cooling
capacity of the radiator is required.
The bellows of thermostats 35 and 41 are illled
leading to the space within the lower part of the
engine jacket. A relatively short by-pass 2i
within the engine jacket leads from the chamber
4 to the upper end of the passage I9. When the
pansion and contraction of the bellows wit'
changes in temperature. The setting oi' ea(
thermostat is determined by the nature of th,
connection between the chamber 4 and the ra
diator is open, cooling ñuid passes from the
fluid introduced into the bellows thereof and may
be varied by varying the said ñuid. .Any suitable
chamber 4 through the pipes l, l and lil to the
radiator and returns to the engine jacket through
the pipe I2. The iluid thence is drawn by the
fluid or ñuid mixture may be employed to pro
having a central opening Il connecting the casing
with a passage Il, the lower .end oi' which is con
nected with the pipe I2. The pump casing is
pump through the opening Il in the pump cas
16 ing, is discharged by the pump through the pe
ripheral openings in the casing into the space
within the lower part of the engine jacket and
after circulating about the cylinder walls returns
to the chamber 4. When the by-pass 2l is open,
iluid from the chamber 4 passes from said cham
ber through the by-pass 2| into the upper end of
the passage I9 and thence is drawn by the pump
through opennig I l into the pump casing from
which it is circulated through the engine jacket.
In order to‘control the ?ow of cooling fluid
from the water jacket to the radiator, a valve 22
is provided. ’I‘his valve consists of a disc ar
ranged to engage a valve seat 24 formed on a
supporting member 25. T'he member 25 is
respectively with suitable iluids which cause ex
duce the opening and closing of the respective
valves controlled by the thermostats at the de
sired predetermined temperatures.
4 The thermostats may be set respectively to open
the valve 22 and to close the valve 44 when the
cooling fluid reaches any desired predetermined
temperatures. In the preferred form of the in
vention, the thermostat 35 is constructed to open
the-valve 22 when the cooling iiuid has reached a
temperature within the normal> running tempera
ture range o1 the engine and the thermostat 41 is
constructed to maintain the valve 44 in open posi
tion when the cooling iiuid is within this tem
perature range. The thermostat 41 closes the
valve 44 only when the cooling viîluid reaches a
relatively high predetermined temperature above
and on the pipe l to secure the said member in
place. The valve 22 is secured to the upper end
of a longitudinally movable stud 32 passing
through a guide 34 formed on the member 25.
To thelower end of the stud 32 is attached a
the normal running temperature range of the
engine at which the i'ull cooling capacity of the
radiator is required. In actual practice the ther
mostat 35 has been constructed to open the valve
22 when the cooling iiuid reaches a temperature
of substantially 150° F. and to locate said valve
in fully openedposition when the ñuid reaches
a temperature of substantially 190.o F. The
thermostat 41 has been constructed to close the
valve 44 when the cooling iluid reaches a tem-perature of substantially 190° F. These settings
of the respective thermostats have produced
highly satisfactory results in the control of th
thermostat indicated as a whole at'35 and com
circulation of the cooling ñuid.
mounted in the p
leading from the cham
ber 4 to the radiator and is provided with a series
of openings 2l for the passage of ithe cooling
iiuid. Said member is provided with a marginal
flange 21 which is clamped _between the iianges
2l and 2l formed respectively on'the chamber 4
The thermostats 35 and 41 are located within
prising a plate or disc II secured to the stud and
the chamber 4 which is some distance below the
an expansible and contractible chamber or bel
lows I8 attached at its upper end to the marginal _ upper- chamber of the radiator so that they are
portion of the disc which forms one end wall of at all times completely immersed in the cooling
the thermostat. The lower end o_f the bellows fluid. The construction shown has the advantage
Il restsupon andissecured toaplate 4l forming
that, when the engine is cold, the cooling iluid,
the other endwall o! the thermostat. 'I'he plate
4l forms part of a yoke 42 embracing the bellows
after passing through the engine Jacket, is re
turned from the top ot the said jacket to the
lower part thereof in relatively short path located
Il. the arms o! the yoke extending upwardly from
said plate and the upper ends thereof are secured
to the member 25.
. 'I‘he flow of the cooling iluid through the by
within the engine walls so that the :duid loses a
minimum amount of heat in its circulation and
the engine will heat up very quickly. 'I‘he ther
mostats also are located within the engine jacket
pass is controlled by means of avalve 44 arranged
to engage a valve seat 40 at the upper end of and arecontrolled by the temperature of the fluid
within the said jacket.
said by--pass. This valve consists of a disc form
In the preferred form of the invention above
ingthe lower end wall ot a thermostat indicated g
as a whole at 41 and comprising an expansible described, while the motor is cold, the thermo
and contractible chamber or bellows 4l, the lower stats I5 and 41 will both be in contracted condi
end ofwhichissecuredto themarginal-portion Ition, the valve 22-will be held in closed position
of said disc. The upper end o! the bellows 4l is by the thermostat Il and the valve 44 will be
secured to and supported by the plate 4I, said held in open podtion by the thermostat 41 all as
plate constituting the other end wall >of the clearly shown in 'the drawing. Substantially as
thermostat. The thermostat Il is constructed' the cooling iiuid- in the chamber 4 reaches a
andarrangedtomamtainthevalve 22inclo'sed
predetermined temperature,_the thermostat 3l
expands and opens the valve 22 to allow the iluid
from the water jacket of the engine to start
circulating through the radiator, the valve mov
valve when the cooling nuid in the chamber 4
reachesmbstantiallyapredetermined tempera
ture. The thermostat 41 isconstructed and ar
ing gradually toward fully open position. The
whentheengineis cold and atalltimesafter
valve 44 continues in open position when the
cooling iluid is at a temperaturey within the nor
mal running temperature range of the engine so
duid is below a predetermined temperature higher~
than that at which .the valve 22 is opened. The
u valve 44isclosedbythethermostat 41 onlywhen
that part of the cooling‘iluid continues to pass
through the by-pass 2| and part of said iluid
passes through the radiator. 'I‘he proportions
2, 126,498
of the parts of the cooling ñuid passing through
2. An internal combustion engine comprising
a water jacket, a‘radiator, pipe connections be
the radiator and through the by-pass are varied
automatically by the movements of either one
tween the radiator and said jacket,va valve for
or both of the valves between fully opened and
controlling the iiow of cooling fluid through said -
closed positions with the changes in temperature
to maintain the Íluidwithin the normal tempera
ture range. The thermostat 41 operates to close
the valve 44 only when the cooling iiuid reaches
a relatively high predetermined temperature
pipe connections, a by`-pass for short circuiting
the radiator with relation to the engine-jacket,
a thermostat for maintaining the iirst valve in
closed position when the engine is below a pre- ‘
determined temperature >and for opening said
above the said normal temperature range of the
first valve when the engine reaches said tem
perature, and an independently operating ther
mostat for maintaining the second valve in open
position until the first valve is entirely open,
and for closing the second valve when the i’irst
The ilow of the cooling fluid through the radia
tor and through the by-pass may be varied in
various ways by changes in the setting of _the
thermostats to vary the temperatures at which
the valves controlling the circulation of said
valve‘is entirely open.
20 controlling the valve 44`insures that said valve
will be maintained in-open position when the
cooling fluid is below the predetermined tem
will beavoided.
for controlling the flow of fluid through said by
pass, and thermostatically controlled means for
lopening the first valve whenthe cooling ñuid
reaches a predetermined temperature, and for 25
closing the vsecond valve when said fluid reaches
a substantially higher predetermined tempera
ture than that eiîecting initial opening of said
The thermostats '35 and 41 are preferably ar
ranged in axial alignment, and the plate 40 con
tween the radiator and said jacket, a valve for
controlling the flow of cooling fluid through said- pipe connections, a by-pass for short circuiting 20
the radiator with relation to the engine, a valve
operates independently of the thermostat 35 for
Thus the “hunting” action of the thermostatic
mechanism produced in prior constructions with
the resultant disadvantages referred toabove
3. An internal combustion engine comprising
a Water jacket, a radiator, pipe connections be
iiuid are opened and closed.
The employment of the thermostat 41 which
perature at which said thermostat is set to close
the valve `or below the temperature at> which -the
25 full cooling capacity of the radiator is required.
- 3
first valve.
4. An internal combustion engine comprising@ 30
a water jacket, a radiator, connections between
stitutes a common base, and the yoke 42 a com
the water jacket and the radiator, a by-pass for
mon support or carrier for said thermostats. short circuiting the radiator, a thermostatically
'I‘his results in a very compact arrangement of , operated valve within said -connection arranged
35 the thermostats4 and valves. -The thermostats
with the yoke 42, valves 22 and 44, stud 32 and
support member 25 are all assembled and se
cured together as a unit and may be applied
to or removed from the engine as a unit. The
40 unit is applied tothe engine by introducing the
same into the opening in the upper left hand end
of the chamber 4, Figs. l and 2, and positioning
the same to engage the ñange 21 o_n the mem
ber 25 with the flange 28. The unit is then se
45 cured in place by attaching the pipe 6.
It is to be understood that. the invention is
not limited to the particular construction and
«arrangement of parts of the illustrated embodi
ment of the invention but that the construction
50 shown and described is merely illustrative of
the invention and that the invention may be
embodiedlinpther forms within the scope4 of
the claims.
Having explained the naturev and object of the
and having specifically described a`
construction embodying the invention in its pre
ferred form, what is claimed is:
1. An internal combustion engine comprising
a water jacket, a radiator, pipe connections be
tw'een the radiator and said jacket, a valve for
controlling the ñow of cooling iluid through said
pipe connections, a ‘by-pass tor `short circuiting
the radiator with relation to the engine, a valve
for controlling the flow of fluid through said by
65 pass, a thermostat for adjusting `said iirst valveA
above a _given fluid temperature, and an inde
pendently acting thermostat set to operate at a
comparatively 'widely different temperature for
adjusting the second valve.
to close the connection when the engine is cold
and to gradually'open the connection after the
cooling fluid passes substantially a predeter
mined temperature, and a thermostatically op
erated valve in the connection for controlling
the by-pass arranged to open the) by-pass when
the. engine is cold and to close the by-pass when
the cooling fluid reaches substantially a higher
predetermined temperature fully opening. the
iirst mentioned valve.
5'. In an internal combustion engine, a water
jacket having a chamber at the top of the en 45
gine, a radiator, an upper connection between
said radiator and said chamber, a lower connec
tion >between said jacket and said radiator, a y
by-pass leading from said chamber to said lower
connection for short circuiting îthe radiator, a 50
disc like support mounted in said chamber, a
valve seat on `said support, a yoke having arms
attached _to said support, a thermostat having
a,l chamber attached to said support, a valve 55
secured to said thermostat chamber for engag
ing said seat, a second thermostat having a
chamber attached to said support substantially
u in an axial alignment with said first thermostat,
and a valve attached to said chamber in said sec
ond thermostat, said iirst valve controlling flow 6.0
through the upper connection and said second
valve controlling -flow through the by-pass and
said thermostats being set to control the opera
tion of said valves at substantially widely differ 65
ent temperatures.
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