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Патент USA US2126717

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Aug- 16, 1938.
G. E. BA'RNHART
2,126,717
VARIABLE ACTION TUBULAR SHAFT
’
Filed Jan. 26, 1933
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INVENTOR
‘ GEoPaE 5. 5A PNHA 127'
BWM/M
ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. 16, 1938
2,126,717
UNITED STATES
,
PATENT‘ form-cs
2,126,717
VARIABLE ACTION TUBULAR SHAFT
George E. Barnhart, Pasadena, Calif.
’
""
Application January 26, 1933, Serial No. 653,595
8 Claims. (Cl. 273-80)
This invention has to do in a general way
with the manufacture of tapered tubular metal
ticularly related to the construction of ' arti
sectional shape. In some instances, the de
sired action may be obtained by grooves which
extend the entire length of the shaft, the gen
eral cross-sectional shape, in such instances, re
cles in the general class of golf club shafts, ?sh
maining the same.
articles or structural elements, and is more par
ing rods, pole mallets, fencing foils, swords, bay
onets, archers’ bows, and the like, which depend,
to a large extent, for their utility upon the ease
with which they may be handled.
The invention also contemplates structural ele
‘ments, such as ship masts, telephone poles,
stanchions, etc.
As is well known to those familiar with the
-
5
-
In addition to this, my invention contemplates
the placement of grooves of different types, or
a different arrangement of grooves, at different
points, or in different regions along the length
of the shaft so that in one portion of the shaft 10
the greater stiffness will be in another axial plane,
disposed at right angles or at another angle to
the ?rst mentioned axial plane.
This particular construction ?nds special ap
art, tapered tubes, depending upon their use,
are subjected to compression, bending, tension , plication in the manufacture of golf shafts, since 15
or combinations of two or all of these forces.
the neutral axis may be varied at different points
Telephoné"poles, for example, are subjected so as to absorb any sting which might be car
to compression, and bending forces due to wire ried from the impact of the head up into the
pull; archers’ bows are subjected to compression grip.
20 and bending; airplane struts are subjected to
compression; and golf clubs are subjected to the
combined forces of tension and bending, since
My invention also contemplates a novel type 20
of grip which adds to the ease with which the
club may be handled, and also assists in absorb- ‘
ing the shock or sting resulting from the im
sion in the shaft, and the head resistance and pact. It is an important feature of this grip that
25 contact with the ball creates bending.
it incorporates grooves, of the type referred to 25
It is important, therefore, that structures of 4 hereinabove, positioned so as to give the desired
this nature be formed so that the axis of great
stiffness in the grip portion of, the shaft, and
est strength can be readily determined merely ‘?lled with a yieldable material which provides a
by an inspection of the shaft. My invention cushion for the thumb and ?ngers.
30 contemplates a tapered tubular structure formed
Itrnis an important feature of this invention 30
the centrifugal force of the stroke causes ten
in this manner, and a method of making same. i i'
It isan object of this invention to produce
an article of the general type referred to above
which has a characteristic action, whip, or feel,
35 and in which the action or feel may be antici
‘that ‘the'r'strength or stiffness may be selectively
D0'sitioiied'i"about the desired axis without in
creasing ,Qrchanging in any way the weight of
the shaft; “In this connection, it should be
pated from the external appearances of the ar
pointed out that a shaft embodying my inven- 35
tion has greater strength in bending than a
ticle.
round shaft of the identical weight.
In golf shafts, for example, some players pre
fer to have the “feel”, as it is termed, near the
40 head of the club, others prefer to have it near
the handle, and this invention contemplates the
production of golf shafts in a manner such that
the so-called “feel” can be placed at any point
in the'shaft, and an inspection of the shaft will
45 immediately indicatefwhere the ‘feel will be in
actual use. For example, beads placed on ‘the
sides .of a golf shaft may be‘ used to illustrate
that the shaft is stiffest in a; plane at right an;
gles to a plane containing the ‘two beads._ This
50 stiffens ‘the shaft‘ in one‘ direction, and gives
added “control” to the club head without too
' greatly reducing the ?ex of the shaft.
The results‘contemplated by? this invention
are obtained by grooving :or corrugating the
55 shaft or other‘ article so as to change itsv cross
It is a further object of this invention, to pro
duce golf shafts, the characteristics of, which
may be embodied ina set or series to provide 40
what is known as a “matched” set, in which the
matched characteristics are immediately appar
ent to the‘ observer.
.
Although I have referred to a golf shaft more
particularly hereinabove, and ‘will con?ne the
45
detailed description of the invention to_ a golf
shaft, it is to be understood that the invention is
not limited to this particular type of structural
element, but that it may ?nd special applica- 50
tion in the production of dueling swords, fencing
swords, bayonets, and the like, inthat the prac
tice of the invention may be employed to give
the desired action or Whip by the varying sec- '
tional shape, and, naturally, the hollow con-' 55
2
2,126,717
struction gives light weight combined. with
indicated at I9, as shown in the cross-section in
strength.
Fig. 3.~ ‘ In this particular construction, the neu
tral axis of this section of the shaft lies along the
line Xa so that the maximum stiffness of the
shaft lies in a plane at right angles to the plane
of maximum stiffness in the section shown in
I
The invention is also particularly adapted for
use in connection with fishing rods for the same
reasons as pointed out above, as for instance,
the best shapes can be supplied which will best
sustain bending, tension, compression, and other
forces. Numerous other applications will be im
mediately apparent to those familiar with the
followed by another segment B of the shaft,
This invention also contemplates a novel
‘method for grooving the elements contemplated
shown in Fig. 4. This particular arrangement
by this invention, and particularly drawing in
that the maximum stiffness in this section lies in
a plane Xb at substantially right angles to the
plane of maximum stiffness in the section shown 15
grooves by a drawing action on the metal.
The details in the construction of certain pre
ferred embodiments of my invention, together
with other objects attending its production, will
be best understood from the following“ descrip
tion of the accompanying drawing, which is
20 chosen for illustrative purposes only, and in
which
Fig. 1 is an elevational view showing a golf
club equipped with a shaft embodying my inven
tion;
'
Fig. 2 is a plan section taken in the plane rep
resented by the line 2-2 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a plan section taken in a plane rep
resented by the line 3-4 in Fig. 1;
‘
Fig. 4 is a plan section taken in a plane repre
30 sented by the line 4-4 in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a plan section taken in a plane repre
sented by the line 5-—5 in Fig 1;
Fig. 6 is a plan section taken in a plane repre
sented by the line 6-6 in Fig. 1;
Figs. '7, 8, and 9 are side views showing tubular
35
tapered shafts, grooved in accordance with my
invention, and illustrating various types of
grooves which may be employed;
Figs. 10, 11, and 12 are fragmentary sectional
40 views further illustrating various types of grooves
which may be employed in connection with my
invention; ‘and
.
Fig. 13 is an elevational view, partly in section,
illustrating one form of machine which may be
45 employed in producing the article contemplated
by this invention.
,
-
More particularly describing the invention as
herein illustrated, reference numeral ll indicates
a golf club which, as pointed out hereinabove, has
been chosen to illustrate one application of the
invention.
’
The golf club I I comprises a shaft l2, which
has a head I3, and a grip portion II. The grip
portion I4 is shown as being provided with a pair
55 of oppositely disposed grooves or corrugations l6,
which are positioned in a plane that lies sub
stantially normal to the striking face of the club
l3. These grooves, in addition to positioning the
axis of, greatest stiffness in a plane which is nor
60 mal to the striking face of the club, are adapted to
receive rubber or other yieldable sections I‘!
which provide cushions for the thumb and fingers.
The grip portion of the club, of course, is covered
65
>
The portion A, in this form of my invention is
which has four grooves arranged in the manner 10
10 art.
25
Fig. 2.
in any suitable manner, as indicated at ii.
In this form of - my invention, I show the
grooves i6 as extending only part way into the
gripping portion of the club. For some purposes,
where it is desired to have a maximum stiffness
of the extreme upperend of the groove, this
arrangement is particularly suitable. It is to be
again reverses the position of the neutral axis so
in Fig. 3. The grooves i913 in the section B may
be continuations of the four front grooves in the
section A, the back groovesv having been discon
tinued.
The section B is followed by another section 20
C, designed to given even greater stiffness to a
part of the shaft at its lower end, such section
having only two grooves, indicated at ISC, which
may be thought of as being continuations of the
two front grooves in section B. The last section 26
of the shaft, indicated at D, which extends into
the head, is shown as being a round.
The shape or form of the various grooves in
the various sections may be varied, within-com
paratively wide limits, depending upon the ex 80
tremes desired in the particular action which
these grooves will obtain.
In Fig. 7, for example, I have shown a groove
20 which is of uniform width throughout its
length, and which may end abruptly as indicated 85
at 2|. This groove may be of uniform depth, as
indicated at 22 in Fig. 10, or it may be of gradu
ally decreased depth, as indicated' at 23 in Fig.
11, in which event it might gradually “Wash out”
as the diameter of the shaft decreases. On the 40
other hand, the groove 20 of uniform width might
gradually increase in depth as the diameter of
the shaft decreases, taking the form shown at 24
in Fig. 12.
In Fig. 8, I show a groove 25, the width of which 45
decreases as the diameter of the shaft decreases,
and this groove, like the one shown in Fig. 20,
may take any one of the three forms shown in
Figs. 10 to 12 inclusive.
In Fig. 9, I show a type of groove 26, which 50
gradually increases in width as the diameter of
the shaft decreases, and this groove, like the
ones shown at 20, may take the various forms
shown in Figs. 10 to 12 inclusive.
It is to be understood, of course, that the form 55
of shaft shown and described hereinabove is de
signed to produce one particular action or result.
The arrangement of the grooves, however, as
pointed out above, may be varied within com
paratively wide limits to produce different ac 60
tions, and, in some instances, the cross-sectional
shape of the shaft in its grooved portion may re
main the same throughout the entire length of
the groove portion. In some instances, it might
even be desirable to form the longitudinal grooves
on a slight spiral about the shaft to obtain the
required results.
In Fig. 11, I show somewhat diagrammatically
one form of machine which may be used to pro
understood, however, that the grooves might be
duce the grooved article contemplated by this 70
invention, and to illustrate broadly my method.
made shorter or longer than illustrated.
In this particular form of shaft, I show in the
This machine may embody in a general way
the principles of a tube drawing machine in that
portion indicated at A, which is just below the
grip portion, a section provided with five grooves,
the shaft tobe grooved, which is indicated by
reference numeral 30, is mounted in a come-along 75
3
, 2,120,717
‘ 3| whereby it is drawn through aigrooving mech_ . to produce an ornamental shaft, designs may be
anism, generally indicated by reference numeral
cut on the grooving rollers 48, such designs being
The grooving mechanism 32 is shown as transferred during the grooving operation ‘to the
comprising an upright support 33 which has an _ shaft, as indicated at 20' in Fig. 7.
opening 34 through which the tube or shaft is
It is to be understood that, while I have herein
adapted to be drawn.
described and illustrated one preferred form of
The upright support 33 is mounted upon a my invention, the invention is not to be limited
base member 34 which is provided with a guide to the precise construction, as described above,
35 adapted to be received in a shoe 36 on the but includes within its scope whatever changes
10 bottom of a leg 31 which forms apart of a come
fairly come within the spirit of 'the appended
along. The shoe 33, which is secured to the base claims.
of the leg 31 through the medium of screws 38,
I claim as my invention:
is of a length equal to or slightly greater than
1. A hollow, tapered shaft having a plurality
the length of the shaft and has an inclined up
of longitudinal grooves of different lengths there
per surface which I might term a cam, this sur
in, said grooves being arranged so as to vary the 15
face being indicated by reference numeral 38’.
The cam surface 38' extends below and is
adapted to be engaged by a roller 39 mounted
on the outer end of an arm 40 which is either
20 secured to or forms part of a lever member 4|.
cross-sectional shape and the relative location
of the neutral axis of said shaft at di?erent por
tions of the shaft throughout its length.
2. A hollow, tapered shaft having a plurality
of longitudinal grooves of different lengths there 20
The lever member 4i is'pivotally mounted upon in, said grooves being arranged so as to vary the
a bracket 42 secured to the upright support 33.
~cross-sectional shape and the location of the ‘
i The lever member M is shown as being in the
neutral axis of said shaft at different portions‘of
nature of a stirrup or yoke, the upper portion of the shaft throughout its length, certain of said
25 which supports a ring member 45 in a pin and grooves being ?lled with a yieldable materiaL.
slot connection indicated at dotted lines at‘ 44.
3. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal
The ring member. 45 carries, what I may term, grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so
swinging roller members generally indicated at as to vary the cross~sectional shape and the loca
46. These swinging roller members 46 comprise tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different
30 lever arms 41, the forward ends of which are portions of the shaft, some of said grooves being so
provided with grooving rolls 48 adapted to engage ' of uniform width and uniform depth throughout
the shaft 30, and the rear ends of which are pro
their length. ‘
.
'
vided with guide rolls 49 adapted to ‘engage the
4. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal
, surface of a'hollow guide cone member 50.
grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so
The lever member ti is urged in the direction as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the loca 35
35
of the arrow G so as to press the groove rolls, tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different
said rolls being permitted to rotate or to remain portions of the shaft, ‘some of said last mentioned
stationary,‘ into groovingv engagement with the
grooves being of uniform width throughout their
length and decreasing in depth as the diameter
ly or manually. However, for the purpose of il
of the shaft decreases.
lustration, I show a strong tension spring M
5. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal
which is adapted to subject the grooving rolls into ‘grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so
pressure engagement with the shaft. It will be as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the'loca
observed, however, that the movement of the tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different
shaft in any suitable manner such as hydraulical
45 rolls into engagement with the shaft is positively " points throughout its length, some of said grooves 45
limited by the engagement of the roller 39 with
the cam surface 38'.
50
This cam surface, moving
with the come-along, regulates the ‘depth of the
grooves. The width of the grooves may be varied
by changing the size and shape of the grooving‘
being of uniform width throughout their length
and increasing in depth as the diameter of the
shaft decreases.
'
'
>
_ 6. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal
grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so 50
rollers 48, and the guide rollers 49, by virtue of. as to vary the cross sectional shape and the loca
‘their engagement with the conical surface 50., tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different
coordinate the depths of \the various grooves so ‘portions of the shaft and decreasing in‘width as
that one is not deeper than the other.
the diameter of the shaft decreases.
The number of grooves may be regulated by
7. A hollow, tapered'shaft having longitudinal
55
varying the number of swinging roller units, and grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so 55
the come-along may be rotated during a drawing, as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the loca
operation to form spiral grooves on the shaft. ‘
tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different
Although it is particularly desirable from the. portions of the shaft, some .of said grooves being
standpoint of the drawing action obtained and of uniform depth throughout their length and
'60
60
its attending strengthening and toughening ' increasing in width as the diameter of the shaft
‘ properties to form the articles contemplated by
this invention by a process of the type described
above in connection with the machine shown in
i Fig.” 13, it will be apparent to those familiar with
the art that the shapes desired may be obtained
by other means.
‘
For'example, it is possible to use tapered sec
tions of metal shaped so that when‘ they are
pressed or drawn into the shaft they will give
70 the desired shape to the groove‘. If ‘it is desired
decreases.
8. A hollow,'tapered,shaft having longitudinal
grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so
as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the locaq 65
tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different
' portions of the shaft, some of said grooves being
of increasing depth and increasing in width as
the diameter of the shaft decreases.
GEORGE ‘ E. BARNHART.
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