Патент USA US2126717код для вставки
Aug- 16, 1938. G. E. BA'RNHART 2,126,717 VARIABLE ACTION TUBULAR SHAFT ’ Filed Jan. 26, 1933 L i rh w I2‘ \ / c4 1? 2y 19¢ ‘ \ ' ' F1510 22W / I’ . Hill 23/’-: D 3 F‘IEE- 6i Hp Q42 ' if > ' ~ FIEJZ ' INVENTOR ‘ GEoPaE 5. 5A PNHA 127' BWM/M ATTORNEY Patented Aug. 16, 1938 2,126,717 UNITED STATES , PATENT‘ form-cs 2,126,717 VARIABLE ACTION TUBULAR SHAFT George E. Barnhart, Pasadena, Calif. ’ "" Application January 26, 1933, Serial No. 653,595 8 Claims. (Cl. 273-80) This invention has to do in a general way with the manufacture of tapered tubular metal ticularly related to the construction of ' arti sectional shape. In some instances, the de sired action may be obtained by grooves which extend the entire length of the shaft, the gen eral cross-sectional shape, in such instances, re cles in the general class of golf club shafts, ?sh maining the same. articles or structural elements, and is more par ing rods, pole mallets, fencing foils, swords, bay onets, archers’ bows, and the like, which depend, to a large extent, for their utility upon the ease with which they may be handled. The invention also contemplates structural ele ‘ments, such as ship masts, telephone poles, stanchions, etc. As is well known to those familiar with the - 5 - In addition to this, my invention contemplates the placement of grooves of different types, or a different arrangement of grooves, at different points, or in different regions along the length of the shaft so that in one portion of the shaft 10 the greater stiffness will be in another axial plane, disposed at right angles or at another angle to the ?rst mentioned axial plane. This particular construction ?nds special ap art, tapered tubes, depending upon their use, are subjected to compression, bending, tension , plication in the manufacture of golf shafts, since 15 or combinations of two or all of these forces. the neutral axis may be varied at different points Telephoné"poles, for example, are subjected so as to absorb any sting which might be car to compression, and bending forces due to wire ried from the impact of the head up into the pull; archers’ bows are subjected to compression grip. 20 and bending; airplane struts are subjected to compression; and golf clubs are subjected to the combined forces of tension and bending, since My invention also contemplates a novel type 20 of grip which adds to the ease with which the club may be handled, and also assists in absorb- ‘ ing the shock or sting resulting from the im sion in the shaft, and the head resistance and pact. It is an important feature of this grip that 25 contact with the ball creates bending. it incorporates grooves, of the type referred to 25 It is important, therefore, that structures of 4 hereinabove, positioned so as to give the desired this nature be formed so that the axis of great stiffness in the grip portion of, the shaft, and est strength can be readily determined merely ‘?lled with a yieldable material which provides a by an inspection of the shaft. My invention cushion for the thumb and ?ngers. 30 contemplates a tapered tubular structure formed Itrnis an important feature of this invention 30 the centrifugal force of the stroke causes ten in this manner, and a method of making same. i i' It isan object of this invention to produce an article of the general type referred to above which has a characteristic action, whip, or feel, 35 and in which the action or feel may be antici ‘that ‘the'r'strength or stiffness may be selectively D0'sitioiied'i"about the desired axis without in creasing ,Qrchanging in any way the weight of the shaft; “In this connection, it should be pated from the external appearances of the ar pointed out that a shaft embodying my inven- 35 tion has greater strength in bending than a ticle. round shaft of the identical weight. In golf shafts, for example, some players pre fer to have the “feel”, as it is termed, near the 40 head of the club, others prefer to have it near the handle, and this invention contemplates the production of golf shafts in a manner such that the so-called “feel” can be placed at any point in the'shaft, and an inspection of the shaft will 45 immediately indicatefwhere the ‘feel will be in actual use. For example, beads placed on ‘the sides .of a golf shaft may be‘ used to illustrate that the shaft is stiffest in a; plane at right an; gles to a plane containing the ‘two beads._ This 50 stiffens ‘the shaft‘ in one‘ direction, and gives added “control” to the club head without too ' greatly reducing the ?ex of the shaft. The results‘contemplated by? this invention are obtained by grooving :or corrugating the 55 shaft or other‘ article so as to change itsv cross It is a further object of this invention, to pro duce golf shafts, the characteristics of, which may be embodied ina set or series to provide 40 what is known as a “matched” set, in which the matched characteristics are immediately appar ent to the‘ observer. . Although I have referred to a golf shaft more particularly hereinabove, and ‘will con?ne the 45 detailed description of the invention to_ a golf shaft, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to this particular type of structural element, but that it may ?nd special applica- 50 tion in the production of dueling swords, fencing swords, bayonets, and the like, inthat the prac tice of the invention may be employed to give the desired action or Whip by the varying sec- ' tional shape, and, naturally, the hollow con-' 55 2 2,126,717 struction gives light weight combined. with indicated at I9, as shown in the cross-section in strength. Fig. 3.~ ‘ In this particular construction, the neu tral axis of this section of the shaft lies along the line Xa so that the maximum stiffness of the shaft lies in a plane at right angles to the plane of maximum stiffness in the section shown in I The invention is also particularly adapted for use in connection with fishing rods for the same reasons as pointed out above, as for instance, the best shapes can be supplied which will best sustain bending, tension, compression, and other forces. Numerous other applications will be im mediately apparent to those familiar with the followed by another segment B of the shaft, This invention also contemplates a novel ‘method for grooving the elements contemplated shown in Fig. 4. This particular arrangement by this invention, and particularly drawing in that the maximum stiffness in this section lies in a plane Xb at substantially right angles to the plane of maximum stiffness in the section shown 15 grooves by a drawing action on the metal. The details in the construction of certain pre ferred embodiments of my invention, together with other objects attending its production, will be best understood from the following“ descrip tion of the accompanying drawing, which is 20 chosen for illustrative purposes only, and in which Fig. 1 is an elevational view showing a golf club equipped with a shaft embodying my inven tion; ' Fig. 2 is a plan section taken in the plane rep resented by the line 2-2 in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a plan section taken in a plane rep resented by the line 3-4 in Fig. 1; ‘ Fig. 4 is a plan section taken in a plane repre 30 sented by the line 4-4 in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a plan section taken in a plane repre sented by the line 5-—5 in Fig 1; Fig. 6 is a plan section taken in a plane repre sented by the line 6-6 in Fig. 1; Figs. '7, 8, and 9 are side views showing tubular 35 tapered shafts, grooved in accordance with my invention, and illustrating various types of grooves which may be employed; Figs. 10, 11, and 12 are fragmentary sectional 40 views further illustrating various types of grooves which may be employed in connection with my invention; ‘and . Fig. 13 is an elevational view, partly in section, illustrating one form of machine which may be 45 employed in producing the article contemplated by this invention. , - More particularly describing the invention as herein illustrated, reference numeral ll indicates a golf club which, as pointed out hereinabove, has been chosen to illustrate one application of the invention. ’ The golf club I I comprises a shaft l2, which has a head I3, and a grip portion II. The grip portion I4 is shown as being provided with a pair 55 of oppositely disposed grooves or corrugations l6, which are positioned in a plane that lies sub stantially normal to the striking face of the club l3. These grooves, in addition to positioning the axis of, greatest stiffness in a plane which is nor 60 mal to the striking face of the club, are adapted to receive rubber or other yieldable sections I‘! which provide cushions for the thumb and fingers. The grip portion of the club, of course, is covered 65 > The portion A, in this form of my invention is which has four grooves arranged in the manner 10 10 art. 25 Fig. 2. in any suitable manner, as indicated at ii. In this form of - my invention, I show the grooves i6 as extending only part way into the gripping portion of the club. For some purposes, where it is desired to have a maximum stiffness of the extreme upperend of the groove, this arrangement is particularly suitable. It is to be again reverses the position of the neutral axis so in Fig. 3. The grooves i913 in the section B may be continuations of the four front grooves in the section A, the back groovesv having been discon tinued. The section B is followed by another section 20 C, designed to given even greater stiffness to a part of the shaft at its lower end, such section having only two grooves, indicated at ISC, which may be thought of as being continuations of the two front grooves in section B. The last section 26 of the shaft, indicated at D, which extends into the head, is shown as being a round. The shape or form of the various grooves in the various sections may be varied, within-com paratively wide limits, depending upon the ex 80 tremes desired in the particular action which these grooves will obtain. In Fig. 7, for example, I have shown a groove 20 which is of uniform width throughout its length, and which may end abruptly as indicated 85 at 2|. This groove may be of uniform depth, as indicated at 22 in Fig. 10, or it may be of gradu ally decreased depth, as indicated' at 23 in Fig. 11, in which event it might gradually “Wash out” as the diameter of the shaft decreases. On the 40 other hand, the groove 20 of uniform width might gradually increase in depth as the diameter of the shaft decreases, taking the form shown at 24 in Fig. 12. In Fig. 8, I show a groove 25, the width of which 45 decreases as the diameter of the shaft decreases, and this groove, like the one shown in Fig. 20, may take any one of the three forms shown in Figs. 10 to 12 inclusive. In Fig. 9, I show a type of groove 26, which 50 gradually increases in width as the diameter of the shaft decreases, and this groove, like the ones shown at 20, may take the various forms shown in Figs. 10 to 12 inclusive. It is to be understood, of course, that the form 55 of shaft shown and described hereinabove is de signed to produce one particular action or result. The arrangement of the grooves, however, as pointed out above, may be varied within com paratively wide limits to produce different ac 60 tions, and, in some instances, the cross-sectional shape of the shaft in its grooved portion may re main the same throughout the entire length of the groove portion. In some instances, it might even be desirable to form the longitudinal grooves on a slight spiral about the shaft to obtain the required results. In Fig. 11, I show somewhat diagrammatically one form of machine which may be used to pro understood, however, that the grooves might be duce the grooved article contemplated by this 70 invention, and to illustrate broadly my method. made shorter or longer than illustrated. In this particular form of shaft, I show in the This machine may embody in a general way the principles of a tube drawing machine in that portion indicated at A, which is just below the grip portion, a section provided with five grooves, the shaft tobe grooved, which is indicated by reference numeral 30, is mounted in a come-along 75 3 , 2,120,717 ‘ 3| whereby it is drawn through aigrooving mech_ . to produce an ornamental shaft, designs may be anism, generally indicated by reference numeral cut on the grooving rollers 48, such designs being The grooving mechanism 32 is shown as transferred during the grooving operation ‘to the comprising an upright support 33 which has an _ shaft, as indicated at 20' in Fig. 7. opening 34 through which the tube or shaft is It is to be understood that, while I have herein adapted to be drawn. described and illustrated one preferred form of The upright support 33 is mounted upon a my invention, the invention is not to be limited base member 34 which is provided with a guide to the precise construction, as described above, 35 adapted to be received in a shoe 36 on the but includes within its scope whatever changes 10 bottom of a leg 31 which forms apart of a come fairly come within the spirit of 'the appended along. The shoe 33, which is secured to the base claims. of the leg 31 through the medium of screws 38, I claim as my invention: is of a length equal to or slightly greater than 1. A hollow, tapered shaft having a plurality the length of the shaft and has an inclined up of longitudinal grooves of different lengths there per surface which I might term a cam, this sur in, said grooves being arranged so as to vary the 15 face being indicated by reference numeral 38’. The cam surface 38' extends below and is adapted to be engaged by a roller 39 mounted on the outer end of an arm 40 which is either 20 secured to or forms part of a lever member 4|. cross-sectional shape and the relative location of the neutral axis of said shaft at di?erent por tions of the shaft throughout its length. 2. A hollow, tapered shaft having a plurality of longitudinal grooves of different lengths there 20 The lever member 4i is'pivotally mounted upon in, said grooves being arranged so as to vary the a bracket 42 secured to the upright support 33. ~cross-sectional shape and the location of the ‘ i The lever member M is shown as being in the neutral axis of said shaft at different portions‘of nature of a stirrup or yoke, the upper portion of the shaft throughout its length, certain of said 25 which supports a ring member 45 in a pin and grooves being ?lled with a yieldable materiaL. slot connection indicated at dotted lines at‘ 44. 3. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal The ring member. 45 carries, what I may term, grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so swinging roller members generally indicated at as to vary the cross~sectional shape and the loca 46. These swinging roller members 46 comprise tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different 30 lever arms 41, the forward ends of which are portions of the shaft, some of said grooves being so provided with grooving rolls 48 adapted to engage ' of uniform width and uniform depth throughout the shaft 30, and the rear ends of which are pro their length. ‘ . ' vided with guide rolls 49 adapted to ‘engage the 4. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal , surface of a'hollow guide cone member 50. grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so The lever member ti is urged in the direction as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the loca 35 35 of the arrow G so as to press the groove rolls, tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different said rolls being permitted to rotate or to remain portions of the shaft, ‘some of said last mentioned stationary,‘ into groovingv engagement with the grooves being of uniform width throughout their length and decreasing in depth as the diameter ly or manually. However, for the purpose of il of the shaft decreases. lustration, I show a strong tension spring M 5. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal which is adapted to subject the grooving rolls into ‘grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so pressure engagement with the shaft. It will be as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the'loca observed, however, that the movement of the tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different shaft in any suitable manner such as hydraulical 45 rolls into engagement with the shaft is positively " points throughout its length, some of said grooves 45 limited by the engagement of the roller 39 with the cam surface 38'. 50 This cam surface, moving with the come-along, regulates the ‘depth of the grooves. The width of the grooves may be varied by changing the size and shape of the grooving‘ being of uniform width throughout their length and increasing in depth as the diameter of the shaft decreases. ' ' > _ 6. A hollow, tapered shaft having longitudinal grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so 50 rollers 48, and the guide rollers 49, by virtue of. as to vary the cross sectional shape and the loca ‘their engagement with the conical surface 50., tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different coordinate the depths of \the various grooves so ‘portions of the shaft and decreasing in‘width as that one is not deeper than the other. the diameter of the shaft decreases. The number of grooves may be regulated by 7. A hollow, tapered'shaft having longitudinal 55 varying the number of swinging roller units, and grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so 55 the come-along may be rotated during a drawing, as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the loca operation to form spiral grooves on the shaft. ‘ tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different Although it is particularly desirable from the. portions of the shaft, some .of said grooves being standpoint of the drawing action obtained and of uniform depth throughout their length and '60 60 its attending strengthening and toughening ' increasing in width as the diameter of the shaft ‘ properties to form the articles contemplated by this invention by a process of the type described above in connection with the machine shown in i Fig.” 13, it will be apparent to those familiar with the art that the shapes desired may be obtained by other means. ‘ For'example, it is possible to use tapered sec tions of metal shaped so that when‘ they are pressed or drawn into the shaft they will give 70 the desired shape to the groove‘. If ‘it is desired decreases. 8. A hollow,'tapered,shaft having longitudinal grooves therein, said grooves being arranged so as to vary the cross-sectional shape and the locaq 65 tion of the neutral axis of said shaft at different ' portions of the shaft, some of said grooves being of increasing depth and increasing in width as the diameter of the shaft decreases. GEORGE ‘ E. BARNHART.