Патент USA US2126834код для вставки
Aug- 16, 1938. A. J. STEINBERGER 2,126,834 TEXTILE MATERIAL Original Filed Oct. 21, 1955 mm Emm umT5515. um» m Mu wil til 5 @E w m v Q A), m\Q wi(l /%mm 4m 1)M;‘l! HH“m NLIJVENTOR um, I \ JP; . ALFRED m1.v STEIN 553cm 2,126,834 Patented Aug. 16, 1938 PATENT‘OFFICE UNITED STATES 2,126,834 TEXTILE MATERIAL Alfred J. Steinberger, Jamaica, N. Y., assignor to Celanese Corporation of America, a corpora tion of Delaware Application October 21, 1935, Serial No. 45,891 Renewed May '6, 1938 6 Claims; ' (Cl. 154-2) This invention relates to the production of window and shower curtains, drapes, portieres, window shades, blankets, and similar articles, wherein at least one edge of the article or an in 5 termediate part thereof is trimmed, strengthened and/or stiffened by coalescing together a plu rality of layers of material along said edge. An object of the invention is the economical production of textile or other articles in sheet 10 form having at least one edge or margin thereof formed of a plurality of layers of material which are held together by coalescing the various lay ers to each other. A further object of the in vention is the economical production of textile 15 or other articles in sheet form having at least one edge or margin thereof stiffened and strengthened in such a manner that the same, upon being ironed ?at, in pleats or other de sired con?guration, will retain substantially per in O manently the shape imparted thereto during the ironing. A still further object of the invention is the production of a ?nished, stiffened or un sti?ened edge upon articles in sheet form. Other objects of the invention will appear from the 62 following detailed description. In the manufacture of curtains, drapes and the like, it has been the custom to sew into at least the top edge of same, a single, double and sometimes a triple thickness of buckram or other 6 stiffening material. After the buckram was stitched in and a hem formed on the article by sewing, the edge of the article was then pleated and the pleats sewn in place. These articles could not be washed as the stiffness would be 5 removed from the buckram. Articles formed in accordance with this invention, which invention includes the welding or coalescing together of at least some of the layers of fabric at the edge of the article, may be washed any number of in times without losing their stiffness. Furthermore, no sewing is necessary to form either the hem or to hold the pleats, folds or creases in place in the article. Furthermore, the size, shape or _ style of the pleats may be changed at will by 5") merely re-ironing and setting the pleats. Other applications may be made of this in vention, such as the placing of bindings on blankets, quilts, tents and similar articles. After or during the fusing of the binding upon the ‘0 blanket or similar article, the edge may be sub jected to an embossing or crimping operation to add a pattern thereto. The pattern may resemble stitching, small pleats or novel design effects. The article thus formed may be laundered many 5 times without the loss of the embossed effect. This invention permits of an easy and economical method for attaching tapes, edgings and the like to articles._ Furtherfore, it may be employed to produce edgings on textile articles, which edgings have an effect which could not be obtained where 5 the edgings were attached to the articles by sew ing the same thereon. In accordance with this invention, I produce articles of textile or other sheet material having a border which is formed by laminating and co- 10 alescing together at least two layers of the sheet material at or near the margin of the article. The layers of sheet material may be a?ixed to each other with a thermoplastic material, which material is contained in one or more layers of the 15 assembled article. Outstanding examples of suit able thermoplastic materials for the purpose here in described are fabrics or other sheet material containing organic derivatives of cellulose, such as the organic esters and organic ethers of cellu lose. Examples of organic esters of cellulose are cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cellulose pro pionate and cellulose butyrate, while examples of cellulose ethers are methyl cellulose, ethyl cel lulose and benzyl cellulose. The laminating and 25 coalescing together of the assembled layers of sheet material at the edge of the article may be effected by subjecting the assembly to heat and pressure. In the drawing, wherein like reference numerals 30 refer to the same or similar elements, there are shown various types of drapes formed in accord ance with my invention. In the drawing: Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a drape shown attached to its supporting rod; 31> Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a front elevatlonal view of a part of a drape having a hem and pleats of a nature dif ferent from those shown in Fig. 1; 40 Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; I Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of another type of edging that may be applied to drapes; and Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on the 45 line 6—-6 of Fig. 5. This invention is applicable to the production of articles of textile or other sheet materiaL'which articles are normally hemmed, taped or otherwise reinforced or ornamented at at least one edge 50 thereof. For instance, this invention is applica ble to the production of curtains, drapes, por tieres, window shades, blankets, tents, bed spreads or other articles requiring an edge either to lend stiffness, decorative e?ect or shape there- 55 2 2,126,884 to or to prevent unravelling or fraying of the curtains in which it is desired to produce a two edges of the material. This invention is appli cable to any sheet material and particularly to tone effect upon the marginal edges thereof. In this modi?ed form of the invention, the curtains are formed of a body part I which is folded over itself to form a double layer thereof shown at ‘l and 8. Inserted in this fold may be tapes of an inner layer fabric II at the free edge of the fold and tapes of an inner layer fabric I2 at the outer edge of the fold. On the inside of the two sets of tapes II and I2 there may be inserted an 10 auxiliary inner layer of fabric I 3, which fabric is doubled and in its doubled form of substantially the same width as the folded part of the curtain I. This auxiliary inner layer fabric I3 may be of textile fabrics. Examples of fabrics, although any other suitable fabric may be employed, are voile. ninon, lace, mesh fabric, net, armure, brocatelle, casement cloth, chintz, monk’s cloth, poplin, taffeta, woolen blanket material, etc. As an aid in describing the invention, the de scription thereof will be made with particular reference to the drawing. In Fig. 1 there is shown a curtain or drape I having a reinforced bottom portion 2 and a similar reinforced top portion 3. The bottom and top portions 2 and 3, respec 15 tively, are formed into the same or a different number of pleats. the same or of a different material from that of Through the top pleats 3 the body portion of the curtain to obtain certain there may be inserted drape supporting rings of any suitable construction. The drape supporting decorative effects hereinafter more fully described. When the body portion l of the curtain is of a mesh, net or other open work fabric, many novel rings 4 may be threaded on. and held by a sup 20 porting rod 5 which may be attached to the wall, ceiling or other part of the room, as is well understood. The drape or curtain I may be formed from a suitable drape or curtain material by doubling 25 a portion of the material back upon itself in a manner similar to the forming of a hem on the material, or by adding to one or more edges a piece of material to form a so-called false hem. effects may be produced by employing a voile, 20 poplin, taffeta or other fabric of the same or of a dissimilar color as the auxiliary inner layer fabric l3. Upon heat pressing the assembly, it is caused to coalesce or weld together only at those portions containing the tapes II and I2. By this ‘means there is produced a curtain having a re inforced and stiffened hem-like edge containing an unsealed portion.through which a supporting Instead of stitching the material, as has been rod 5 may be threaded. The bottom part of the drapes shown in either 30 done heretofore, there is inserted in the fold of the material a fabric 6 which, for the purpose Figs. 3 or 4 may be similar to the one shown in of describing this invention, may be termed the Fig. 1 or they may have pleats inserted therein inner layer of fabric, and the assembly subjected corresponding in shape to the pleats formed in to heat and pressure to coalesce the layers thereof ‘the top portion thereof. The curtain shown in 35 together. Thus, there is produced at the top and Figs. 5 or 6 may also be pleated to give the same bottom of the curtain a reinforced and stiffened a pleasing drape, the pleats being inserted in the edge consisting of two plies of the drape or cur heading above and below the unsealed portion tain material ‘I and 8 with an inner layer of fabric that is adapted to receive the rod 5. As will be obvious from the following description of the 6 therebetween, which edge will retain its co method of causing coalescence of the fabric, mod 40 40 alesced and stiffened form through any launder ing processes. i?cations other than those shown in the drawing In Fig. 3, there is shown a modi?ed form of a may be made. Where the body of the article is formed of non drape which consists of body portion I having a reinforced top portion 3 comprising two layers thermoplastic materials such as cotton, wool, 46 of the curtain or drape material 8 and 1 formed linen, silk, etc., the inner layer fabric is prefer 45 by doubling a portion of the curtain or drape ably formed of or contains an organic derivative material back upon itself and inserting therebe of cellulose. The inner layer of fabric. may be tween an inner layer of fabric 6. The assembly formed entirely of yarns of organic derivatives consisting of the layers 6, ‘l and 8 is welded or of cellulose or it may be formed of yarns of an 50 coalesced together by subjecting the same to heat organic derivative of cellulose interwoven or 50 and pressure. While the material is in a ?at position, the same may have slots 9 cut therein. The drape material may then be pleated with an ordinary hand iron, heated mangles, or any other knitted with yarns of other materials such as perature. By this means there is formed a cur said assembly a plasticizer, softener or swelling cotton, silk, wool, etc. In order that the desired degree of stiffening and adhesion be attained upon heat pressing 55 suitable heating and pressing device, by folding’ the assembly, formed of the several layers of fab 56 the material into the desired con?guration of ric, either in the presence or absence of water, pleat and pressing the same at an elevated tem it is of importance that there be present in the tain or drape heading, which is pleated to give 60 an exceptionally pleasing drape to the textile material and which is sufficiently rigid that a rod agent for the organic derivative of cellulose employed in the assembly. Where the body or 5 may be inserted in the slots and the curtains exposed portion of the article is made of non or drapes supported thereby. By regulating the thermoplastic materials, the plasticizer or sof thickness, methods of application and materials tener may be applied to the assembly after the assembly is formed by dipping the same into a 65 contained in the layers 6, ‘I and 8 any degree of stiffness may be imparted to the heading 3 of the solution containing the plasticizer or softener. However, it is preferable to apply the plasticizer curtain or drape. In this way there maybe pro duced a drape which may be supported upon a to the inner layer of fabric. When applying the rod 5 and which may be slid back vand forth , plasticizer to the inner layer fabric prior to 70 across the rod 5 without the necessity of metallic forming the assembly, no wetting of the exposed 70 attachments or prominently exposed supporting layers of the article is necessary. .While it is preferable to apply the plasticizer to the inner rods. In Fig. 6 there is shown a modi?ed form of the layer of fabric, it may be present in any of the invention which is particularly applicable to the layers of fabric. However, if the exposed surfaces 75 formation from laces, nets or sleazy materials of or the outer layers are not to be modi?ed, the 3 2,126,884 plasticizer should be absent from those layers and be applied only to the inner layers. The plasticizer may be applied to the fabric in any suitable manner. Thus, the plasticizer or high boiling solvent for the organic derivative of cellulose employed in the assembly may be ap plied to or incorporated in the fabric by passing the said fabric through a solution of plasticizer, by padding the plasticizer on the fabric or by spraying on the fabric a solution of plasticizer in cotton bunting to the body portion may be ef fected by pressing the assembly at elevated tem— peratures in the presence of moisture. This invention is not only applicable to assem a volatile solvent, or, when the inner layers of fabric contain yarns of an organic derivative of blies of composited articles wherein-all of the lay ers of fabric contain only yarns .or ?laments of organic derivatives of cellulose. It is applicable also to articles that have'a body'portion wherein yarns of other fibres are present together with‘ the yarns or filaments of an organic derivative of 10 For instance, there may be employed ' cellulose. in fabrics in which yarns of an organic deriva cellulose, the plasticizer may be incorporated in the organic derivative of cellulose yarns or ?la ments as formed by adding the same to the solu-‘ tion from which the yarns or filaments are formed or by applying same to the yarns or filaments during, the spinning operations. However, ‘any 20 other suitable method may be employed for im pregnating the inner layer fabric with the plas ticizer. § tive of cellulose alternate with non-thermoplastic yarns either in the warp or in the weft or both in any desired degree of alternation. This alterna 16 tion may be, for instance, 1, 2, 3 or more cellulose acetate yarns with 1, 2, 3 or more yarns of cotton or other non-thermoplastic ?bers. For conven ience, the body portion of the article may be formed so that the warp may be made with such alternation of an organic derivative of cellulose yarn and the yarn of other fibres, while the weft ‘ Any suitable plasticizer may be employed, which plasticizer may or may not be soluble in water. The plasticizers may be any of the high boiling solvents or softening agents as, for ex 25 ample, the aryl sulphonamides such aspara ethyl may consist wholly of yarns of an Organic deriva tive of cellulose or of yarns of other ?bers. Fur thermore, the body portion may consist of a fab ric consisting of yarns made from mixed thermo toluol sulphonamid, the alkyl phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate, the dialkyl tartrates such as dibutyl tartrate, the alkoxy esters of polybasic organic acids such as diethoxy ethyl phthalate, plastic and non-thermoplastic ?bers, which yarns may be formed by the woolen or cotton methods the polybasic esters of the mono alkyl ethers of polyhydric alcohols such as diethylene glycol ethyl ether ester of phthalic acid, the alkyl esters of phosphoric acid as triethylglycol phosphate, the aryl' esters of phosphoric acid as tricresyl phosphate, the mixed alkyl and aryl phosphates as ethylglycol dicresyl phosphate, and camphor. The amount of plasticizer present is preferably of spinning yarns. If desired, the body portion of the article may be a fabric in which either the warp or weft consists wholly of cellulose acetate yarn, while the intermediate layers of the article consist of any suitable material containing a suf ?cient amount of plasticizer for the cellulose ace tate of the body portion, the assembly of fabrics 35 being caused to adhere to each other by heat pressing in the presence or absence of water. Ad hesion effected under these conditions results in relatively large and on the order of from less than 40% to 150% or more of the weight of the organic 40 derivative of cellulose present in the assembly of fabrics. Where the article comprises an organic derivative of cellulose body portion and an inner layer of cotton fabric, the amount of plasticizer applied to the cotton fabric may be as much, as the cotton fabric will absorb and retain, i. e. the cotton fabric is saturated with the plasticizer. Where the article is to be formed of a textile material containing thermoplastic yarns or ?la ments of an organic derivative of cellulose as the body portion, the stiffening material may be any suitable fabric containing a plasticizer. However, where the body portion of an article is formed entirely of non-thermoplastic material, the inner layer fabric must necessarily contain a‘thermo plastic material. If desired, however, both the body portion of the article and the inner layer fabric may contain yarns and ‘filaments of an or ganic derivative of cellulose. ’ It is necessary in each assembly to have present at least one layer of fabric containing an organic derivative of cel lulose adjacent to each layer of fabric which does not contain-an organic derivative of cellulose. This invention may be carried out in a large number of ways, particularly as to the nature of 66 the fabric or number of fabrics employed, pro no alteration of the outer surface'of the body por tion since the plasticizer on the inner layer causes the organic derivative of cellulose, such as cel lulose acetate, of only the inner side of the outer layers to soften or become tacky and adhere. Where the body portion of the article is made entirely of non-thermoplastic yarns, the inner 46 layer, fabric may be made wholly of yarns or ?laments of an organic derivative of cellulose or of a mixture of yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose and yarns of a non-thermoplastic nature. These may be woven or knitted in any degree of alteration as described above with reference to body portion fabrics. - / _ If desired, the organic derivatives’ of cellulose may be present in the inner layer f?bric in the form of a coating. For example, on-thermo 55 plastic fabrics may be coated with a powder or a slurry containing an organic derivative of cellu lose and a plasticizer, or the inner layer may be treated with a plasticizer and then coated with an organic derivative of cellulose. By this invention any number of layers of fabric may be joined togetherj‘t'o form stiffened, decorated or otherwise modi?ed edges. , Thus, the article may contain a body portion of cellu-. 65 lose acetate fabric, the exposed surface of which is unaltered, which body portion is bound to an inner layer fabric containing cotton or wool derivatives of cellulose are employed in the com yarns, or yarns containing an'organic derivative posite material. For instance, the composite ma-. of cellulose. The edge of the article may be 70 terial such as a drape may be formed from a body 70 portion comprising a cellulose acetate poplin; made of any number of layers of fabric, for .in-., stance, 6 or 7 layers of fabric may be employed taffeta having an inner layer of a cotton bunting, provided that a layer of fabric containing ‘ which inner layer fabric has been padded with a thermoplastic yarns is interposed between each vided that the fabrics containing yarns of organic 75 substantial amount of plasticizer for the cellulose acetate in the body portion. The adhesion-of the two layers made of non-thermoplastic yarns and 75 ’ 4 2,126,834 provided also that a plasticizer for the organic derivative is present-.\ - ties, it is preferable to have water present dur ing the application of heat and pressure, but it is to be understood that this is not essential. to the successful working of 1 this invention. An aqueous liquid or steam may be applied to the assembly of fabrics'in any suitable manner. 10' Thus, water may be applied by spraying or brush ing the fabric with water or by padding the material with water or by dipping the fabric in water. Where the body portion of the (article does not contain organic derivatives of cellulose, in place of water there'rnay be employed as an aid in coalescing the layers of fabric together an aqueous solution of alcohol with or without a plasticizer. If steam is employed, it is preferable to employ a wet steam and the same may be in 20 jectedinto the material during the pressing op eration in a manner similar to that of pressing woolen fabrics. ‘ Any suitable device may be used for pressing the assembled fabrics to cause them to adhere 25 together. For instance, the fabrics » ‘may be pressed with hot irons, or the fabric may be be placed on blankets, etc. by the method herein described. To obtain good adhesion and stiffening proper In such a modi?cation of the inven tion, the edge of the body portion of the article is inserted in a fold of trimming fabric and an in ner layer fabric is placed at each side of the body portion and between the body portion and ’ the trimming fabric. ., In order to further illustrate my invention and without being limited thereto, the following speci?c examples are- given: 107 Example I A fabric consisting of a poplin-taffeta formed of yarns or ?laments of cellulose acetate is em ployed as the body portion of a drape. The upper and lower ends of this fabric are folded over upon itself for a distance of about 3 inches. A fabricvconsisting of a light weight cotton duck saturated with-a plasticizer for cellulose acetate and of substantially the same width as the fold is inserted into this fold. Similar folds may be 20 made along the longitudinal margins of the body portion, which folds may. however, be of a much ' narrower width. In these folds there is also placed a tape consisting of a cotton muslin saturated with a plasticizer for the cellulose 25 passed between pressure rollers, one or both of acetate. Those parts of the article. containing which are heated, or between a heated pressing the folds are pressed in the presence of steam at iron or plate and a cold board or surface. The a temperature of about 110° C. This operation, heating‘device may be heated to a desired tem results in a drape in which at least the upper perature, for instance, 80° C. to 180° C. or more, and lower portions are stiffened and resemble 30 and the pressure may be of any desired degree, hems, the stitching, of course, being absent. The for instance, from 10 to 600 pounds or more per 'drape may then be pleated into pleats of any de square inch. By increasing the pressure to an sired width and con?guration. The pleating op extremely high degree a glazed surface may be eration is periormedmerely by placing the pleats imparted to thefabric at those parts in which > in the material and ironing the same with a _ g r ' heated iron. The pleats thus formed in the Novel effects, such as stripes, dots, rectangles drape are substantially permanent. These pleats or other geometrical designs, or ?oral or other uponlbeing pulled out return, when released, to designs, may be produced by‘ pressing the com their original pleated form. If desired, slots may coalescence takes'place. posited edge of the material with a device of be cut in the folds at suitable positions for the 40 suitable con?guration wherein heat and pressure ' insertion of supportingrods. are applied only locally within the area where the materials are composited. By such a process, ‘ Example II 45 the designs are embossed into the composite A piece of lace suitable for a curtain is folded material and ‘the composite material is stiffened - over upon itself for substantially three inches at 45 only at those points which receive the heat and its upper and lower ends. A taffeta ribbon formed pressure, since only those portions that come in of cellulose acetate yarns and about six inches in contact with the raised parts of the heating de width is folded down the center and inserted in the vice become united, while the other portions re fold in the lace material. ‘Tapes consisting of tain the properties of the original fabrics. ‘This cotton muslin about % inch in width containing 50 local application of heat and pressure may be yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose and a effected by manually operated means, if desired. plasticizer are inserted between the lace material . By locally applying a plasticizer or having the. and the taffeta material at the upper edge of the 65 same present in localized places, the layers of fold and at the lower edge of the fold. The as fabric are united only in such places» and the sembly is then moistened with water and ironed 55 union of the unplasticized portions of subsequent with an iron at a temperature of about 100° C. launderings is ‘avoided. The assembly is caused to adhere together and be Where the body portion of the article contains stiffened at those portions containing the p1asti~ only non-thermoplastic materials, novel effects cizedv tape. This edging formed on the curtain may be produced in the edging by employing an may then be pleated, folded or otherwise shaped inner layer of fabric containing plasticized organic derivatives of cellulose in the form‘ of tapes, as'shown in Fig. 6 of’ the drawing. In place of plasticized organic derivative of cellulose tapes, other shapes, such as rings, discs, rectangles, etc. of relatively small size may be employed as the inner layer. Upon heat press ing the assembled fabrics in the presence of 70 moisture, a union is caused between the various layers only at those places in which there is present the small pieces of fabric. This invention is also applicable to the placing of tapes and bindings on the edge of articles. 75 For instance, satin trimmings or bindings may as desired and a rod for supporting the same “inserted in the pocket formed between the upper and lower tapes. . Emample III A woolen" blanket may have a binding folded over its marginal edgings, which binding consists of a ribbon formed'of cellulose acetate. Between the blanket and the ribbon there is inserted a tape of any desired width consisting of a fabric formed of organic derivatives of cellulose and a plasticizer for the organic derivative of cellulose. The as semblies at the edges of the blanket are then mois_ tened with water and pressed at a temperature at about 100° C. The ribbon of cellulose acetate 65 2,126,834 is thereby caused to permanently adhere to the woolen blanket. If desired, an embossing action may be effected concurrently with the pressing ac tion which causes the adhesion of the ribbon to the blanket. The embossing may be such as to produce an imitation of stitching or a ?oral design along the edge of the ribbon, or any other suitable pattern may be imparted thereto. By this means there is produced a blanket having an edge of cel 10 lulose acetate taffeta ribbon with or without a design thereon, saidribbon being permanently at tached to the blanket over that area occupied by the plasticired tape inserted between the two. It is to be understood that the foregoing de 15 tailed description and examples are merely given by way of illustration and many alterations may be made therein without departing from the spirit of my invention. Having described myinvention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is: 1. Process for producing substantially perma nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com prises forming on at least the upper edge'of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a pin rality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains an organic derivative of cellulose, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least hanging a laminar structure comprising a plu rality of layers of fabric at least one of which con tains an organic derivative of cellulose, and a plasticizer for the organic derivative of cellulose, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer con taining the organic derivative of cellulose, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined con?guration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially permanent, and a pleated appearance is given to the unlaminated portion of the hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge. 4. Process for producing substantially perma nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com prises forming on at least the upper edge of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a plu rality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains cellulose acetate, and a plasticizer for the cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer containing the cellulose ace tate, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined con?guration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby 10 15 20 25 part of their area by the fabric layer containing the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered the organic derivative of cellulose, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of pre determined con?guration and applying heat and substantially permanent, and a pleated appear ance is given to the unlaminated portion of the 30 hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge. 5. A decorative hanging having on at least the upper edge thereof a substantially permanently pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially per manent, and a pleated appearance is given to the unlaminated portion of the hanging bythe ten sion due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge. 2. Process for producing substantially perma nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com prises forming on at least the upper edge of the hanging a laminar structure comprising a plu rality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains ‘cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being joined together over at least part of their area by the fabric layer containing the cellulose acetate, folding the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of predetermined con?guration and applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered substantially permanent, and a pleated appear ance is given to the unlaminated portion of the r) 5 hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge. 3. Process for producing substantially perma nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com prises forming on at leat the upper edge of the pleated portion comprising a laminar structure| of 35 a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which contains an organic derivative of cellulose, said layers of fabric being joined together by the fab ric layer containing the organic derivative of cel lulose, the hanging also having an unlaminated 40 portion ‘which has a pleated appearance caused by the tension due to the weight thereof sus pended from said laminated edge. 6.. A decorative hanging having on at least the upper edge thereof a substantially permanently pleated portion comprising a laminar structure containing a plurality of layers of fabric at least one‘of which contains cellulose acetate, and a placticizer for the cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being joined together by the fabric layer containing the cellulose acetate and the plasti cizer, the hanging also having an unlaminated portion which has a pleated appearance caused by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended from said laminated edge. ALFRED J. STEINBERGER.