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Патент USA US2126834

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Aug- 16, 1938.
A. J. STEINBERGER
2,126,834
TEXTILE MATERIAL
Original Filed Oct. 21, 1955
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ALFRED m1.v STEIN 553cm
2,126,834
Patented Aug. 16, 1938
PATENT‘OFFICE
UNITED STATES
2,126,834
TEXTILE MATERIAL
Alfred J. Steinberger, Jamaica, N. Y., assignor to
Celanese Corporation of America, a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application October 21, 1935, Serial No. 45,891
Renewed May '6, 1938
6 Claims; '
(Cl. 154-2)
This invention relates to the production of
window and shower curtains, drapes, portieres,
window shades, blankets, and similar articles,
wherein at least one edge of the article or an in
5 termediate part thereof is trimmed, strengthened
and/or stiffened by coalescing together a plu
rality of layers of material along said edge.
An object of the invention is the economical
production of textile or other articles in sheet
10 form having at least one edge or margin thereof
formed of a plurality of layers of material which
are held together by coalescing the various lay
ers to each other.
A further object of the in
vention is the economical production of textile
15 or other articles in sheet form having at least
one edge or margin thereof stiffened and
strengthened in such a manner that the same,
upon being ironed ?at, in pleats or other de
sired con?guration, will retain substantially per
in O manently the shape imparted thereto during the
ironing. A still further object of the invention
is the production of a ?nished, stiffened or un
sti?ened edge upon articles in sheet form. Other
objects of the invention will appear from the
62
following detailed description.
In the manufacture of curtains, drapes and
the like, it has been the custom to sew into at
least the top edge of same, a single, double and
sometimes a triple thickness of buckram or other
6 stiffening material.
After the buckram was
stitched in and a hem formed on the article by
sewing, the edge of the article was then pleated
and the pleats sewn in place. These articles
could not be washed as the stiffness would be
5 removed from the buckram.
Articles formed in
accordance with this invention, which invention
includes the welding or coalescing together of at
least some of the layers of fabric at the edge
of the article, may be washed any number of
in times without losing their stiffness. Furthermore,
no sewing is necessary to form either the hem
or to hold the pleats, folds or creases in place
in the article.
Furthermore, the size, shape or
_ style of the pleats may be changed at will by
5") merely re-ironing and setting the pleats.
Other applications may be made of this in
vention, such as the placing of bindings on
blankets, quilts, tents and similar articles. After
or during the fusing of the binding upon the
‘0 blanket or similar article, the edge may be sub
jected to an embossing or crimping operation to
add a pattern thereto. The pattern may resemble
stitching, small pleats or novel design effects.
The article thus formed may be laundered many
5 times without the loss of the embossed effect.
This invention permits of an easy and economical
method for attaching tapes, edgings and the like
to articles._ Furtherfore, it may be employed to
produce edgings on textile articles, which edgings
have an effect which could not be obtained where 5
the edgings were attached to the articles by sew
ing the same thereon.
In accordance with this invention, I produce
articles of textile or other sheet material having
a border which is formed by laminating and co- 10
alescing together at least two layers of the sheet
material at or near the margin of the article.
The layers of sheet material may be a?ixed to
each other with a thermoplastic material, which
material is contained in one or more layers of the 15
assembled article. Outstanding examples of suit
able thermoplastic materials for the purpose here
in described are fabrics or other sheet material
containing organic derivatives of cellulose, such
as the organic esters and organic ethers of cellu
lose. Examples of organic esters of cellulose are
cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cellulose pro
pionate and cellulose butyrate, while examples of
cellulose ethers are methyl cellulose, ethyl cel
lulose and benzyl cellulose. The laminating and 25
coalescing together of the assembled layers of
sheet material at the edge of the article may be
effected by subjecting the assembly to heat and
pressure.
In the drawing, wherein like reference numerals 30
refer to the same or similar elements, there are
shown various types of drapes formed in accord
ance with my invention. In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a drape shown
attached to its supporting rod;
31>
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken on the
line 2--2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a front elevatlonal view of a part of a
drape having a hem and pleats of a nature dif
ferent from those shown in Fig. 1;
40
Fig. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken on the
line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
I
Fig. 5 is a front elevational view of another
type of edging that may be applied to drapes; and
Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on the 45
line 6—-6 of Fig. 5.
This invention is applicable to the production
of articles of textile or other sheet materiaL'which
articles are normally hemmed, taped or otherwise
reinforced or ornamented at at least one edge 50
thereof. For instance, this invention is applica
ble to the production of curtains, drapes, por
tieres, window shades, blankets, tents, bed
spreads or other articles requiring an edge either
to lend stiffness, decorative e?ect or shape there- 55
2
2,126,884
to or to prevent unravelling or fraying of the
curtains in which it is desired to produce a two
edges of the material. This invention is appli
cable to any sheet material and particularly to
tone effect upon the marginal edges thereof. In
this modi?ed form of the invention, the curtains
are formed of a body part I which is folded over
itself to form a double layer thereof shown at
‘l and 8. Inserted in this fold may be tapes of
an inner layer fabric II at the free edge of the
fold and tapes of an inner layer fabric I2 at the
outer edge of the fold. On the inside of the two
sets of tapes II and I2 there may be inserted an 10
auxiliary inner layer of fabric I 3, which fabric
is doubled and in its doubled form of substantially
the same width as the folded part of the curtain I.
This auxiliary inner layer fabric I3 may be of
textile fabrics. Examples of fabrics, although any
other suitable fabric may be employed, are voile.
ninon, lace, mesh fabric, net, armure, brocatelle,
casement cloth, chintz, monk’s cloth, poplin,
taffeta, woolen blanket material, etc.
As an aid in describing the invention, the de
scription thereof will be made with particular
reference to the drawing. In Fig. 1 there is shown
a curtain or drape I having a reinforced bottom
portion 2 and a similar reinforced top portion 3.
The bottom and top portions 2 and 3, respec
15 tively, are formed into the same or a different
number of pleats.
the same or of a different material from that of
Through the top pleats 3
the body portion of the curtain to obtain certain
there may be inserted drape supporting rings of
any suitable construction. The drape supporting
decorative effects hereinafter more fully described.
When the body portion l of the curtain is of a
mesh, net or other open work fabric, many novel
rings 4 may be threaded on. and held by a sup
20 porting rod 5 which may be attached to the wall,
ceiling or other part of the room, as is well
understood.
The drape or curtain I may be formed from a
suitable drape or curtain material by doubling
25 a portion of the material back upon itself in a
manner similar to the forming of a hem on the
material, or by adding to one or more edges a
piece of material to form a so-called false hem.
effects may be produced by employing a voile, 20
poplin, taffeta or other fabric of the same or of
a dissimilar color as the auxiliary inner layer
fabric l3. Upon heat pressing the assembly, it is
caused to coalesce or weld together only at those
portions containing the tapes II and I2. By this
‘means there is produced a curtain having a re
inforced and stiffened hem-like edge containing
an unsealed portion.through which a supporting
Instead of stitching the material, as has been rod 5 may be threaded.
The bottom part of the drapes shown in either
30 done heretofore, there is inserted in the fold of
the material a fabric 6 which, for the purpose Figs. 3 or 4 may be similar to the one shown in
of describing this invention, may be termed the Fig. 1 or they may have pleats inserted therein
inner layer of fabric, and the assembly subjected corresponding in shape to the pleats formed in
to heat and pressure to coalesce the layers thereof ‘the top portion thereof. The curtain shown in
35 together. Thus, there is produced at the top and Figs. 5 or 6 may also be pleated to give the same
bottom of the curtain a reinforced and stiffened a pleasing drape, the pleats being inserted in the
edge consisting of two plies of the drape or cur
heading above and below the unsealed portion
tain material ‘I and 8 with an inner layer of fabric that is adapted to receive the rod 5. As will be
obvious from the following description of the
6 therebetween, which edge will retain its co
method of causing coalescence of the fabric, mod 40
40 alesced and stiffened form through any launder
ing processes.
i?cations other than those shown in the drawing
In Fig. 3, there is shown a modi?ed form of a may be made.
Where the body of the article is formed of non
drape which consists of body portion I having a
reinforced top portion 3 comprising two layers thermoplastic materials such as cotton, wool,
46 of the curtain or drape material 8 and 1 formed linen, silk, etc., the inner layer fabric is prefer 45
by doubling a portion of the curtain or drape ably formed of or contains an organic derivative
material back upon itself and inserting therebe
of cellulose. The inner layer of fabric. may be
tween an inner layer of fabric 6. The assembly formed entirely of yarns of organic derivatives
consisting of the layers 6, ‘l and 8 is welded or of cellulose or it may be formed of yarns of an
50 coalesced together by subjecting the same to heat organic derivative of cellulose interwoven or 50
and pressure. While the material is in a ?at
position, the same may have slots 9 cut therein.
The drape material may then be pleated with an
ordinary hand iron, heated mangles, or any other
knitted with yarns of other materials such as
perature. By this means there is formed a cur
said assembly a plasticizer, softener or swelling
cotton, silk, wool, etc.
In order that the desired degree of stiffening
and adhesion be attained upon heat pressing
55 suitable heating and pressing device, by folding’ the assembly, formed of the several layers of fab 56
the material into the desired con?guration of ric, either in the presence or absence of water,
pleat and pressing the same at an elevated tem
it is of importance that there be present in the
tain or drape heading, which is pleated to give
60 an exceptionally pleasing drape to the textile
material and which is sufficiently rigid that a rod
agent for the organic derivative of cellulose
employed in the assembly. Where the body or
5 may be inserted in the slots and the curtains exposed portion of the article is made of non
or drapes supported thereby. By regulating the thermoplastic materials, the plasticizer or sof
thickness, methods of application and materials tener may be applied to the assembly after the
assembly is formed by dipping the same into a
65 contained in the layers 6, ‘I and 8 any degree of
stiffness may be imparted to the heading 3 of the solution containing the plasticizer or softener.
However, it is preferable to apply the plasticizer
curtain or drape. In this way there maybe pro
duced a drape which may be supported upon a to the inner layer of fabric. When applying the
rod 5 and which may be slid back vand forth , plasticizer to the inner layer fabric prior to
70 across the rod 5 without the necessity of metallic forming the assembly, no wetting of the exposed 70
attachments or prominently exposed supporting layers of the article is necessary. .While it is
preferable to apply the plasticizer to the inner
rods.
In Fig. 6 there is shown a modi?ed form of the layer of fabric, it may be present in any of the
invention which is particularly applicable to the layers of fabric. However, if the exposed surfaces
75 formation from laces, nets or sleazy materials of or the outer layers are not to be modi?ed, the
3
2,126,884
plasticizer should be absent from those layers
and be applied only to the inner layers.
The plasticizer may be applied to the fabric in
any suitable manner. Thus, the plasticizer or
high boiling solvent for the organic derivative of
cellulose employed in the assembly may be ap
plied to or incorporated in the fabric by passing
the said fabric through a solution of plasticizer,
by padding the plasticizer on the fabric or by
spraying on the fabric a solution of plasticizer in
cotton bunting to the body portion may be ef
fected by pressing the assembly at elevated tem—
peratures in the presence of moisture.
This invention is not only applicable to assem
a volatile solvent, or, when the inner layers of
fabric contain yarns of an organic derivative of
blies of composited articles wherein-all of the lay
ers of fabric contain only yarns .or ?laments of
organic derivatives of cellulose. It is applicable
also to articles that have'a body'portion wherein
yarns of other fibres are present together with‘
the yarns or filaments of an organic derivative of 10
For instance, there may be employed
' cellulose.
in fabrics in which yarns of an organic deriva
cellulose, the plasticizer may be incorporated in
the organic derivative of cellulose yarns or ?la
ments as formed by adding the same to the solu-‘
tion from which the yarns or filaments are formed
or by applying same to the yarns or filaments
during, the spinning operations. However, ‘any
20
other suitable method may be employed for im
pregnating the inner layer fabric with the plas
ticizer.
§
tive of cellulose alternate with non-thermoplastic
yarns either in the warp or in the weft or both in
any desired degree of alternation. This alterna 16
tion may be, for instance, 1, 2, 3 or more cellulose
acetate yarns with 1, 2, 3 or more yarns of cotton
or other non-thermoplastic ?bers. For conven
ience, the body portion of the article may be
formed so that the warp may be made with such
alternation of an organic derivative of cellulose
yarn and the yarn of other fibres, while the weft
‘
Any suitable plasticizer may be employed,
which plasticizer may or may not be soluble in
water. The plasticizers may be any of the high
boiling solvents or softening agents as, for ex
25 ample, the aryl sulphonamides such aspara ethyl
may consist wholly of yarns of an Organic deriva
tive of cellulose or of yarns of other ?bers. Fur
thermore, the body portion may consist of a fab
ric consisting of yarns made from mixed thermo
toluol sulphonamid, the alkyl phthalates such as
dimethyl phthalate, the dialkyl tartrates such as
dibutyl tartrate, the alkoxy esters of polybasic
organic acids such as diethoxy ethyl phthalate,
plastic and non-thermoplastic ?bers, which yarns
may be formed by the woolen or cotton methods
the polybasic esters of the mono alkyl ethers of
polyhydric alcohols such as diethylene glycol
ethyl ether ester of phthalic acid, the alkyl esters
of phosphoric acid as triethylglycol phosphate,
the aryl' esters of phosphoric acid as tricresyl
phosphate, the mixed alkyl and aryl phosphates
as ethylglycol dicresyl phosphate, and camphor.
The amount of plasticizer present is preferably
of spinning yarns. If desired, the body portion
of the article may be a fabric in which either the
warp or weft consists wholly of cellulose acetate
yarn, while the intermediate layers of the article
consist of any suitable material containing a suf
?cient amount of plasticizer for the cellulose ace
tate of the body portion, the assembly of fabrics 35
being caused to adhere to each other by heat
pressing in the presence or absence of water. Ad
hesion effected under these conditions results in
relatively large and on the order of from less than
40% to 150% or more of the weight of the organic
40 derivative of cellulose present in the assembly of
fabrics. Where the article comprises an organic
derivative of cellulose body portion and an inner
layer of cotton fabric, the amount of plasticizer
applied to the cotton fabric may be as much, as
the cotton fabric will absorb and retain, i. e. the
cotton fabric is saturated with the plasticizer.
Where the article is to be formed of a textile
material containing thermoplastic yarns or ?la
ments of an organic derivative of cellulose as the
body portion, the stiffening material may be any
suitable fabric containing a plasticizer. However,
where the body portion of an article is formed
entirely of non-thermoplastic material, the inner
layer fabric must necessarily contain a‘thermo
plastic material. If desired, however, both the
body portion of the article and the inner layer
fabric may contain yarns and ‘filaments of an or
ganic derivative of cellulose. ’ It is necessary in
each assembly to have present at least one layer
of fabric containing an organic derivative of cel
lulose adjacent to each layer of fabric which does
not contain-an organic derivative of cellulose.
This invention may be carried out in a large
number of ways, particularly as to the nature of
66 the fabric or number of fabrics employed, pro
no alteration of the outer surface'of the body por
tion since the plasticizer on the inner layer causes
the organic derivative of cellulose, such as cel
lulose acetate, of only the inner side of the outer
layers to soften or become tacky and adhere.
Where the body portion of the article is made
entirely of non-thermoplastic yarns, the inner 46
layer, fabric may be made wholly of yarns or
?laments of an organic derivative of cellulose or
of a mixture of yarns of an organic derivative of
cellulose and yarns of a non-thermoplastic
nature. These may be woven or knitted in any
degree of alteration as described above with
reference to body portion fabrics.
-
/
_
If desired, the organic derivatives’ of cellulose
may be present in the inner layer f?bric in the
form of a coating. For example, on-thermo 55
plastic fabrics may be coated with a powder or a
slurry containing an organic derivative of cellu
lose and a plasticizer, or the inner layer may be
treated with a plasticizer and then coated with
an organic derivative of cellulose.
By this invention any number of layers of
fabric may be joined togetherj‘t'o form stiffened,
decorated or otherwise modi?ed edges. , Thus,
the article may contain a body portion of cellu-. 65
lose acetate fabric, the exposed surface of which
is unaltered, which body portion is bound to an
inner layer fabric containing cotton or wool
derivatives of cellulose are employed in the com
yarns, or yarns containing an'organic derivative
posite material. For instance, the composite ma-. of cellulose. The edge of the article may be 70
terial such as a drape may be formed from a body
70 portion comprising a cellulose acetate poplin; made of any number of layers of fabric, for .in-.,
stance, 6 or 7 layers of fabric may be employed
taffeta having an inner layer of a cotton bunting, provided that a layer of fabric containing ‘
which inner layer fabric has been padded with a thermoplastic yarns is interposed between each
vided that the fabrics containing yarns of organic
75
substantial amount of plasticizer for the cellulose
acetate in the body portion. The adhesion-of the
two layers made of non-thermoplastic yarns and 75 ’
4
2,126,834
provided also that a plasticizer for the organic
derivative is present-.\
-
ties, it is preferable to have water present dur
ing the application of heat and pressure, but it
is to be understood that this is not essential. to
the successful working of 1 this invention. An
aqueous liquid or steam may be applied to the
assembly of fabrics'in any suitable manner.
10' Thus, water may be applied by spraying or brush
ing the fabric with water or by padding the
material with water or by dipping the fabric in
water. Where the body portion of the (article
does not contain organic derivatives of cellulose,
in place of water there'rnay be employed as an
aid in coalescing the layers of fabric together
an aqueous solution of alcohol with or without a
plasticizer. If steam is employed, it is preferable
to employ a wet steam and the same may be in
20 jectedinto the material during the pressing op
eration in a manner similar to that of pressing
woolen fabrics.
‘
Any suitable device may be used for pressing
the assembled fabrics to cause them to adhere
25 together. For instance, the fabrics » ‘may be
pressed with hot irons, or the fabric may be
be placed on blankets, etc. by the method herein
described.
To obtain good adhesion and stiffening proper
In such a modi?cation of the inven
tion, the edge of the body portion of the article is
inserted in a fold of trimming fabric and an in
ner layer fabric is placed at each side of the
body portion and between the body portion and ’
the trimming fabric.
.,
In order to further illustrate my invention and
without being limited thereto, the following
speci?c examples are- given:
107
Example I
A fabric consisting of a poplin-taffeta formed
of yarns or ?laments of cellulose acetate is em
ployed as the body portion of a drape. The
upper and lower ends of this fabric are folded
over upon itself for a distance of about 3 inches.
A fabricvconsisting of a light weight cotton duck
saturated with-a plasticizer for cellulose acetate
and of substantially the same width as the fold
is inserted into this fold. Similar folds may be 20
made along the longitudinal margins of the body
portion, which folds may. however, be of a much '
narrower width. In these folds there is also
placed a tape consisting of a cotton muslin
saturated with a plasticizer for the cellulose 25
passed between pressure rollers, one or both of acetate. Those parts of the article. containing
which are heated, or between a heated pressing the folds are pressed in the presence of steam at
iron or plate and a cold board or surface. The a temperature of about 110° C. This operation,
heating‘device may be heated to a desired tem
results in a drape in which at least the upper
perature, for instance, 80° C. to 180° C. or more, and lower portions are stiffened and resemble 30
and the pressure may be of any desired degree, hems, the stitching, of course, being absent. The
for instance, from 10 to 600 pounds or more per 'drape may then be pleated into pleats of any de
square inch. By increasing the pressure to an sired width and con?guration. The pleating op
extremely high degree a glazed surface may be eration is periormedmerely by placing the pleats
imparted to thefabric at those parts in which > in the material and ironing the same with a
_
g r '
heated iron. The pleats thus formed in the
Novel effects, such as stripes, dots, rectangles drape are substantially permanent. These pleats
or other geometrical designs, or ?oral or other uponlbeing pulled out return, when released, to
designs, may be produced by‘ pressing the com
their original pleated form. If desired, slots may
coalescence takes'place.
posited edge of the material with a device of
be cut in the folds at suitable positions for the 40
suitable con?guration wherein heat and pressure ' insertion of supportingrods.
are applied only locally within the area where
the materials are composited. By such a process,
‘ Example II
45 the designs are embossed into the composite
A piece of lace suitable for a curtain is folded
material and ‘the composite material is stiffened - over upon itself for substantially three inches at 45
only at those points which receive the heat and its upper and lower ends. A taffeta ribbon formed
pressure, since only those portions that come in of cellulose acetate yarns and about six inches in
contact with the raised parts of the heating de
width is folded down the center and inserted in the
vice become united, while the other portions re
fold in the lace material. ‘Tapes consisting of
tain the properties of the original fabrics. ‘This cotton muslin about % inch in width containing 50
local application of heat and pressure may be yarns of an organic derivative of cellulose and a
effected by manually operated means, if desired. plasticizer are inserted between the lace material .
By locally applying a plasticizer or having the. and the taffeta material at the upper edge of the
65 same present in localized places, the layers of fold and at the lower edge of the fold. The as
fabric are united only in such places» and the sembly is then moistened with water and ironed 55
union of the unplasticized portions of subsequent with an iron at a temperature of about 100° C.
launderings is ‘avoided.
The assembly is caused to adhere together and be
Where the body portion of the article contains stiffened at those portions containing the p1asti~
only non-thermoplastic materials, novel effects cizedv tape. This edging formed on the curtain
may be produced in the edging by employing an may then be pleated, folded or otherwise shaped
inner layer of fabric containing plasticized
organic derivatives of cellulose in the form‘ of
tapes, as'shown in Fig. 6 of’ the drawing. In
place of plasticized organic derivative of cellulose
tapes, other shapes, such as rings, discs,
rectangles, etc. of relatively small size may be
employed as the inner layer. Upon heat press
ing the assembled fabrics in the presence of
70 moisture, a union is caused between the various
layers only at those places in which there is
present the small pieces of fabric.
This invention is also applicable to the placing
of tapes and bindings on the edge of articles.
75 For instance, satin trimmings or bindings may
as desired and a rod for supporting the same
“inserted in the pocket formed between the upper
and lower tapes.
. Emample III
A woolen" blanket may have a binding folded over
its marginal edgings, which binding consists of a
ribbon formed'of cellulose acetate. Between the
blanket and the ribbon there is inserted a tape of
any desired width consisting of a fabric formed
of organic derivatives of cellulose and a plasticizer
for the organic derivative of cellulose. The as
semblies at the edges of the blanket are then mois_
tened with water and pressed at a temperature
at about 100° C. The ribbon of cellulose acetate
65
2,126,834
is thereby caused to permanently adhere to the
woolen blanket. If desired, an embossing action
may be effected concurrently with the pressing ac
tion which causes the adhesion of the ribbon to
the blanket. The embossing may be such as to
produce an imitation of stitching or a ?oral design
along the edge of the ribbon, or any other suitable
pattern may be imparted thereto. By this means
there is produced a blanket having an edge of cel
10 lulose acetate taffeta ribbon with or without a
design thereon, saidribbon being permanently at
tached to the blanket over that area occupied by
the plasticired tape inserted between the two.
It is to be understood that the foregoing de
15 tailed description and examples are merely given
by way of illustration and many alterations may
be made therein without departing from the spirit
of my invention.
Having described myinvention, what I desire to
secure by Letters Patent is:
1. Process for producing substantially perma
nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com
prises forming on at least the upper edge'of the
hanging a laminar structure comprising a pin
rality of layers of fabric at least one of which
contains an organic derivative of cellulose, said
layers of fabric being joined together over at least
hanging a laminar structure comprising a plu
rality of layers of fabric at least one of which con
tains an organic derivative of cellulose, and a
plasticizer for the organic derivative of cellulose,
said layers of fabric being joined together over at
least part of their area by the fabric layer con
taining the organic derivative of cellulose, folding
the laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of
predetermined con?guration and applying heat
and pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in
said pleated portion are rendered substantially
permanent, and a pleated appearance is given to
the unlaminated portion of the hanging by the
tension due to the weight thereof suspended from
said laminated edge.
4. Process for producing substantially perma
nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com
prises forming on at least the upper edge of the
hanging a laminar structure comprising a plu
rality of layers of fabric at least one of which
contains cellulose acetate, and a plasticizer for
the cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric being
joined together over at least part of their area
by the fabric layer containing the cellulose ace
tate, folding the laminated edge of the hanging
into pleats of predetermined con?guration and
applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby
10
15
20
25
part of their area by the fabric layer containing
the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered
the organic derivative of cellulose, folding the
laminated edge of the hanging into pleats of pre
determined con?guration and applying heat and
substantially permanent, and a pleated appear
ance is given to the unlaminated portion of the 30
hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof
suspended from said laminated edge.
5. A decorative hanging having on at least the
upper edge thereof a substantially permanently
pressure to the pleats whereby the pleats in said
pleated portion are rendered substantially per
manent, and a pleated appearance is given to the
unlaminated portion of the hanging bythe ten
sion due to the weight thereof suspended from
said laminated edge.
2. Process for producing substantially perma
nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com
prises forming on at least the upper edge of the
hanging a laminar structure comprising a plu
rality of layers of fabric at least one of which
contains ‘cellulose acetate, said layers of fabric
being joined together over at least part of their
area by the fabric layer containing the cellulose
acetate, folding the laminated edge of the hanging
into pleats of predetermined con?guration and
applying heat and pressure to the pleats whereby
the pleats in said pleated portion are rendered
substantially permanent, and a pleated appear
ance is given to the unlaminated portion of the
r)
5
hanging by the tension due to the weight thereof
suspended from said laminated edge.
3. Process for producing substantially perma
nent pleats in decorative hangings, which com
prises forming on at leat the upper edge of the
pleated portion comprising a laminar structure| of 35
a plurality of layers of fabric at least one of which
contains an organic derivative of cellulose, said
layers of fabric being joined together by the fab
ric layer containing the organic derivative of cel
lulose, the hanging also having an unlaminated 40
portion ‘which has a pleated appearance caused
by the tension due to the weight thereof sus
pended from said laminated edge.
6.. A decorative hanging having on at least the
upper edge thereof a substantially permanently
pleated portion comprising a laminar structure
containing a plurality of layers of fabric at least
one‘of which contains cellulose acetate, and a
placticizer for the cellulose acetate, said layers of
fabric being joined together by the fabric layer
containing the cellulose acetate and the plasti
cizer, the hanging also having an unlaminated
portion which has a pleated appearance caused
by the tension due to the weight thereof suspended
from said laminated edge.
ALFRED J. STEINBERGER.
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