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Патент USA US2126961

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Aug. 16, 1938.
R. HODGKINSON
2,126,961
TRACTION DEVICE FOR AUTOMOBILES
Filed June 8. 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Work/£7
Aug. 16, 1938.
R. HODGKINSON
2,126,961
TRACTION DEVICE FOR AUTOMOBILES
_Filed June 8. 1936
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 16, 1938.
R. HODGKINSON
2,126,961
TRACTION DEVICE FOR AUTOMOBILES
Filed June 8. 1936
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Patented Aug. 16, 1938
2,126,961
‘UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,126,961
TRACTION DEVICE FOR AUTOMOBILES
Ralph Hodgkinson, Worcester, Mass.
Application June 8, 1936, Serial No. 84,046
20 Claims.
This invention relates to devices for increasing
the traction of automobiles. It is customary to
use detachable cross chains or so-called “mud
hooks” for such purposes, but the application
5 and removal of such devices is laborious and
otherwise objectionable.
It is the general object of my invention to pro
vide an improved device for increasing traction,
which device is to be permanently installed in an
10 automobile and which may be rendered operative
or inoperative as desired.
A further object of my invention is to provide
means for positioning all parts of the device clear
of the ground when the device is inoperative.
'
My invention further relates to arrangements
and combinations of parts which will be herein
after described and more particularly pointed out
in the appended claims.
Preferred forms of the invention are‘shown in
the drawings, in which
Fig. 1 is a front elevation, partly in section,
of one form of my improved traction device;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation thereof, partly in
25
section;
Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view, taken along
the line 3-3 in Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is an enlarged detail view of a plunger
element;
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of a cam plate forming
30 part of my invention;
Fig. 6 is a plan view, looking in the direction
of the arrow 6 in Fig. 5;
Figs. '7 and 8 are detail plan views, partly in
section and illustrating the operation of my in
35 vention;
Fig. 9 is a side elevation of a plunger carrier;
Fig. 10 is a sectional plan View, taken along the
line Ill-I0 in Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a partial front elevation showing a
40 modi?ed construction;
-
Fig. 12 is a side view thereof, looking in the
direction of the arrow l2 in Fig. 11 and showing
certain parts in section; and
Fig. 13 is a plan view, looking in the direction
of the arrow [3 in Fig. 11.
Referring to the drawings, I have shown a
wheel l5 mounted on a housing l6 and secured
to a driving shaft I1, all substantially of the
50 usual construction. The wheel is provided with
a brake drum l8 and supports the usual tire l9.
My improved traction device comprises a cas
ing 20 (Figs. 1 and 2) having a flange 2| form
ing a supporting bearing for the casing on the
55
outside of the housing IS. A removable cover
(Cl. 301-47)
plate 22 surrounds the housing l6 and completes
the casing.
A plurality of trunnion blocks 25 are pivotally
mounted between the casing 2|] and the cover
plate 22 and provide swivel bearings for sleeves 5
21 which are arranged for angular movement
therein. Each sleeve 21 is provided with a cam
engaging arm 30 at its inner end and with a
friction arm 3| at its outer end and is also pro
vided with a shoulder 32 which limits inward
sliding movement of the sleeve relative to its
trunnion block 25.
A coil spring 33 surrounds each sleeve 2'! and
has one end ?xed in the casing 20 and the other
end engaging the arm 30, as clearly shownin
Fig. 1. The spring 33 tends to turn the sleeve in
a direction to force the friction arm 3| against
the adjacent surface of the tire l9, and the
spring 33 also acts to seat the shoulder 32 ?rmly
against the associated trunnion block 25.
The cam-engaging arm 30 is normally seated
in a recess 35 (Fig. 8) in one of the cam projec
tions 36 on a cam plate 37. The cam plate 31
is slidable axially on the housing l6 but is held
from rotation by a key 38 (Fig. 1) loosely ?tting 25
a keyway 39 in the cam plate 31.
A forked lever 40 is pivotally mounted on a
stud 4| extending through ears 42 on the hous
ing l6 and the lower forked ends of the lever
extend through a central opening 43 in the cover
plate 22 and engage the outer face of the cam
plate 31.
A coil spring 45 (Figs. 7 and 8) is mounted on
the housing l6 and presses outward against the
cam plate 31, tending to move the plate from
its holding position, shown in Fig. 8, to its released
position, as shown in Fig. 7.
The plunger carrier 50 (Figs. 9 and 10-) is pro
vided with a bearing portion 5| adapted to be
mounted on the outer face of the ?ange 2| of
the casing 20, and is provided with three arms
52 adapted to support studs 53 extending between
the side walls of the carrier. One of the arms
is extended outward and provided with an o?set
lug or projection 55 to engage a stop screw 56 45
(Fig. 1) adjustably mounted in the casing 20.
A plunger 60 is slidable longitudinally in each
sleeve 21 and is slotted at its outer end (as in
dicated at 6| in Fig. 2 and more clearly in the
modi?ed construction of Fig. 12) to receive a
traction plate 64 which may be secured in the
plunger 60 by screws 66.
Each traction plate 64 extends over and par
tially embraces the tire l9 and is provided with
a roughened tread portion 61. When in normal 55
2,126,961
2
inoperative position, the traction plates 64 clear
the the IQ and are not engaged thereby.
The lower end of each plunger 60 is preferably
square in cross section and is provided with an
elongated slot 10 having a bearing block ‘H slid
able therein and forced yieldingly toward the
inner end of the plunger by a coil spring 12.
Each bearing block ll may be provided with
ribs l3 slidable in longitudinal grooves in the side
The upper end of each plunger is slotted at 82
to receive a traction plate 83, and a friction arm
84 is clamped or otherwise removably secured to
the upper end of the plunger. A cam-engaging
arm 85 is similarly secured to an intermediate 01
portion of each plunger.
size as indicated at 86 and is slidable in a trun
nion block 81.
10 walls of the slots 70 or may be otherwise held
from displacement. Each block ‘ll cooperates
with the adjacent end of the associated plunger
60 to form a bearing for one of the cross pins 53 ‘
in the plunger carrier 56 previously identi?ed.
Having described one form of my invention,
the method of operation and advantages thereof
are as follows:
Under normal running conditions a link 15
\Fig. 2) is manually adjusted outward in the di
rection of the arrow a, thus forcing the lower
ends of the forked lever All inward against the
cam plate 31 and moving the cam plate from the
position shown in Fig. '7 to that shown in Fig. 8,
in which position the cam-engaging arms 30 on
the sleeves 2'! will be seated in the recesses 35 of
the cam projections 36 on the cam plate 31.
The friction arms 3! will thus be held clear
of the tire 19.
The cam recesses are so located
angularly that the traction plates 64 will be po
30 sitioned as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, well out of
possible contact with the ground. _
The link ‘I5 may be connected to any kind of a
shipper handle 16 or other holding device
adapted to hold the parts normally in the posi
tion above described.
.
If the automobile approaches bad traveling oc
casioned by snuw, mud, or sand, the holding de
vice ‘it for the link 15 may be released, thus al
lowing the spring 45 to move the cam plate 31 out
of engagement with the cam-engaging arms 30
on the sleeves 21. The springs 33 then act to
swing the friction arms 3| against the tire I9,
and the casing 29 and all associated parts will
thereafter rotate with the tire and wheel.
45
As soon as one of the traction plates engages
the ground, it will be forced inward and will exert
pressure through its spring ‘12 and bearing ‘H
on the plunger carrier 50, moving the carrier
angularly in a direction to draw the two other
traction plates 64 inward against the tire.
As each plate 64 engages the ground, it repeats
the tightening action of the carrier 50, so that
the engagement of the traction plates with the
tire is substantially continuous.
The traction device will continue to operate as
described until the shipper handle or control de
vice 16 is again manually operated to move the
link ‘it in the direction of the arrow 0. in Fig. 2,
thus forcing the cam plate 31 inward. When this
(ii) is done, the cam-engaging arms 39 will be again
caught in the recesses 35 of the cam portions 36,
and the device will again become inoperative
with the traction plates angularly positioned as
shown in Fig. 1.
It will be apparent that the operator has the
traction device at all times under his immediate
control, and that he can throw the device into
and out of operation without leaving his driving
position or stopping the motion of the car.
70
,
V A modi?ed construction is shown in Figs. 11
to 13 in which no part corresponding to the sleeve
2'! is used. The plungers 80 are sli-dable longitu
dinally in trunnion boxes 8i which may be sup
, ported between a casing 20 and cover plate 22 as
previously described.
‘
The lower end of each plunger is reduced in
The coil spring 88 is mounted on the reduced 10
portion 86 and acts to force the plunger longitu
dinally in the bearing 81 and to cause a nut 89
to engage the lower face of the associated trun
nion block 81.
Each spring 88 also acts to turn its plunger 80
anti-clockwise, as indicated by the arrow by in Fig.
13, which movement will cause the friction arm
84 on each plunger to engage the adjacent tire.
The trunnion bearings 31 are mounted in bear
ing openings in a carrier 90, corresponding in
function to the carrier 50 previously described.
This modi?ed construction involves the use of
two trunnion bearing blocks for each plunger but
is otherwise somewhat more simple than the con—
struction ?rst described. The use and advan
tages of the modi?ed construction is the same
as in the ?rst form.
Having thus described my invention and the
advantages thereof, I do not wish to be limited
to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than
as set forth in the claims, but what I claim is:-—
1. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a plurality of spaced outwardly ex 35
tending plungers mounted in said casing and
having traction plates at their outer ends over
lying the tire on said wheel, a friction arm for
each plunger movable angularly about the axis
of said plunger to engage the tire, a second arm .
connected to each friction arm, a device movable
to a position to engage said second arms and to
move said friction arms out of engagement with
said tire, and manual means to position said de
vice.
2. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having'a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a carrier loosely mounted in said cas
ing, a plurality of spaced outwardly extending
plungers having traction plates at their outer
ends overlying the tire on said wheel, a friction
arm for each plunger movable angularly about
the axis of said plunger to engage the tire, a
second arm connected to each friction arm, a
device movable to a position to engage said sec
ond arms and to- move said friction arms out of
engagement with said tire, a spring to move said
device in one direction, and manual means to
(50
move said device in the opposite direction.
3'. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a carrier loosely mounted in said cas
ing, a plurality of spaced outwardly extending
plungers having traction plates at their outer
ends overlying'the tire on said wheel, a friction
arm for-each plunger movable angularly about
the axis of said plunger to engage the tire, a cam
arm connected to each friction arm, a cam plate 70
mounted concentric with the wheel and movable
to a position to engage said cam arms and to
move said friction arms out of engagement with
saidtire, and manual means to position said cam
plate.
75..
2,126,961
4. A traction increasing device for an automobile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing‘
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a plurality of spaced outwardly ex-'
tending plungers mounted in vsaid casing and
having traction plates at their outer ends over
lying the tire on said wheel, a friction arm for
each plunger movable angularly about the axis
of said plunger to engage the tire, a cam arm
10 connected to each friction arm, a cam plate
mounted concentric with the wheel and movable
to a position to engage said cam arms and‘ to
move said friction arms out of engagement with
said tire, a spring to move said cam plate to
said position, and manual means ‘to move said
cam plate in the opposite direction.
_
‘
5. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having a wheel and tire’ comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a plurality of spaced outwardly ex
tire-engaging friction‘arm' on said sleeve, a spring 3
operative to move said sleeve angularly, and man
ually operative means to resist said spring and
to hold ‘sa‘iddevice normally inoperative.
10. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
whee-l'axis,“ a carrier angularly'movable in said
casing, adjustable means to limit angular move
ment of said carrier in said casing in one direc 10
tion, ' a plurality of angularly ‘spaced plungers
mounted in said casing and connected to said
carrier, and traction plates on' said plungers, in
ward-movement'of any one traction‘ plate caus
ing angular-movement of said carrier relative to
said-casing and thereby causing simultaneous in
ward movement of the other plungers.
11. A traction‘increasing device for an auto
mobile having- ajwheel and tire comprising a cas
ing’ loosely mounted for rotation concentric with
tending plungers mounted in said casing and
having traction plates at their outer ends over
lying the tire on said wheel, a friction arm for
each plunger movable angularly about’ the axis
of said plunger to engage the tire, ‘a cam arm
the wheel axis, a carrier angularly movable in
said casing, adjustable means to limit movement
connected to each friction arm, a cam plate
movable to a position to engage said cam arms
and to move said friction arms out of engage
ment with said tire, and manual means to posi
tion said cam plate, said cam plate having cam
on saidiplun'gersi, inward movement of any one
traction plate causing angular movement of said
carrier relative to said casing and thereby caus
ing simultaneous inward movement of the other
plungers, the connection between each plunger
and said carrier being yieldable and permitting
further independent movement of any plunger.
12. In a traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire, a plurality of
portions corresponding in number to said plung
ers and simultaneously actuating all of said cam
arms.
6. The combination in a traction increasing
device as set forth in claim 5, in which each cam
portion has a recess which yieldingly receives one
of said cam arms and thereby circumferentially
positions said traction plates in predetermined
positions and out of contact with the tire-sup
' porting surface.
'7. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a carrier loosely mounted in said cas
ing, a plurality of spaced outwardly extending
plungers pivotally connected to said carrier and
having traction plates at their outer ends over
lying the tire on said wheel, a friction arm for
each plunger movable angularly about the axis
of said plunger to engage the tire, a cam arm
connected to each friction arm, a cam plate mov
able to a position to engage said cam arms and
move said friction arms out of engagement with
said tire, and manual means to move said cam
plate axially of said wheel, said cam plate hav
ing cam portions corresponding in number to
said plungers and simultaneously actuating all of
said cam arms.
8. A traction increasing device for an automo
60 bile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a swiveled bearing block in said cas
ing, a sleeve angularly movable in said bearing
block, a plunger longitudinally movable in said
sleeve, a traction plate on said plunger, a tire
engaging friction arm on said sleeve, and man~
ually controlled means to move said friction arm
into and out of engagement with the tire.
9. A traction increasing device for an automo
bile having a wheel and tire comprising a casing
loosely mounted for rotation concentric with the
wheel axis, a swiveled bearing block in said
casing, a sleeve angularly movable in said bear
ing block, a plunger longitudinally movable in
said sleeve, a traction plate on said plunger, a
of said carrier v‘in one direction,‘ a plurality of
angularly spaced plungers mounted in said casing
and connected to said carrier, and traction plates
angularly spaced traction plates, means to hold
said plates from rotation with said Wheel and
in predetermined angular position relative to a
horizontal plane, means to release said plates for
movement with the associated tire, and means to
effect simultaneous movement of all of said plates
directly toward or away from said tire in paths
of travel parallel to the plane of rotation of said
wheel.
13. In a traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire, a traction plate,
means to hold said plate normally out of ground
engaging position and out of contact with the as
sociated tire, a friction member associated with
said plate, means to release said member, and
means to move said member into frictional en
gagement with said tire.
"
14. In a traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire, a traction plate,
means to hold said plate normally out of ground
engaging position and out of contact with the
associated tire, a member associated with said
friction plate and mounted to swing about an
axis approximately radial with respect to said
tire, a tire-engaging friction arm at one end of
said member, a second arm on said member, and 60
manually positioned means to engage said second
arm and to thereby swing said friction arm to
inoperative position.
15. In a traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire, a traction plate,
means to hold said plate normally out of ground
engaging position and out of contact With the
associated tire, a member associated with said
friction plate and mounted to swing about an
axis approximately radial with respect to said
tire, a tire-engaging friction arm at one end
of said member, a second arm on said member,
and manually positioned means to engage said
second arm and to thereby swing said friction
arm to inoperative position, said latter means
2,126,961
being also effective to stop and hold said traction
plates out of ground-engaging position.
16. A traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire, comprising a
plurality of angularly spaced traction plates,
supports for said plates, means to normally hold
each plate yieldingly in outward inoperative po
sition away from the tire, and connections
through which all of said plates are moved to op
10 erative position against the tread of the tire by
' engagement of any one of said plates with the
surface on which the tire is traveling.
17. A traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire which comprises
a plurality of angularly spaced and substantially
radially movable plungers, traction plates on said
plungers, friction devices angularly movable
about the axes of said plungers to engage said
tire, means to normally hold said friction de
vices in inoperative position, and manual means
to release said devices.
18. A traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire which comprises
a casing concentric with said wheel, a plurality
of angularly spaced and substantially radially
movable plungers mounted in said casing, trac
tion plates on said plungers, friction devices an
gularly movable about the axes of said plungers
to engage said tire, means to normally hold said
friction devices in inoperative position, and
manual means to» release said devices.
U1
19. A traction increasing device for an auto
mobile having a wheel and tire comprising a
support loosely mounted for rotation concentric
with the wheel axis, a plurality of spaced out
wardly extending members mounted to move to
ward and from the tire and relative to said sup
port in a direction substantially perpendicular
to the wheel axis and having traction plates at
their outer ends overlying said tire at all times,
means to hold said support and members from
rotation with said wheel, and'means to cause said
members to rotate with said wheel.
20. A traction increasing device for an auto
mobile as set forth in claim 19, in which the means '
for causing the members to rotate with the wheel »
is manually controlled but the movement of
said traction plates toward the tire tread is auto
matically eiTected by engagement of any one of
said plates with the surface on which said wheel
and tire roll.
RALPH HODGKINSON.
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