Патент USA US2126978код для вставки
Aug.1e,193s. . - @SANDER ` REFRIGERATION MACHINE Filed May 25, 1954 '__-___ ____ l A2,126,978 Patented Aug. 16, 1938 ¿ y2,126,978 UNITED STATI-:s1 PATENT" oFFi-CE ` _ 2,126,918 l _ aEFmGÉnA'rIoN MACHINE y ' Ernst Sander, Dessau, Germany Application May z5, 1934, serial No. 727,563 In Germany May 31, 1933 e claims. (ci. ca_-us) ing boiling and absorbingdevices housed within The absorption- and recovery of gases in re frigerating machines requires, as a rule, for the purpose of exchanging the solutions between the boiler and the absorber, a pumping device, which 5 is not only a hindrance and expensive but causes leaks, particularly in connection with small re one container, Fig. 4 being a modiñed form of Fig. 3, and frigerating machines. The employment of par ‘15 on a large scale. ` By means of the present invention the draw backs, referred to, have been obviated. The proc ess of this invention for the absorption of gases consists therein, that the gases to be absorbed 20 are forced to pass to the absorption liquid through walls, through which gases, but not liquids, can be forced to pass. The absorption liquid is forcedV to circulateby the compensation of its own ñuid pressure, created by the boiling process, through25 the boiler and absorber; said boiler and absorber connected with each other in- the lower part by means of a passage and in the upperA part by means of anf overñow. - In consequence of this arrangement no con 30 trol or pumping gear will be required, nor will any ’ f ' exchange vessel. In the boiler I, gas is evolved by boiling a solution, for instance, methyl amine in water with the aid of a heater I I, and the boiled 10> out liquid »iiows into the vessel 2, by means _of an overflow pipe 9. This causes the level of the liquid in the vessel 2 to rise, while the liquid is being pressed into the absorber ‘I through the exchange vessel and further, back again into- the 15 boiler I by means of the exchange vessel 8. The boiled-out gas escapes ‘from the precipitating vessel 2 through- a iìlter-precipitator`l0 and into the condenser 3 where, owing to the elimination of heat, the gas is liqueiied. Upon iiowlng through the nozzle» 4 into the evaporator 5 the gas will evaporate owing to the drop in pressure. ployed. _ t Sub sequently the gas is forced into the coolers, in ' which the liquefied gas is undercooled, and iinal ly taken up by the solvent within the porous cylin 25 der in the absorber/1. ' For thepurpose of ensuring a better exchange,_ ' a gas space may also be placed within the porous container, as shown in Fig. 2. In this way as ex tensive a wall surface as possible for the absorp-i 30' higher pressures be' necessary, than those es- ' tion of the gas will be formed. sential for the condensation of the gases rem _‘ evaporator, 6 a cooler, 1 an absorber, and 8. an _ tial pressure in accordance with the Platen Munters system makes it possible to dispense with' 10 a pumping device, but on the other hand, 're quiresa high total pressure, under which the entire plant is subjected. lThis causes an ex ' pensive construction of the' plant, rendering it. in addition thereto also dangerous, if designed ' Fig. 5 illustrates a semipermeable wall. In Fig. 1 a boiler is indicated by I, 2 is a pre cipitating vessel, 3 is a liqueñer, 4 a nozzle, 5 an The wall,- as s_hown in_Fig. 2, may have, for example the form ‘ of a'pot, but may also be made toconsist of a ` The walls, through which the gases, to be ab 35 sorbed, are forced to pass prior to the admission to the absorption liquid, are of a porous nature or consist of membranes which, although ab tubular body4 inserted betweeny two iianges. _In Fig. 2 I2 is a flange, I3 a porous wall, I4 a solvent, I5 a gas space or chamber and I6 is a passage or pipe for the gases coming from the evaporator. sorbing the solvent, they do not allow the latter I I1 isa passage or pipe from the separator and I8 to pass through, On the other hand'. they are a return passage or pipe to the boiler. 40 permeable to the gases to beabsorbed, with the result, thatihey are absorbed by the solvent. The añinity of th'e gas to the solvent is greater than the resistance offered-by the pores'. A_s an appropriate porous material for the walls, 45 porous clay products may be used as well as porous artificial stone products made from inorganic or organic masses. - ' - > ` In the accompanying drawing various forms of construction have been illustrated by way of ex 50 ample, showing suitable plans for the purpose o! _carrying out the process., ' Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view-illustrating a complete refrigerating plant, 55 - Fig. 2 is a similar view of an absorption device,Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are diagrammatic views show' In Figs. 3 and 4 the boiling out process, the ex 40 change of heat and the absorption of the- gas ' may'take place in one vessel. _ ' _In Fig. 3 I_S is a metallic'vessel, 20 a heating tube, II a heating element, and 2| a tubular body. The tubular body 2I consists, if«necessary, of metal, with a lower portion 22 suitably enlarged . or flared out in the form of a funnel. I3is the „' porouswall, allowing gas to pass through, but no liquid, by means ofwhich the gas is admitted to the absorption liquid. I5 is the gas chamber com 50 municating with the evaporator by means of the pipe I6'. Ill is av ñlter intended for trapping the' water which has been carried along,» while 23 represents a pipe connection leading to the ccn 56 denser. 2 V 2,126,978 .This arrangement is intended to be heated electrically. The vessel I9 is charged with the solvent to such an extent that a part of the tube 2I projects from the liquid. If _the electric heat ing element II is energized, the liquid (for in stance water with methyl amine), contained with in the heating space or chamberI 2|, 22, will be strongly heated. The gas will be boiled out and the boiled out water will be 'forced into the tube 2|. The level of the liquid will always be leveled up automatically, in connection with which the boiled out water drops outside. of _the heating space or chamber 2 I. Owing to the contact with the wall I3 of the absorption chamber _it will be enriched again with gas and »from within the heating space or`chamber'22 again attain the' heating element contained within 2i. 'I‘hrough the medium oi' this cycle an excellent exchange of heat will be ensured between the boiled out water and the water enriched with gas by means of the walls of the chamber 2I and 22. At the same time part of the absorption heat will be imparted to the enriched water within the heating chamber 22. The ribs 24 serve for the purpose of discharging or carrying away> the foregoing are of special importance to small re frigerating machines. - . ' ' I claim as>my invention: 1. An absorption refrigerating machine com-_ prising a vessel provided with cooling ribs and having in the lowest part thereof a gas chamber, said gas chamber being separated from the re maining portion of the vessel by a semipermeable wall which permits only gas to pass therethrough and the vessel containing a pipe having in its upper part a boiling device and the lower part being enlarged to cover over'a part of the semi permeable wall, a condenser, an evaporator, and a ñlter arranged in the uppermost part of the vessel to separate the water carried along by the 15 boiled out gas, said boiled out gas passing through the condenser and evaporator to the gas cham ber of the said vessel which(is filled with ab sorption liquid to almost adjacent the uppermost end of the pipe. `- . ' 2.- A deyice according to claim 1, in which the pipe‘with the boiling device is arranged in the ' middle of the vessel. 3. A device according to claim 1, in which the pipe with the boiling device is~ arranged in the 25 middle of the vessel and the semipermeable wall surplus heat. v In accordance with Fig. 4 thetube 2|, forming ï being arranged below the boiling device. 4. An absorption refrigerating machine com the boiling space or chamber, with the funnel shaped attachment 22,> has been given the shape prising a vessel having in the lowest part thereof 80 of a long, tubular body and attached laterally in a gas chamber, said gas chamber being sepa 30 the common vessel. The heating tube 20 is 'posi- _ rated from the remaining portion of the vessel tioned centrally within thev tube 2| and pro vided with a lateral aperture corresponding with an identical aperture in the wall of the vessel I9. This arrangement is intended to be heated by means of a flame or through the medium of hot gases. The process of boiling, of the exchange of heat, of the cycle of the liquid and of absorp tion -is identical with that of the device in ac 40 cordance with'Fig. 3. by ‘a semipermeablelwall which permits only gas to pass therethrough, said semipermeable wall being formed by a plurality of thin walls set one »after another, and the vessel containing a pipe having in its upper part a boiling device and its lower part being enlarged to cover at least ~ a portion of the semipermeable membrane. . 5. An absorption device for refrigeration instal lations, comprising a vessel-containing a'liquid The funnel-shaped attachment 22 should suit- ' and having an outlet at the top thereof for the refrigerating mediuni, a heating device in the vessel, a tubular body in the vessel and surround Instead of the porous partition I3 any other ing the heating device in spaced relation there device may be employed for the absorption process . with, means in the lower part of the vessel into 45 45 and for overcoming- the.diiferences in pressure which the refrigerating medium returns to the said means being composed of a material prevailing in connection therewith. vThe space vessel, I5 may also be filled with water taking up the which- will permit the passage therethrough of the refrigerating medium as a gas but prevent . gas ilowing in untilv it'is saturated and super saturated, subsequently giving it off through the the passage therethrough of any water, and a porous or gas-transmitting walll to the water filter at the top of the vessel to prevent the ably cover at least part of the absorption cham ber or space at I3. ’ circulating `within the vessel I9. ' In all cases there may be attached to the porous partition or membrane I3 contacts of known kind of a continuous currentV tension for the purpose of hindering or impeding to a greater degree the trickling ofthe absorption liquid, but'l permitting the absorption or the-passage of the gas. _ If necessary, several porous partitions may be disposed in series, i. e. one behind the other, for the purpose oi' compensating the drop in pressure between the gas space or chamber and therein, through which the circulating liquid is flowing. This particular arrangement-of the semiperme able partition or wall (Fig. 5) is of general im portance in processes in which on one side of the semipremeable partition the liquid flows between _a boiler and the absorber in a closed path, and on the other side the gas to be absorbed by the liquid >contacts the partition. Preferably said liquid is permitted to boil over an obstructing wall in the boiler by pressure equalization of the liquid in the path of flow. The novel features described in’the passage of any water ¿with the refrigerating l medium._ - . 6. An absorption device for refrigeration in stallations, comprising a vessel containing a liquid 55 and having an outlet at the top thereof for the refrigerating medium, a heating device in the vessel,'a tubular- body in the vessel and surround ing the heating device in spaced relation there with, and means in the lower part of the vessel 60 into which the refrigerating medium returns to the vessel, said means being composed of a mate rialv which will permit the passage therethrough ' of the refrigerating medium as a gas but prevent the passage therethrough of, any water, and said 65 tubular body having a'funnel shape- at the lower end and into which the means extends whereby ' when the liquid is heated by the heating device it will circulate upwardly through the tubular body and then down between the outside of the tubular body and the vessel to again enter the 70 tubular body. » ' ’ ' - ERNST SANDER.