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Патент USA US2126978

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Aug.1e,193s. .
- @SANDER
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REFRIGERATION MACHINE
Filed May 25, 1954
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A2,126,978
Patented Aug. 16, 1938
¿ y2,126,978
UNITED STATI-:s1 PATENT" oFFi-CE `
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2,126,918
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aEFmGÉnA'rIoN MACHINE y
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Ernst Sander, Dessau, Germany
Application May z5, 1934, serial No. 727,563
In Germany May 31, 1933
e claims. (ci. ca_-us)
ing boiling and absorbingdevices housed within
The absorption- and recovery of gases in re
frigerating machines requires, as a rule, for the
purpose of exchanging the solutions between the
boiler and the absorber, a pumping device, which
5 is not only a hindrance and expensive but causes
leaks, particularly in connection with small re
one container, Fig. 4 being a modiñed form of
Fig. 3, and
frigerating machines. The employment of par
‘15 on a large scale.
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By means of the present invention the draw
backs, referred to, have been obviated. The proc
ess of this invention for the absorption of gases
consists therein, that the gases to be absorbed
20 are forced to pass to the absorption liquid through
walls, through which gases, but not liquids, can
be forced to pass. The absorption liquid is forcedV
to circulateby the compensation of its own ñuid
pressure, created by the boiling process, through25 the boiler and absorber; said boiler and absorber
connected with each other in- the lower part by
means of a passage and in the upperA part by
means of anf overñow.
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In consequence of this arrangement no con
30 trol or pumping gear will be required, nor will any
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exchange vessel. In the boiler I, gas is evolved by
boiling a solution, for instance, methyl amine in
water with the aid of a heater I I, and the boiled 10>
out liquid »iiows into the vessel 2, by means _of
an overflow pipe 9. This causes the level of the
liquid in the vessel 2 to rise, while the liquid is
being pressed into the absorber ‘I through the
exchange vessel and further, back again into- the 15
boiler I by means of the exchange vessel 8. The
boiled-out gas escapes ‘from the precipitating
vessel 2 through- a iìlter-precipitator`l0 and into
the condenser 3 where, owing to the elimination
of heat, the gas is liqueiied. Upon iiowlng through
the nozzle» 4 into the evaporator 5 the gas will
evaporate owing to the drop in pressure.
ployed.
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Sub
sequently the gas is forced into the coolers, in '
which the liquefied gas is undercooled, and iinal
ly taken up by the solvent within the porous cylin 25
der in the absorber/1. '
For thepurpose of ensuring a better exchange,_ '
a gas space may also be placed within the porous
container, as shown in Fig. 2. In this way as ex
tensive a wall surface as possible for the absorp-i 30'
higher pressures be' necessary, than those es- ' tion of the gas will be formed.
sential for the condensation of the gases rem
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evaporator, 6 a cooler, 1 an absorber, and 8. an _
tial pressure in accordance with the Platen
Munters system makes it possible to dispense with'
10 a pumping device, but on the other hand, 're
quiresa high total pressure, under which the
entire plant is subjected. lThis causes an ex '
pensive construction of the' plant, rendering it.
in addition thereto also dangerous, if designed
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Fig. 5 illustrates a semipermeable wall.
In Fig. 1 a boiler is indicated by I, 2 is a pre
cipitating vessel, 3 is a liqueñer, 4 a nozzle, 5 an
The wall,- as
s_hown in_Fig. 2, may have, for example the form
‘ of a'pot, but may also be made toconsist of a `
The walls, through which the gases, to be ab
35 sorbed, are forced to pass prior to the admission
to the absorption liquid, are of a porous nature
or consist of membranes which, although ab
tubular body4 inserted betweeny two iianges. _In
Fig. 2 I2 is a flange, I3 a porous wall, I4 a solvent,
I5 a gas space or chamber and I6 is a passage or
pipe for the gases coming from the evaporator.
sorbing the solvent, they do not allow the latter I I1 isa passage or pipe from the separator and I8
to pass through, On the other hand'. they are a return passage or pipe to the boiler.
40 permeable to the gases to beabsorbed, with the
result, thatihey are absorbed by the solvent.
The añinity of th'e gas to the solvent is greater
than the resistance offered-by the pores'.
A_s an appropriate porous material for the walls,
45 porous clay products may be used as well as porous
artificial stone products made from inorganic or
organic masses.
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In the accompanying drawing various forms of
construction have been illustrated by way of ex
50 ample, showing suitable plans for the purpose o!
_carrying out the process.,
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Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view-illustrating a
complete refrigerating plant,
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Fig. 2 is a similar view of an absorption device,Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 are diagrammatic views show'
In Figs. 3 and 4 the boiling out process, the ex 40
change of heat and the absorption of the- gas '
may'take place in one vessel.
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_In Fig. 3 I_S is a metallic'vessel, 20 a heating
tube, II a heating element, and 2| a tubular body.
The tubular body 2I consists, if«necessary, of
metal, with a lower portion 22 suitably enlarged
. or flared out in the form of a funnel.
I3is the „'
porouswall, allowing gas to pass through, but no
liquid, by means ofwhich the gas is admitted to
the absorption liquid. I5 is the gas chamber com 50
municating with the evaporator by means of the
pipe I6'. Ill is av ñlter intended for trapping the'
water which has been carried along,» while 23
represents a pipe connection leading to the ccn
56
denser.
2
V 2,126,978
.This arrangement is intended to be heated
electrically. The vessel I9 is charged with the
solvent to such an extent that a part of the tube
2I projects from the liquid. If _the electric heat
ing element II is energized, the liquid (for in
stance water with methyl amine), contained with
in the heating space or chamberI 2|, 22, will be
strongly heated. The gas will be boiled out and
the boiled out water will be 'forced into the tube
2|. The level of the liquid will always be leveled
up automatically, in connection with which the
boiled out water drops outside. of _the heating
space or chamber 2 I. Owing to the contact with
the wall I3 of the absorption chamber _it will be
enriched again with gas and »from within the
heating space or`chamber'22 again attain the'
heating element contained within 2i.
'I‘hrough the medium oi' this cycle an excellent
exchange of heat will be ensured between the
boiled out water and the water enriched with gas
by means of the walls of the chamber 2I and 22.
At the same time part of the absorption heat will
be imparted to the enriched water within the
heating chamber 22. The ribs 24 serve for the
purpose of discharging or carrying away> the
foregoing are of special importance to small re
frigerating machines.
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' I claim as>my invention:
1. An absorption refrigerating machine com-_
prising a vessel provided with cooling ribs and
having in the lowest part thereof a gas chamber,
said gas chamber being separated from the re
maining portion of the vessel by a semipermeable
wall which permits only gas to pass therethrough
and the vessel containing a pipe having in its
upper part a boiling device and the lower part
being enlarged to cover over'a part of the semi
permeable wall, a condenser, an evaporator, and
a ñlter arranged in the uppermost part of the
vessel to separate the water carried along by the 15
boiled out gas, said boiled out gas passing through
the condenser and evaporator to the gas cham
ber of the said vessel which(is filled with ab
sorption liquid to almost adjacent the uppermost
end of the pipe.
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2.- A deyice according to claim 1, in which the
pipe‘with the boiling device is arranged in the '
middle of the vessel.
3. A device according to claim 1, in which the
pipe with the boiling device is~ arranged in the 25
middle of the vessel and the semipermeable wall
surplus heat.
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In accordance with Fig. 4 thetube 2|, forming ï being arranged below the boiling device.
4. An absorption refrigerating machine com
the boiling space or chamber, with the funnel
shaped attachment 22,> has been given the shape prising a vessel having in the lowest part thereof
80 of a long, tubular body and attached laterally in a gas chamber, said gas chamber being sepa 30
the common vessel. The heating tube 20 is 'posi- _ rated from the remaining portion of the vessel
tioned centrally within thev tube 2| and pro
vided with a lateral aperture corresponding with
an identical aperture in the wall of the vessel I9.
This arrangement is intended to be heated by
means of a flame or through the medium of hot
gases. The process of boiling, of the exchange
of heat, of the cycle of the liquid and of absorp
tion -is identical with that of the device in ac
40 cordance with'Fig. 3.
by ‘a semipermeablelwall which permits only gas
to pass therethrough, said semipermeable wall
being formed by a plurality of thin walls set one
»after another, and the vessel containing a pipe
having in its upper part a boiling device and
its lower part being enlarged to cover at least ~
a portion of the semipermeable membrane.
. 5. An absorption device for refrigeration instal
lations, comprising a vessel-containing a'liquid
The funnel-shaped attachment 22 should suit- ' and having an outlet at the top thereof for the
refrigerating mediuni, a heating device in the
vessel, a tubular body in the vessel and surround
Instead of the porous partition I3 any other ing the heating device in spaced relation there
device
may be employed for the absorption process . with, means in the lower part of the vessel into 45
45
and for overcoming- the.diiferences in pressure which the refrigerating medium returns to the
said means being composed of a material
prevailing in connection therewith. vThe space vessel,
I5 may also be filled with water taking up the which- will permit the passage therethrough of
the refrigerating medium as a gas but prevent
. gas ilowing in untilv it'is saturated and super
saturated, subsequently giving it off through the the passage therethrough of any water, and a
porous or gas-transmitting walll to the water filter at the top of the vessel to prevent the
ably cover at least part of the absorption cham
ber or space at I3.
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circulating `within the vessel I9. '
In all cases there may be attached to the porous
partition or membrane I3 contacts of known kind
of a continuous currentV tension for the purpose
of hindering or impeding to a greater degree the
trickling ofthe absorption liquid, but'l permitting
the absorption or the-passage of the gas.
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If necessary, several porous partitions may be
disposed in series, i. e. one behind the other, for
the purpose oi' compensating the drop in pressure
between the gas space or chamber and therein,
through which the circulating liquid is flowing.
This particular arrangement-of the semiperme
able partition or wall (Fig. 5) is of general im
portance in processes in which on one side of the
semipremeable partition the liquid flows between
_a boiler and the absorber in a closed path, and on
the other side the gas to be absorbed by the liquid
>contacts the partition. Preferably said liquid is
permitted to boil over an obstructing wall in the
boiler by pressure equalization of the liquid in the
path of flow. The novel features described in’the
passage of any water ¿with the refrigerating l
medium._
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6. An absorption device for refrigeration in
stallations, comprising a vessel containing a liquid 55
and having an outlet at the top thereof for the
refrigerating medium, a heating device in the
vessel,'a tubular- body in the vessel and surround
ing the heating device in spaced relation there
with, and means in the lower part of the vessel 60
into which the refrigerating medium returns to
the vessel, said means being composed of a mate
rialv which will permit the passage therethrough
' of the refrigerating medium as a gas but prevent
the passage therethrough of, any water, and said 65
tubular body having a'funnel shape- at the lower
end and into which the means extends whereby '
when the liquid is heated by the heating device
it will circulate upwardly through the tubular
body and then down between the outside of the
tubular body and the vessel to again enter the 70
tubular body.
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ERNST SANDER.
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