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Патент USA US2126988

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Aug. 16, 1938.
A. ENGELSTEIN
CONVERSION OF HYDRO‘C‘ARBON OILS
2,126,988
Filed Oct. 8, 1934
INVENTOR
2,126388
Patented Aug. 16, 1938
iiNi'iED STATES PATENT OFFIQE
2,126,988
CONVERSION OF HYDROGARBON OILS
Alvin Engelstein, Chicago, 111., assignor to Uni
versal Oil Products Company, Chicago, 111., a
corporation of Delaware
Application October 8, 1934, Serial No. 747,272
2 Claims. (Cl. 196—58)
This invention particularly refers to an im
proved process for the conversion of hydrocar
bon oils which is particularly well adapted to
the treatment of relatively high-boiling oils or
5 oils of relatively wide boiling range.
It is one of the primary objects of the present
invention to provide an improved process for
the conversion of relatively high-boiling oils such
as fuel oil or residual oils, generally, as well as
ther cool and remove from the vapors selected
high-boiling components and to heat the charg
ing stock whereby its low-boiling components
are subjected to vaporization and fractionated
together with said vaporous conversion products, 5
returning high-boiling components of the charg
ing stock remaining unvaporized by said contact
with the vaporous conversion products and con
densate removed from the vaporous conversion
10 oils of relatively wide boiling range such as crude
petroleum, topped crude and the like, which
contain an appreciable quantity of relatively
high-boiling components, wherein heavy compo
nents of the charging stock unsuitable for con
15 version under conditions as severe as those which
give the best results for the treatment of its low-7
er boiling components are removed from the
charging stock and subjected to more suitable
milder conversion conditions within the same sys
20 tem. In the present invention this is accom
plished in a single uni?ed system of simple form,
segregation of the charging stock into selected
low-boiling and high-boiling fractions being ac
complished by direct contact and heat exchange
25 with vaporous conversion products of the process,
prior to fractionation of the latter for the forma
tion of re?ux condensate, which is returned to
the heating coil of the system for further conver
sion, and subsequent to partial cooling of the
30
vaporous conversion products by their indirect
contact and heat exchange with said re?ux con
densate.
In one speci?c embodiment, the invention com
prises subjecting an oil to conversion conditions
35 of elevated temperature and superatmospheric
pressure in a heating coil and communicating
reaction chamber, withdrawing vaporous and
liquid conversion products from the reaction
chamber, subjecting vaporous conversion prod
40 ucts of the process, following partial condensa
tion and cooling thereof, as will be later more
fully described, to fractionation for the formation
of re?ux condensate comprising their insufficient
ly converted components suitable for further
45 conversion in said heating coil, passing a regu
lated portion or all of said re?ux condensate in
indirect heat exchange with said vaporous con
version products, prior to said fractionation
thereof, and then supplying the reflux conden
sate to the heating coil for further conversion,
introducing hydrocarbon oil charging stock for
the process into direct contact with said vaporous.
conversion products of the process subsequent to
said heat exchange with the re?ux condensate
55 and prior to said fractionation,_whereby to fur-,
products by said direct contact with the charg- 10
ing stock and said indirect heat exchange with
the re?ux condensate to an intermediate point
in the heating coil whereby said condensate and
high-boiling fractions of the charging stock are
subjected to less severe conversion conditions 15
than the re?ux condensate.
'
It is also Within the scope of the present in
vention instead of supplying a condensate, com
prising the high~boi1ing components of the vapor
ous conversion products, and the high-boiling 20
fractions of the charging stock to an interme
diate point in the heating coil to commingle the
same, all or in part, with ‘the stream of hot con
version products passing from the heating coil
to the reaction chamber or to introduce the same 25
into the reaction chamber at any desired point
in this zone. This provision is of particular ad
vantage in case it is desired to subject said
condensate to somewhat milder conversion than
that obtainable by passing the same through the 30
?nal stages of the heating coil. In case still less
or substantially no conversion of the condensate
is desired it may be supplied to the vaporizing
chamber or commingled with the stream of prod
ucts passing from the reaction chamber to the 35
vaporizing chamber, in which case a major por
tion of said condensate will commingle in the
vaporizing chamber with the residual liquid con
version products in this zone to form the ?nal
residual liquid product of the process.
The accompanying diagrammatic drawing and
following description thereof is included for the
purpose of illustrating one speci?c form of appa
ratus in which the invention may be carried out.
It will be understood, of course, that the inven
tion is not limited to the speci?c form of appa
ratus illustrated.
Referring to the drawing, heating coil I is lo
cated in a furnace 2 of any suitable form which 50
supplies the required heat to the oil passing
through the heating coil to subject the same to
the desired conversion temperature in this zone
preferably at a substantially superatmospheric
pressure. Hot conversion products are dis- 55
2
2,126,988
charged from heating coil I through line 3 and
valve 4 into reaction chamber 5.
Chamber 5 is also preferably maintained at a
substantial superatmospheric pressure which
may be substantially the same or somewhat
lower than that employed at the outlet from the
heating coil and, although not indicated in the
drawing, the reaction chamber is preferably in
sulated to prevent the excessive loss of heat
10 therefrom by radiation so that the materials sup
plied to this zone, and particularly their vaporous
components, may be subjected to additional con
version therein.
Both vaporous and liquid conversion products
15 are withdrawn, in the case here illustrated, in
commingled state from the lower portion of
chamber 5 and are supplied through line 6 and
valve ? to vaporizing chamber 8. It is, of course,
also within the scope of the present invention
20 to separately remove all or a regulated portion
of the vaporous conversion products from any
desired point in chamber 5 above the point of
removal of the liquid conversion products, in
which case the vaporous products may be sup
25 plied, all or in part, to chamber 8 at any de
sired point in this zone or to heat exchanger [3.
vaporizing chamber 8 is preferably operated at
a substantially reduced pressure relative to that
employed in chamber 5 whereby further vapor
ization of the liquid supplied to this zone is ac
complished. Residual liquid remaining unvapor
izedin chamber 8 may be Withdrawn from the
lower portion thereof through line 9 and valve
ill to cooling and storage or to any desired fur
Vaporous products are removed
from the upper portion of chamber 8 through
line H and valve 12 and supplied to heat ex
35 ther treatment.
changer l3 wherein they are subjected to partial
cooling by indirect contact with re?ux conden
40 sate produced within the system, as will be later
more fully described.
The vaporous conversion products remaining
uncondensed in heat exchanger l3 are directed
therefrom through line I4 and valve 15 to col
45 umn 16 wherein they are subjected to additional
cooling and condensation by direct contact with
hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the process
supplied thereto, as will be later more fully de
scribed. Vaporous conversion products still re
50 maining uncondensed are removed from the up
per portion of column I6, together with the com
ponents of the charging stock which are vapor
ized in this zone, and the commingled vaporous
materials pass through line I‘! and valve l8 to
55 be subjected to fractionation in fractionator l 9.
Components of the vapors supplied to fraction
ator l9 boiling above the range of the desired
?nal light distillate product of the process are
condensed in this zone as re?ux condensate. The
60 re?ux condensate is withdrawn from. the lower
portion of fractionator 19 through line 20 and
valve 2| to pump 22 by means of which it is fed
through line 23, valve 24 and line 25 and may be
directed, all or in part, through valve 26 in line
65 25, through heat exchanger l3, in indirect con
tact with the vaporous conversion products sup
plied to this zone, as previously described, the re
?ux condensate being directed thence through
line 25’, valve 26’ and line 28 to heating coil l
70 for further conversion. When desired, a regu
lated portion of the re?ux condensate may by
pass heat exchanger 13 by means of valve 29 in
line 28.
'
Fractionated vapors of the desired end-boiling
75 point are removed, together with uncondensable
gas produced within the process, from the upper
portion of the fractionator through line 30 and
valve 3| and are subjected to condensation and
cooling in condenser 32. The resulting distillate
and gas passes through line 33 and valve 34 to
collection and separation in receiver 35. Uncon-.
densable gas may be released from the receiver
through line 36 and valve 37. Distillate may be
withdrawn from receiver 35 through line 38 and
valve 39 to storage or to any desired further treat 10
ment. When desired, a regulated portion of the
distillate collected in receiver 35 may be recir
culated, by well known means, not shown in the
drawing, to the upper portion of fractionator
19 to. serve as a cooling and refluxing medium
15
in this zone to assist fractionation of the vapors
and to maintain the desired vapor outlet tem~
perature from. the fractionator.
Hydrocarbon oil charging stock for the proc
ess is supplied through line 40 and valve 4| to
pump 42 by means of which it is fed through line 20
43 and may be directed, all or in part, through
line 44 and valve 45 to column l6 wherein it is
preheated and subjected to vaporization by di
rect contact with the ‘vaporous conversion prod
ucts in this zone, serving to partially cool said 25
vaporous products and e?ect condensation oi
their heavy components. It is also within the
scope of the present invention, when desired, to
direct regulated portions of the charging stock
through line 46 and valve 41 to fractionator 19 30
to serve as a re?uxing and cooling medium in
this zone and be thereby heated and subjected
to vaporization or regulated portion of the charg
the stock may, when desired, be directed from
line 44 through line 48 and valve 49 into line 25 35
to commingle therein with the re?ux condensate
from fractionator l9 and be subjected to further
treatment therewith, in the manner already de
scribed.
Condensate removed from the vaporous con
40
version products in heat exchanger l3 by their
indirect contact with re?ux condensate or com
mingled re?ux ‘condensate and charging stock in
this zone is withdrawn from the lower portion
thereof through line 50 and valve 5| passing 45
thence, in the case here illustrated, through line
52 to pump 53. Condensate comprising addi
tional quantities of the high-boiling components
of the vaporous conversion products formed in
column I6 is removed together with high-boiling 50
components of the charging stock supplied to this
zone which remain unvaporized therein through
line 54 and valve 55 and, in the case here illus
trated, is also directed through line 52 to pump
53. The relatively heavy oils thus supplied to
pump 53 are fed therefrom through line 56 and
may be supplied, all or in part, through line 51
and valve 58 to a suitable intermediate point in
heating coil i wherein the relatively heavy oil
commingles with the stream of lower boiling oils,
or the conversion products resulting therefrom,
"passing through the heating coil to be subjected
therewith to conversion in the remaining portion
of this zone.
The temperature employed in the ?nal stages of 65
heating coil I, following the introduction of
said relatively high-boiling oils, may be sub
stantially the same, somewhat higher, or some
what lower than the temperature to which the
70
relatively low-boiling oils are heated in the pre
ceding portion of the heating coil. In any case,
however, the conversion conditions to which said
relatively high~boiling oils are subjected in the
heating coil are less severe than those to which 75
2,126,988
the relatively low-boiling oils are subjected in.
this zone, due to the shorter time factor vem
ployed for the relatively high-boiling oils- and to
the somewhat lower pressure necessitated in the
5 ?nal stages of the heating coil, due to the fric-v
tion through this zone. Preferably, although not
illustrated in the drawing, the arrangement of
heating coil l within furnace 2 is such thata
considerable degree of independent control is ex
10 erted over the heating conditions about the ?nal
stages of the heating coil, subsequent to the intro
duction of said relatively high-boiling oils, rela
tive to the heating conditions in the preceding
portion of the coil. Means for accomplishing
15 this are now well known in the art and, for the
sake of simplicity, are not here illustrated.
In case it is desired to subject the relatively
high-boiling oils from heat exchanger l3 and
column IE to somewhat milder conversion condi
20 tions than those obtainable by introducing the
same to an intermediate point in heating coil I,
provision is made in the present invention for
commingling the same with the stream of heated
products passing from the heating coil to the re
25 action chamber, subsequent to their discharge
from the heating coil, or they may be separately
supplied to the reaction chamber at any desired
point in this zone. Valve 59 in line 56 is illus
trative of the means which may be employed for
30 introducing the relatively high-boiling oils into
transfer line 3 to commingle with the stream of
heated products from heating coil ! and be di
rected therewith to chamber 5 and line 60 con
trolled by valve Si is illustrative of means for
35 separately supplying the relatively high-boiling
oils to the reaction chamber.
It is also within the scope of the present inven
tion to supply all or a regulated portion of the
"high-boiling oils from heat exchanger l3 and
40 column IE to vaporizing chamber 8 at any desired
point in this zone. This may be accomplished
by ccmmingling the same with the stream of
products in line 6 passing from chamber 5 to
chamber 8, for example, by means of line 62 and
45 valve 63, or the relatively high-boiling oils may
be separately supplied to the vaporizing cham
ber at any desired point in this zone by well
known means, not illustrated. In case this meth
od of operation is employed, little or substantially
50 no conversion of the relatively high-boiling oils
will be accomplished and their components re
maining unvaporized in chamber 8 will com
mingle with the residual liquid conversion prod
ucts withdrawn from this zone, as previously de
55 scribed, the commingled materials forming the
' ?nal residual liquid product of the process.
The preferred range of operating conditions
which may be employed to accomplish the ob
jects of the present invention in an apparatus
60 such as illustrated and above described may be
approximately as follows: A conversion tempera
ture ranging, for xarnple, from 800 to 950° F,
may be employed at the outlet from the heating
coil preferably with a substantial superatmo
(55 spheric pressure measured at this point in the sys
tem of from 100 to 500 pounds, or more, per
square inch. The conversion temperature in the
heating coil measured at a point just prior to
the point of introduction of the relatively high
70 boiling oils, when this method of operation is
employed, may range, for example, from 850 to
1000" F., or thereabouts. A substantial super
atmospheric pressure which may be either sub
stantially the same or somewhat lower than
75 that employed at the outlet from the heating coil
3
is utilized. in the reaction chamber and the va
porizing chamber is preferably operated at a
substantially reduced pressure relative to that
employed in the reaction chamber ranging, for
example, from 100 pounds, or thereabouts, per
square inch, down to substantially atmospheric
pressure. The portions of the system succeed;
ing the vaporizing chamber may utilize pressures
substantially the same or somewhat lower than
the pressure employed in the vaporizing chamber. 10:
‘ As a speci?c example of the operation of the
process of the present invention as it may be
accomplished in an apparatus such as illustrated
and above described, utilizing as charging stock
a Kansas crude oil of about 20° A. P. I. gravity 15
containing no appreciable quantity of materials
within the boiling range of gasoline, high-boiling
components of the vaporous conversion products
and of the charging stock, recovered, in the man
ner illustrated and above
no substantial quantity of
low 650° F., are supplied to
in the heating coil. The
described, containing 20
materials boiling be
an intermediate point
lower boiling compo
nents of the charging stock and the re?ux con
densate are subjected in that portion of the heat 25
ing coil preceding the introduction of the rela
tively high-boiling oils to a temperature of ap
proximately 950° F. The temperature at the
outlet from the heating coil is approximately 900°
F. A superatmospheric pressure of approximate“ 30
ly 350 pounds per square inch is employed at the
outlet from the heating coil and substantially
the same pressure is utilized in the succeeding
reaction chamber. The vaporizing chamber is
operated at a reduced pressure of approximately 35
50 pounds per square inch which is substantially
equalized in the succeeding portions of the sys
tem. This operation will produce, per barrel of
charging stock, approximately 48 percent of
motor fuel having an antiknock value equivalent 40
to an octane number of approximately '70 and
about 42 percent of premium fuel oil, the remain
der being chargeable, principally, to unconden
sable gas and loss.
I claim as my invention:
45
1. A hydrocarbon oil conversion process which
comprises heating re?ux condensate, formed as
hereinafter set forth, to cracking temperature
under pressure while ?owing in a restricted
stream through a heating coil, subsequently sep 50
arating the resultant heated products into vapors
and residue, partially condensing the vapors by
indirect heat exchange with said re?ux conden
sate prior to introduction of the latter to the
heating coil and by direct contact with relatively 55
heavy charging oil for the process, thereby pre
heating the re?ux condensate and partially dis
tilling the charging oil, combining condensate
formed by said indirect heat exchange with the
unvaporized portion of the charging oil and in 60
troducing the resultant mixture to said coil at
an intermediate point in the ?ow of the re?ux
condensate therethrough, fractionating the va—
pors uncondensed by said partial condensation
to separate insufficiently cracked fractions there 65
of, passing such separated insu?iciently cracked
fractions in indirect heat exchange with the ?rst
named vapors and thence to the heating coil as
said re?ux condensate, and ?nally condensing
the fractionated vapors.
70
2. A hydrocarbon oil conversion process which
comprises heating reflux condensate, formed as
hereinafter set forth, to cracking temperature
under pressure while ?owing in a restricted
stream through a heating coil, subsequently sep- 75
2,126,988
arating the resultant heated products into vapors
and residue, passing the vapors ?rst through an
indirect heat exchange zone and then into a di
rect heat exchange zone, contacting the vapors
‘ in the last-named zone with relatively heavy
charging oil for the process, thereby partially
distilling the charging oil and condensing heav
ier portions of the vapors, fractionating the un
condensed vapors from the last-named zone to
10 separate insu?iciently cracked fractions thereof,
passing such separated insu?‘iciently cracked
fractions in indirect heat exchange relation with
the vapors in said indirect heat exchange zone
and thence to the heating coil as said re?ux con
densate, combining condensate and unvaporized
charging oil from said heat exchange zones and
introducing the resultant mixture to said coil
at an intermediate point in the ?ow of the re?ux
condensate therethrough, and ?nally condensing
the fractionated vapors.
ALVIN ENGELSTEIN.
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