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Патент USA US2127126

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Ang. 16, 193s.
Filëd sept. 15, 193e
Vs sheets-sheet 1
Aug. 16, 193s.
Filed Sept. 15, 195e
s sheets-sheet 2
.La van for
Àug. 16, 1938.
Filed Sept. l5, 1956
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Aug. 16, 1938
PATENTg orifice
Otto Lutz, Fellbach, near Stuttgart, Germany
Application September 15, 1936, Serial No. 100,856
In Germany September 18, 1935
7 Claims.
(Cl. 230-180)
My invention relates to compressors or other
engines and more particularly to means for com
pressing gases and for transforming gas pressure
into kinetic energy.
In apparatus according to my invention a plu
rality of walls extend across a working chamber
and these walls in moving in the chamber rela
tive to each other continuously andl alternately
increase and diminish the volume of the spaces
extending through an angle of 360° so as to form
a single-thread screw.
10 enclosed between them, whereby the apparatus is
enabled to either compress and convey gases or
to transform energies stored in a compressed gas
into pressure acting on another gasor to convert
heat energy into mechanical energy.
In the drawings añixed to this specification and
forming part thereof several embodiments of my
invention are illustrated diagrammatically‘ by
way of example.
In the drawings
Fig. 1 is an axial section of one form of such
an apparatus, while
Fig. 2 is a cross-section on the line 2--2 in
Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a perspective View of the movable parts
of a second modification, while
Fig. 4 is an axial section illustrating a modified
form of part of the first modification (Figs. l
and 2).
Fig. 5 is a showing, similar to that in Fig. 4, of
a fourth modification.
Fig. 6 is a perspective View, similar to that of
Fig. 3, of a fifth modification and
Fig. 7 is a perspective view showing a detail.
Fig. 8 is an axial section drawn to a larger
a scale, of a detail on the right hand side of Fig. 6.
Fig. 9 is a perspective view, partly in axial sec
tion and also drawn to a larger scale, of a differ
ent form of driving means.
Fig. 10 is an elevation, partly in axial section,
of a modified form similar to that in Fig. 9.
Referring to the drawings and first to Figs. l
and 2, f is the substantially cylindrical casing of
the compressor or engine and b and h are covers
closing same. g is a hollow shaft supported in
4 Ul
bearings formed in the covers b, h for rotation,
a being the driving wheel mounted on the pro
jecting end of shaft g. e is a partition extend
ing obliquely across the middle portion of t‘he
shaft and separating same in two parts. d1, d2
are cam plates formed on or fixed to the shaft g
near its ends. The cam plate d1 is formed with
a gas inlet E, cam plate d2 with a gas outlet A.
Gas entering the left hand end of the hollow
shaft in the direction of the arrow B will thus
55 enter through E and escape through A, the inlet
The two aligned ends of each helical wall are
in contact with the two cam plates d1, d2 and the
adjoining ends of the four helical walls are stag- »5
gered by 90°, as shown in Fig. 2. The two ends
of each helical wall are coupled by means of
pins 11,1, n2, n3, n4, respectively, with slides m1,
m2, m3, m4, respectively, mounted and guided in
slots 21, z2, z3, 24 formed in the inner wall of the l51,0
cylindrical casing f.
The operation of this device is as follows:
When the shaft g is rotated, the cam plates
d1 and d2 will force the four helical walls c1, c2,
c3, c4 to reciprocate on and relative to the shaft -. )15
in axial direction, being axially guided by the
slides m1 . . . and slots 21 . . .
According to the
angle enclosed between the cam plates and the
shaft the movements of the four walls will take
place in staggered relation. When wall c1 arrives £20
at the left hand end of the casing shown in Fig.
1, the wall c3 will reach the right hand end, while
the walls c2 and c4 will at that moment assume
intermediate positions. Since the four walls en
close between them helical spaces and owing to-125
the particular relative movements, which they go
through, the distance between the surfaces of
each pair of adjoining walls will increase during
the first half and decrease during the second half
of each revolution of the shaft and in conse- 30
quence of this permanently occurring change of
volume of the helical spaces between the walls a
gas passing through between them will have its
volume changed also. Gas entering in the direc
tion of the arrow B, while flowing in the space ...35
between two adjoining helical walls c1, c2 . . .
will be compressed while the shaft rotates through
an angle of‘180", since the two walls will then
approach each other and the gas will thus escape
through the outlet A under a higher pressurenßl()
Obviously, on the other hand the increase in vol
urne of the spaces enclosed between each pair of
walls during the second half of a revolution of
the shaft, will create a pressure below normal, in
other words a suction effect in the space enclosed ' 45
between these walls, so that gas will constantly
be sucked in through' the inlet E and expelled
under pressure through the outlet A.
In the modification illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2
all contiguous surfaces can be turned on the lathe 50
or ground at lowcost in the simplest manner and
the efficiency of this apparatus will therefore be
particularly great.
Fig. 3 illustrates in a highly diagrammatic mari
ner a each
of the
of the
in Fig.ari
and outlet openings being arranged in staggered
angle of 720°, thus forming a double-thread screw,
four walls being shifted forth and back in
Between the two cam plates d1 and d2 are ar
ranged for free axial movement relative to the alternation on the shaft by the two cam plates.
shaft g four helical walls c1, c2, c3, c4, each wall
As shown in Fig. 4, the inlet opening E (and 60
similarly also the outlet opening) may be formed
in the wall of the hollow shaft.
Fig. 5 illustrates the case, where the cam plates
d are fixed to the casing fa, being thus secured
against rotation, while the helical walls ce . . .
are made to rotate with the shaft. Here the inlet
opening E (and also the outlet opening) are
formed in the casing wall.
In the modiñed form of Fig. 6, which, as far as
10 the helical walls are concerned resembles that
shown in Fig. 3, the ends of the helical walls or
pistons c are formed with guide pieces `e1 .
segment shape, which reciprocate on the shaft
in sliding contact with each other. The ends of
15 the helical walls or pistons are secured against
bending and circumferential stresses and can be
machined in a >particularly simple manner, since
the four helical pistons may be assembled by them
selves without being first fitted in the casing and
20 on the shaft and can then be turned down to the
corresponding diameters.
Friction between the guide segments el` . . .
can be reduced by inserting between them anti
frictional guide members such as balls o, which
25 may be guided in split tubesi (Figs. 6, 7 and 8).
In the modifications hitherto described the heli
cal walls or pistons are acted upon for axial recip
rocation at their ends only, where they are in
contact with the cam plates, which thus exert a
30 push on the walls. I may, however, also provide
for a double-sided drive of the helical walls or
pistons, as shown in Figs. 9 and l0.
In the modiñcation of Fig. 9 rollers lc are
mounted in the ends y of the helical walls, these
rollers projecting between pairs of cam members
w fixed to the shaft o.
As shown in Fig. 10 pairs of rollers t may be
mounted in the ends s of the helical walls and a
cam plate r may extend into the interstice be
tween the two rollers, so that here also the helical
walls are acted upon by the cam plates in both
directions. The pistons may be carried along by
the shaft by means of sliding- or rolling-contact
guides. Alternatively the shaft may be formed
45 with cam grooves in which the pistons are guided
or the ends of the shaft may be formed with axial
teeth meshing with internal rows of teeth formed
Aon the piston ends.
Obviously, in the latter arrangements accord
50 ing to Figs. 9 and 10 a single cam plate will prove
suñìcient, which may be arranged either at the
suction or at the pressure end of the device. I
however prefer to provide two cam plates, more
especially in the case where'the helical walls or
55 pistons are required to take up higher pressures.
For if each helical piston is acted upon and guided
at either end, the distance between the ends of a
piston will remain constant even if pressures act
ing on the helical walls would tend to deform
60 them. By this arrangement the bending and cir
cumferentially acting stresses are also reduced
and the mechanical pressure is distributed onto
two driving parts (cam plates).
While, in all the modifications illustrated in
65 the drawings, I have shown devices provided with
four helical pistons, obviously any number of such
pistons may be provided in accordance with the
degree of compression desired and the number of
strokes which the cam plates are required to pro
70 duce. In Fig. 10, for example, a two-stroke cam
plate T is shown.
The helical pistons may be formed withv a single
` or multiple thread and also with 5/1 or 1% threads
The pistons may also be guided and acted
upon by annular segments at points intermediate
their ends.
The output of devices of this'kind is a very
favorable one. The helical walls act as pistons,
the effective surface of which, when more than
one thread is provided, corresponds to the larger
annular surface between the casing wall and the
shaft. Apart therefrom each piston conveys gas
on each stroke, so that although the length of
strokes may be small, the apparatus can easily be
designed to convey up to the double of the volume
enclosed between the shaft and the casing Wall
per revolution of the shaft, and in the case of
multiple thread cam plates a multiple thereof.
Since the size of an apparatus of this kind
may be small, the ratio of volume conveyed per
revolution to the size of the apparatus is ex
tremely favorable.
The mass forces are low, since `
the helical pistons execute only short strokes and
consequently high numbers of revolution can be 20
attained. A perfect` mass equilibrium in axial
direction can easily be attained.
Since the parts, from which the apparatus is
built up. are of simple forms, they can easily be
calculated for different stresses and their weight
can thus be made as low as possible.
The appara
tus is therefore particularly suitable for use in
portable units and either as a conveyor (blower,
pump, compressor etc.) or as a power engine or
also as a combination of both.
I wish it to be understood that I do not desire
to be limited to the exact details of construction
shown and described, forobvious modifications
will occur to a person skilled in the art.
I claim:
1. A device of the kind described, comprising in>
combination, a casing member enclosing a cylin
drical chamber, a rotatable shaft member extend
ing axially through said chamber, a plurality of
overlapping, helical, pistons surrounding said 40
shaft member, said pistons being guided for axial
motion relative to both of said members and for
rotation relative to one of said members, a' cam
>plate structure fixed to said one of said members
and contacting said pistons to force them to
reciprocate axially relative to said chamber as 45
said shaft member is rotated, an inlet passage
successively communicating with the respective
spaces between adjacent pistons, and an outlet
passage also successively communicating with said
spaces after they have been cut oiffrorn com
munication with said inlet passage.
2. 'I‘he combination of claim 1, in which the
helical pistons loosely surround the shaft member.
3. The combination of claim 1, in which the
shaft member is hollow, one part of said shaft 55
member being formed with an inlet registering
with the inlet of said casing member, while the
other part is formed with an outlet registering
with the outlet of said casing member.
4. The combination of claim 1, in which slides- 60
reciprocable in axially extending slots of the
casing member serve for guiding the helical pis
5. The combination of claim 1, in which guide-
segments are provided on adjoining endsyof the 65
helical piston, said segments closing the chamber
and being axially guided.
6. The combination of claim 1, in which a
double acting cam plate structure is provided.l
7. The combination of claim 1, in which a pair
of cam discs is provided,
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