Патент USA US2127159код для вставки
Aug. 16, 1938. 2,127,159 E. COLLINS, 3D THERMGSTÀT FOR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Filed Aug. 27, 19155 www: ...mI6 www W w m www www. r, - . am alzarse Patented Aug. 16, 1938 UNETED STATES PATENT OFFEQE 2,127,159 THERMOSTAT FOR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Edward Collins, 3rd, Philadelphia, Pa. Application August 4'27 , 5 Claims. This invention relates to mercurial thermostats used in connection with electric circuits. The control of temperature in the use of many things and processes is important in many in the path of the mercury, as it is caused by the pressure on the bulb to rise Within the stem while maintained at a given temperature, which directly iniiuences at’the same time, the mer dustries, laboratory work and in various kinds of researches. Such control with precision has much to do with the kind of results obtained, particularly where automatic constant control of temperature is most desirable. To enumerate cury within the said bulb and stem. some of the instances where such control of tem perature is an important factor, mention might be made of crystal temperature control for radio transmitters and kindred appliances, the rubber industry, both natural and artificial, incubation, 15 milk sterilizers, the oil industry, air conditioning, including heating and Ventilating, and humidity control, warming cabinets, industrial baths rela tive to processes of manufacture, baking, heat treating of cereals for the trade, chemical proc 20 esses, germ culture, certain machinery, bearings, the manufacture of paints, drugs., etc., automatic iîre extinguishing apparatus and commercial temperature control. In fact, a precision instru 2 ment for the automatic and constant control of heat, that can be depended upon, becomes an important factor as an .addition to equipment used in any of the above instances mentioned and in many more. The main object of my invention, therefore, is 30 to provide a mercurial thermostat for electric circuits, adapted for use as a contact making thermometer where precision, as well .as constant temperature control is highly desirable, having the thermostat of simple construction, and prac 35 tical to manufacture, while at the same time affording a delicate manual adjustment, within a fraction of .a degree, to close or open an electric circuit for regulating heat for whatsoever pur pose desired. 40 In connection with this main object, I desire thc said construction to include a mercury bulb and stem, preferably similar to a thermometer, except having the bulb of a spheroid shape, capable of being slightly flattened in the direc 45 tion of the axis of that part of the tubular stem, integral with the bulb, which is immediately ad jacent to bulb, regardless of whether the remain ing part of the stem continues straight or at an angle to stem portion, adjacent the bulb. 50 1935, Serial No. 38,077 (Cl. 20G-141) In connection with the thermostat, fulfilling this main object, I desire to have means, manu Y A further object is to pro-vide means for man ually and delicately adjusting the pressure upon the bulb of the thermostat, either adjacent the casing of the thermostat, or by remote control, having additional means to hold the adjustment 10 secure, once it is set. In connection with the last named object, I desire to provide a plurality of adjustments in connection with the .adjusting means for chang ing to a coarse or ñne adjustment, using the ' same operating means. Another object of my invention is to provide a thermostat construction, which, while fulfilling any or all of the above named objects, will be practical to manufacture in quantities, and while 20 providing a closely adjustable instrument, will not be costly to make and will lend itself practi cally along the lines of thermometer production, in the making of the mercury ñlled glass stem and bulb parts of the thermostat. With these and other objects which will here inafter appear, my invention resides in certain construction of mercurial thermostats, two em bodiments of which ,are illustrated in the draw ing. The same is described, the functioning of ‘ the parts is explained, and what I claim is set forth. In the drawing, Figure 1 is a front elevation of a thermostat embodying my invention. Figure 2 is a sectional, side elevation taken on the line 2_2 of Figure 1. Figure 3 is a rear perspective view of the upper part of the thermostat shown in Figures 1 .and 2. Figure 4 is a perspective View of the upper 40 part of the compressing lever, shown also in Fig ures 1 and 2. Figure 5 is a front elevation of another fo-rm of thermostat, embodying my invention. Figure 6 is a sectional side elevation, taken on the line 6_6, of Figure 5, and here shown at tached to a wall. Figure ’l is an elevation showing the front flat side of the compressing lever with attachments, which are shown also in Figures 5 and 6. In the figures, considering Figures 1, 2, 3 and ally adjusted to eXert a pressure upon the bulb, 4, the casing l0 is shown to have an open back to sufficiently distort the same to cause the mer cury to rise in the stem, to close a circuit be and bottom portion l5. tween two terminal wire ends, positioned Within rod I6, near the top portion I4, is an L-lever I'l, Il, integral with sides l2 and I3, top portion I4 Hinged upon the cross 2. 2,127,159 having an upper portion I8, with ears I9, jour naled upon the cross-rod I6, ñxed in the sides I2 and I3. A stem seat 20, depends from the upper portion I8, of the L-lever I1. Integral with the portion I8, is the long arm 2l, which is posi tioned adjacent to the back II. Fixed in the bottom portion I5 is a bushing 22, in threaded engagement with the screw 23, which has a cup 10 15 20 25 portion 24, and a knurled finger end 25. Be tween the stem seat 28 and the cup portion 24, of the screw 23, is the glass thermostatic element 26, having a bulb 21, flattened in the direction of the axis of the element, and having a tubular stem 28, between the bulb 21 and the stem seat 20. The bulb 21 and the tubular stem 28, are in open communication, having mercury 29 nll ing the bulb 21, and extending partly up the channel 3D, of the stem 28. Considering partic ularly the structure of the bulb end of the glass thermostatic element 26, as shown in section, in Figure 2, the central part of the upper cross wall portion of the bulb 21, is also the lower solid glass end of the channeled stem 28, and is therefore inflexible within the Zone 39. Directly opposite this upper cross wall portion, of the bulb, is the lower cross wall portion, having its central part inflexible, inasmuch as it is part of the lug 38, thus leaving any flexible action of the bulb to be had only from the thin, curved wall portions of 30 the bulb, outside of the upper and lower, central, and inflexible wall portions of the bulb, which are concentric with the axis of the stern 25. Penetrating the wall of the stem 28 and enter ing the channel 30, are the metal wires 3I and 35 32, connected respectively to the metal rings 33 and 34, bound on the outside of the stem 28. Connected with the `rings 33 and 34 are the re spective terminal pieces 35 and 36, with eyelet ends 31. Where the thermostatic element 26 rests in the cup portion 24, of the screw 23, there is a solid glass lug 38, integral with the bulb 21. Considering this bulb 21, the Walls thereof, the upper flattened portion has a zone 39, surround ing the end of the stem 28, so that any end pres 45 sure coming from the stem 28 will tend to de press the zone portion 39, of the bulb 21, and re duce the size of the cavity of the bulb 21, hold ing the mercury 29, causing the latter to rise in the channel 30, of the stem 28. Returning to the L-lever I1 and its long arm 2|, there is shown a screw 48, in threaded en gagement with the upper bushing 4I, fixed in the back II, of the casing I0. Midway of the height of the casing IU, I have provided another bush ing 42, threaded for engagement with the screw 40, when it is desired to change the screw 39, from engagement with the bushing 4l, to engage ment with the bushing 42, so that the .screw 48 can bear against a portion of the arm 2|, further 60 away from the journaled connection of the L-le ver I1, with the rod I6, when one turn of the screw 48 will cause considerably less angular movement of the L-lever I1 than one turn of the screw will cause, in conjunction with the upper f- bushing 4I, with which the screw 4D is shown engaged in Figure 2. The permissible lower position of the screw 4i), is shown in broken lines, at 48a. The screw 45 may have its outer end provided with the usual finger piece, near the housing, or it may be pro vided with a remote control device, as shown in the upper parts of Figures 1 and 2, including a fluted head 43, engaged by a pawl piece 44, hav ing an elastic arm 45, fixed in a post 48, which 75 itself is fixed in the housing ID, so that we have a pawl and ratchet connected with the screw 40, for retaining the same in any angular position it is put by adjustment. Fixe-d to the screw head ¿I3 is a flexible shalt ll'I, terminating in a finger piece 48. This shaft ¿l? may be any length desired and as a flexible shaft to turn the screw ¿lll from a dis tance. For a safety stop, I provide a pin 5.9, fixed in the head 43, positioned, and long enough, to come against the post 45, to prevent any excessive , turning of the screw M3, which would tend to evert too much pressure upon the bulb 21. Considering now the modiiìed form of my in vention, shown in Figures 5, 6 and 7, there is a casing 50, having an open back 5I, sides and top portion 53. Fixed to the casing 58, by spot welding or otherwise, is a bracket 55., having legs 55 and 55 with out-turned portions 51, through which pass screws 58, into a wall 59. Fixed to the inside of the back 5I, are collars 88 and 6I, which support the hollow stem 82, of ‘the glass tl'iermostatic element 53. This stem 82 is shown to be bent at 54, where the vertical portion 55, and the horizontal portion. 88, merge. The por tion 58 passes through a large hole 61, in the back 5I, oi” the casing 58, and through a smaller hole in the plate 58, attached within the bracket 54. Seated against the lips of the hole 58, in the plate 59, is the flattened bulb 1li, integral with ‘ the stem 82. The bulb 1€) has within it mercury 1|, which passes part way into and up the chan nel 12, of the stem 82. The bulb and stein E2 are preferably made of suitable glass. Extend ing from the bulb 18, centrally, to the rear, is the solid glass lug 13, which is seated in the pock et 14, of the fiat lever 15. This lever 15 is hinged with the eye 16, of the bolt 11, which passes through a slot 18, in the leg 55, of the bracket 54. The slot 18 extends lengthwise of the leg 55 for 40 adjusting the position of the bolt 11, with respect to positioning the lever 15, relative to the lug 13. The bolt 'I1 is secured to the leg 55 by nuts 19. Journaled in the lower end 89, of the lever 15, is the screw 8l, having a washer 82a, fixed there 45 to. The screw 8l is threaded with the plate 59, the bracket 54, and thel casing 58. rI‘he outer end of the screw 8l has a head 82, with longi tudinal teeth 83, forming a ratchet with the spring pawl piece 84, fixed in the post 85, which 50 is fixed in the bracket 54 and the casing 50. Part of a flexible shaft 36, similar' to that illus trated in Figures l, 2 and 3, is shown fixed to the head 82. Considering the electric terminals of the in 55 strument shown in Figures 5 and 6, the wire ends 81 and 88 positioned within the channel 12, are connected through the wall of the stem 82 with the metal rings 89 and 96) respectively. which are bound around the stem 62. Connected with the rings 89 and 9U are the respectiveA terminal pieces 9! and 92 having eyelets 93. In operation, assume that the bulb 21, of the thermostat shown in Figures l and 2, is either immersed in a liquid or surrounded by a gas or air, as the case may be, and that the tempera ture of the medium thus surrounding the bulb 21 is the same as that at which it is desired to check and hold the heat, elfectîng the object or process to be governed, assuming there to be 70 present, at such object or along with the appli ances for carrying out a pro-cess, an electrical controlling device, in circuit with the terminals at 3l and 32, which will operate, as desired, to effect a temperature control, upon the closing of 2,127,159 a circuit. Then, while at this given tempera ture, the screw 40 is turned to bear against the arm 2|, of the L-lever I1, causing it to turn about the cross-pin IB and bear down at the stem seat 2B, so that the tubular stem 28 is caused to move slightly downward, in the direc tion of its axis, and depress the zone portion 39, of the upper wall of the glass bulb 21, and cause the mercury 29 to rise in the stem channel 30, passing the wire end 32 and contacting the wire end 3i, closing the circuit. The operator carefully observes the instant at which the circuit is thus closed, and he stops turning the screw 4Q, at that instant. The screw 4t may be turned either by directly turning the head 43, or by using the flexible shaft 41, by turning it at the finger piece 48, as at a point of remote control. In order to hold the screw 4U at the point where the operator stops turning the same, the pawl member 44 will engage the teeth of the head yet permit the turning of the screw 4l), manually either way. Unscrewing the screw 4@ causes the mercury in the stem 28 to recede downward, breaking the circuit. In the event that it is desired to effect a more delicate adjustment, by means of the same screw the screw 49, with its connections, is changed from engagement with the bushing 4I, to engage ment with the bushing 42, to occupy the position JU so as to bear against the arm 2|, at a point further away from the pin I5, upon which the L-lever l1, swings. In this latter case, one turn 3 part of the stem immediately adjacent the bulb. Where pressure upon the bulb 21 is brought from the remote upper end of the stem 28, and is brought upon the bulb 21 by the stem itself, pressure upon the bulb 10 is exerted directly upon the bulb between the plate 69, directly in contact with the bulb 10, and the lever 15 in pressing contact with the lug 13, integral with the bulb 10. This pressure is produced by means of the drawing eiTect exerted by unscrewing the 10 screw 8i upon the lever 15, the screw being turned manually by a flexible shaft 86, connected with tho head 83, and held where adjusted by the ratchet means including the pawl member 84. As a matter of precaution against excessive turning 15 of either the head 83, or the head 43 of the form shown in Figures 1 and 2, I provide the respective projecting pins 81 and 49, which are adapted to stop against the respective posts 85 and 4l. In this application we are primarily concerned with the thermostatic construction herein illus trated and described as embodying my invention and while no specific electrical governing device for immediate connection with the thing or proc 25 ess requiring heat control, is shown, it will be readily understood by those skilled in the art of thermostats, how to make any specific applica tions of my invention for precision temperature control, particularly where such precise control of temperature is to be constant in connection With the electrical governing device used in the several instances mentioned above and many of the screw llt, will cause much less downward movement of the stem 28, and therefore a less or slower rise of the mercury within the channel 30. more. If desired, ratchet means, having parts similar use of said thermostat embodying my invention, to 44, ¿i5 and 46, can be provided also about the> bushing ¿2, to function with the head 43, when the screw 4@ engages the bushing 42. Once the thermostat has been set to close a circuit at the temperature desired, then as soon as this tem perature falls, the mercury column will auto matically fall, opening the circuit which will stay open, until the temperature is caused to rise 45 again and send the mercury back up the channel Si), to again close the circuit at the temperature, While I have above referred to an individual 35 it is possible to use a plurality of such instru ments for temperature control, by having the instruments, each set for closing a circuit at a different temperature, in connection with proc 40 esses or objects, where a succession of various temperatures is desired to be had, each for a given period of time, using a timing device to deñnitely measure the time of duration of the control of each thermostat, or for this same 45 purpose, instead of using a plurality of such mer at which it had been set. curial thermometers, we can have more than Next, having the thermostat positioned Where it will be eiîected, simultaneously, by the same two spaced terminals along the line of the mer cury channel, in which case the bulb adjustment would only be possible as eiîecting the lower two 50 of said terminals, as the spacing of the remain ing termials within the said channel would be constant. Inasmuch as other modifications than` those shown and described can be made, without de 55 parting from the spirit and scope of my inven tion, I wish to include all forms of structure, which come within the purview of the following degree of heat, which eiîects the object or process under consideration, the functioning of the ther mostat will automatically close the circuit, at the desired temperature, or open the circuit below said temperature for which it has been set, to govern the operation of the electrical device with which it is> in circuit, and which directly causes a rise or fall in temperature at the said object, whose temperature it is desired to govern, or in connection with the process being carried out chemically or otherwise. Referring now to the operation of the modiiied form oi mercurial thermostat shown in Figures 5 and 6, a pressure upon the bulb 10, in the direction of the axis of that part 66 of the bulb stem 62, will cause the mercury to rise in the channel 12, to close a circuit between the terminal wire ends 81 and 8S, in a similar way to that de scribed above in connection with the terminal wire ends Si and 32, of the thermostat, shown in Figures 1 and 2 and for similar purposes. While a rise of mercury in either channel 30 or 12 can be caused by pressure upon the respective bulbs 21 and 10, there is a difference in which these bulbs are compressed, although each is compressed in the direction of the axis of that claims. 60 I claim: l. A mercurial thermostat for use in closing an electric circuit, said thermostat including a cas ing, a mercury thermometer, a bent stem' to said thermometer, a channel running longitudinally within said bent stem, mercury within said bulb 65 and said channel, terminal means in said circuit entering said channel in spaced relation from the outside, holding means for securing said ther mometer to said casing, said bulb being flattened in the direction of the axis of that part of said 70 stem immediately adjacent said stem, a lug ex tension on said bulb opposite to and in line with the last mentioned part of said stem, a bracket attached to said casing positioned near said bulb, a leg to said bracket extending at an angle to 4 2,127,159 said casing, a slot in said leg, extending longi tudinally of the same, a bolt through said slot secured adjustably by nuts to said leg, a lever pivoted to said bolt and positioned to be across said lug and in contact therewith, a seat for said bulb having a hole therein through which said stem part next to said bulb passes said seat being connected with said casing, and means for ad justab-ly forcing said lever against said lug, to 10 compress said bulb against said seat, to force said mercury up said channel to close the circuit be~ tween said spaced terminal means. 2. A niercurial thermostat made in accordance with claim 1, having in addition retaining means 15 for retaining the adjusted compression of said bulb. 3. In a mercury thermostat including a cas ing, a thermometer having a stem, a bend in said stem, with a longitudinal mercury channel to 20 said stem, and a mercury bulb, electric terminals ending in spaced relation in said stem channel, a seat for said bulb on said casing, positioned oppo~ site the termination of said stein at said bulb, and means for adjustably forcing said stem, in the 25 direction of its length to compress said bulb be tween said stem and said seat to cause said rise in said channel to close a circuit between said terminals. 4. In a thermostat having a housing, a ther mostatic mercurial element of glass including a mercury bulb, with an integral lug on one side, and a tubular stem on the opposite side, of said bulb, terminal wire ends within the mercury chan nel of said stem, with electrical terminal means connected with said wire ends, and having said stem bent, a bulb compressing means, comprising, a IiXed seat for said bulb, said stern passing through said seat, a pivcîing element on said housing, a lever pivoted upon said element and bearing midway or its length, against said lug, and means for adjustably forcing said lever to bear against said lug to compress said bulb to cause said mercury to rise in said channel to close a circuit between said Wire ends. 10 5. A mercurial thermostat for use in closing an electric circuit, said thermostat including a cas ing, a mercury thermometer mounted on said casing, a stem to said thermometer, a hollow bulb at one end of said stem, a channel ruiming longi tudinally Within said stem, communicating with the interior of said bulb, mercury within said channel and said bulb, terminal means in said circuit, entering said channel :in spaced relation, through said stern from the outside, a globular 20 wall forming said bulb, a solid portion to said globular wall formed by the merging of said stem with said bulb, a pressure receiving portion to said globular wall, positioned opposite to said solid portion, a iiexible portion to said globular wall comprising the remaining part of globular Wall between said solid. portion and said pres sure receiving portion or said wall, and adjust able means for pressing against said pressure receiving portion, in the direction oi said solid 30 portion to cause said mercury to rise mechanically in said stem, EDWARD COLLINS, 3RD.