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Патент USA US2127245

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Patented Aug. ‘16, 1938
v
‘
2,127,245
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,127,205
ALLOY
Walter R‘. Breeler, Troy, N. Y., aslignor to Lud
lum Steel 00., Watervliet, N. Y, a corporation
of New Jersey
No Drawing. ' Application July 19, 1935,
Serial No. 32,237
6 Claims.
(Cl. 75-124)
My invention relates to alloy steels and particularly to steels having high resistance to hot
oxldation, scaling, and corrosive .loss by the attack of compounds containing lead at high tem.1 peratures. The alloy is particularly adapted for
- use in lead pots, pyrometer tubes and the like,
and for exhaust valves, seat inserts and other
parts of internal combustion engines which are
subjected to contact with hot exhaust gases re-
10 sulting from the combustion of gasoline contalning lead anti-knock compounds. The alloys
at present employed for these purposes are rather
high priced, and one of the objects of my in
vention is to produce a relatively cheap material
characterized by its resistance to hot oxidation
20
as will be apparent from the following com
parative tests of two alloys both of which con
tain chromium and manganese in about the
same amounts but in one of which the aluminum
content is 3.1% with a silicon content of 0.6%.
and in the other alloy no aluminum is present.
but the silicon content is 2.8%.
'
'
Lossinweight(mg./sq.em.lmin.)
0
Si
7.
Cr
Ai
Mu Roch shorter,
,
0,3
well
25
21
15s0°
Nil
Nil
‘800
as
20.4
20.8
limits between which they are employed are as
follows:
Neither 01' these alloys shows any loss in weight
when subjected to lead oxy bromide at 1350° F.
‘
0 _________________________________ __
At 1580° F. the alloy without the aluminum shows
a rather substantial loss while the other shows
Percent
.05 to 3
8.9
1350'a
0-9 0.0
3.1
an
who
£38, 2Pbspi
and to hot lead compounds.
_
v The essential ingredients of my alloy and the
_
us
0.6
,
' Mn __________ __'_____' _____________ __ 2.00 to 20
none. At 1800° F. the alloy without the aluminum
Cr. more than _________________ __l___ 5.00 to 35
but with fairly high silicon when subjected to
Al _______________________________ __
35 Fe _______________________________ __
.50 to 15
26, to 92
A preferred range of the. above alloying ele
ments is as follows:
80 C
"
252mg’?
M'g'i": """"""""""""" " 8'01; 0 12'o
Cr_'_' :_:': """""""""""""" '" 18'0 to 22"}
""" " 1:5 to 3:5
35
'
While the foregoing are the only elements necessary to attain the objects of my invention,
other elements, in quantities which do not ap-
preciably affect the basic characteristics of the
alloy, namely, resistance to hot oxidation and to
lead compounds at high temperatures, may be
incorporated if desired. Such elements as selenium, tellurium, phosphorus and sulphur, in
quantities up to 0.30% will improve the machineability of the alloy, and nitrogen in quan-
lead oxide shows a loss exceeding three times
that of the other, and at the same temperature
with a mixture of lead oxide and lead sulphate
the loss 0! the composition without the aluminum
is about seventy times greater than the other.
In ‘the preferred analysis range mentioned, 3
and in the lower ranges of aluminum, chro
mium and manganese (especially aluminum), the
alloy is readily iorgeable and rollable. In the
higher ranges of alloy content (especially alumi
nuin) the alloy is more diiilcult to hot ‘work
03
and requires more care at this operation. How
ever, in cases where not working is impractical,
the alloy may be readily east and used in this
form
My alloy can be made by any of the well known
method-S 01' melting,- F0r- 6x81111116. when 1181118
an electric arc furnace the aluminum may be
added as metallic aluminum or aluminum alloy
1n the furnace itself. 0!‘ the aluminum 01‘ 811
4 GI titles up to 0.3% will increase ‘the strength at
heat and also the hardness.
aluminum alloy maybeadded in the ladle. These
additions are preferably made under protective
Silicon, of course“ is always present in steels
and irons, and. while’ I prefer‘ to keep the silicon
under about 1%, the quantity in any case should
slag coatings of such 8 nature that they will not
react detrimentally with the aluminum steel and
they should be of such composition as to dissolve
50 be less than the aluminum content. I ?nd that
silicon in excess of the aluminum very greatly
reduces the resistance of the alloy to corrosive
or ?ux any undesirable oxides such as A1203.
Instead of theelectric arc furnace, induction
furnaces may be used. Such equipment may or
loss when subjected to attack by lead contain' ing compounds at high temperature. Silicon and
15 valuminum are not interchangeable in the alloy
may not be used with controlled, atmospheres.
What I claim is:
~
1. A readily rorgeable alloy steel containing a
2
2,197,245
plurality of elements and characterized by its manganese 8% to 12%, chromium 18% to 22%,
and aluminum from 1.5% m 3.5%, with the bal
resistance to hot oxidation and corrosive loss
when subjectedv to attack by lead containing com
pounds at temperatures ‘of the order of the ‘oper
ating temperatures of exhaust valves in internal
combustion engines; the only essentialelements
necessary to obtain such characteristics being
ance substantially all iron; the aluminum content
being in ‘excess of the-silicon content, if any, in
jsaid steel.
carbon from 0.2% to 1%, manganese from 8%
to 12%, chromium from 18% to 22%, aluminum
from 1.5% to 3.5% with the balance substantially
-
.
a
'
4. A readily forgeable alloy steel containing a
plurality of elements and characterized by its
high resistance to hot oxidation and corrosive
lossrwhen subjected to attack by lead contain
ing compounds at temperatures of the order of 10
“ all iron; the aluminum content being in excess‘ the operating temperatures of exhaust valves in
of the silicon‘content. it any, in said steel.
_ vinternal combustion engines; the only essential
2. An internal combustion engine valve char-v
acterized by its high resistance to hot oxidation
and corrosive loss when subjected to attack by
15 lead containing compounds at temperatures of
the order of the operating temperatures of- ex
haust valves in internal combustion engines; said
valve comprising an alloy steel containing a plu
rality of'elements of which the only essential
elements necessary to obtain the foregoing char
acteristics are carbon from 0.05% to 3%, man
ganese from 2% to 20%,‘ chromium vfrom more
than 5% to 35% and aluminum from 0.5% to
15%, with the balance substantially all iron; the
aluminum content being in excess of the silicon
content, it any, in said steel.
1
-
.
elements-necessary to obtain such characteristics
being carbon from 0.2% to 1%, manganese from
8% to 12%, chromium from 18%, to 22%, and 15
aluminum from 1.5% to 3.5% with' the balance
substantially all iron; the silicon content beingv
less than 1% and less than the aluminum content.
5. An internal combustion engine valve com- ' prising the alloy of claim 4. v
_ r
20
. ' 6. An internal combustion engine valve char
acterized by its high resistance to hot voxidation
and corrosive loss ‘when subjected to“ attack by
lead containing compounds at temperatures of
the order of the operating temperatures of- ex‘
haust valves in internal combustion engines; said -»
valve comprising an alloy steel containing a plu
rality of elements of which the only essential -
3. An internal combustion engine v'alve char
acterized by its high resistance to hot oxidation elements necessary to obtain the foregoing char
and corrosive loss when subjected to attack by acteristics are carbon from 0.05% to 3%, man
lead containing compounds at temperatures of ganese from ‘2% to 20%, chromium ‘from more
than 5% to 35% and aluminum from 0.5% to
the order of the operating temperatures of ex
haust valves in internal combustion engines; said 15%, with the balance substantially all iron; the
valve comprising a readily forgeable alloy steel *' silicon content being less than 1%, and less than
35
containing a plurality of, elements of which the the aluminum content.
only essential elements necessary to‘ obtain the -
foregoing characteristics are carbon 0.2% to 1%,
WALTER R. BREELER.
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