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Патент USA US2127361

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All@ 15, 1938~
J. HLAsNEY,.JR
2,127,361
ADJUSTABLE PISTON FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
im@
INVENTOR
John, Hiasrzg/,Jz
Aug. 16, 1938.
J. HLASNEY. JR
`
2,127,361
ADJUSTABLE PISTON FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Aug. 7, 19257
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
Jo/zrz H/dsne
BY
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‘ ATTORNEY
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Patented/tug. 16, 193s
2,127,361
UNITED STATES PATENT CFFICE
2,127,361
ADJUSTABLE PISTON FOR INTERNAL CGM
BUSTION ENGINES
John Hlasney, Jr., New York, N. la'.
Application August 7, 1937, Serial No. 157,826
.
8 Claims.
This invention relates to new and useful im
provements in an adjustable piston for internal
combustion engines and the like.
More specifically, the invention contemplates
et the provision of an improved piston which may
be used in connection with a cylinder to vary the
compression of the cylinder and thus the horse
power characteristic thereof, by increasing or de
creasing the capacity of the combustion chamber.
Stilln The invention is characterized by an adjust
able piston consisting of piston sections provided
`with a means for urging them together, and still
another means acting against one of the piston
sections to oppose the first-mentioned means and
so to separate the piston sections.
Still further the invention proposes the use of
resilient elements mounted upon studs and act
ing between the ends of the said studs and por
tions of the piston sections for normally urging
il@ the sections together.
Still further the invention provides for a stem
which is slidably mounted in a connecting rod
for the piston and which is adapted to engage
one of the piston sections and to be forced for
$5 ward by a cam element which is mounted upon
the crank rod or driving rod of the device.
Still further the invention proposes an expan
sion or resilient element which is to be mounted
upon a stud and to act between the end of said
stud and a portion of one of the piston sections
for normally urging the sections together.
Another object of the invention is to provide
for a stem which is slidably mounted on a con
necting rod for the piston and which is adapted
to er
age one of the piston sections and to be
i `forward by a cam element which is mount
ed upon the crank rod or driving'rod of the
device.
Still further the invention provides for a new
fill type of crank rod to be used in conjunction with
the device. ` This rod too consists of a crank hav
„ing spaced radial arms with a rung rotatively
mounted between the spaced arms.
For further comprehension of the invention,
and of the objects and advantages thereof, refer
ence will be had to the following description and
accompanying drawings, and to the appended
claims in which the various novel features of the
invention are more particularly set forth.
In the accompanying drawings forming a mate
rial part of this disclosure:
Fig. 1 is a transverse sectional view of the
device.
Fig. 2 is a schematic perspective view of a por
55 tion of the device shown in Fig. 1.
(C1. 12B-_48)
Fig. 3 is a horizontal sectional view of a` por
tion of the device shown in Figi.
Fig. 4 ls a sectional view similar to Fig. 1 but
illustrating the parts thereof in a different po
sition.
Fig. 5 is another sectional view similar to
Fig. 1, illustrating the parts in still another po
sition.
‘
The adjustable piston for internal combustion
engines and the like, according to this invention, 10
comprises a piston III which is slidably mounted
in a cylinder with integral head II.
The piston
I0 includes a top section Ita and a bottom sec
tion Iüb having resilient means for normally urg
ing them together. A crankshaft I2 is arranged
in the crankcase of the cylinders I I, and has a
pair of spaced radial arms It ñxedly attached
to the crankshaft trunnion It. A rung I4 ls
rotatively mounted between the radial arms I3,
and has a connecting rod It indirectly freely
mounted thereon. The outer end IEB of the con
necting rod is pivotally mounted on the bottom
section Ißb of the piston III. When the crank
shaft I2 is rotated the connecting rod I5 will
move in and out of the cylinder I I causing the
piston Ill to reciprocate therewith.
The means for urging the piston sections lili'
and Illb together consists of lugs It mounted on
the underside of the piston section lill’. A pin I'l
engages through an opening It in each lug I6
and through passages in the cylinder section Iûb,
and threadedly engages into the piston section IIIEL
where it is firmly anchored. The end of each
pin I'I is provided with a head I'Iß, and an expan
sion spring I9 is coaxially mounted upon each
pin I‘I and operates between the head I 'IEl and the
lug I6 to urge the top section IIla toward the
bottom section I0".
A cam 2U is iixedly mounted on the rung I4„
and there are plates 2| on either side thereof
which are rotatively mounted on the rung I4.
A friction element 22 is located between each con
tacting face of the cam 20 and the plates 2| to
keep these two elements in frictional engagement.
The connecting rod I5 is provided with a forked
end I5b which engages over the cam 2l) and the
plates 2|, and is pivotally connected to the plates
2| by means of pins 23. Thus when the crank
shaft I2 is turned the rung I4 will relatively turn
in the spaced arms I3, and the cam 2li which is
fixed to the rung I4 will continuously remain in
a normal position relative to the plates 2I. The
friction element 22 will engage the plates 2I and
hold them in iixed relation with the cam 20 and
with the aid of the forked portions I 5b of the con 55
2
anar/,sei
necting rod Il, will prevent these plates from
rotating as thecrank I2 and arms Il are rotated.
A stem 2l is slidably mounted within the con
necting rod I5 and is formed with an inner
rounded end 25* which engages the cam 2li. The
outer end 25° of the stem 25 is provided with a
rocker element 2l which engages a complemen
tary curved portion 21 on the bottom of the top
section I9* to permit the rocker element 29 to
assume different positions with relation to the
crank I2. 'I‘his is necessary because the connect
ing rod I5 is pivotally anchored to the bottom
section III* and the slidable stem will move there
with making it necessary for the end 25" to swing
15 in an arc as the crank I2 reciprocates the pis
ton III. To permit this end 2lb to move in the
arc, the rocker element 29 is provided, which
engages the complementary curved portion 21.
The cam 29 has several cavities, but only a
20 lower cavity 2li". and raised cavity 294 is used.
When the end 25* of the stem 25 is engaging a
lower cavity 20", the piston sections as
sociated therewith will be urged as closely to
gether as they possibly can, but on the other.
25 hand when the end 2l* engages a raised cavity
2l*i the stem 25 will be slid forward, within the
connecting rod I5, forcing the outer section I9'l
away from the inner section Il”.
A means is associated with the device for
30 changing the relative positions of the piston
sections III* and I0". 'I'his means includes seg
mental friction members with cam outlines 28
and 29’ which are flxedly mounted upon shafts 29
within enlarged portions II* of the casing of the
cylinders II. A means is provided for changing
the relative position of the cam 2l with relation
to the plates 2| o move the stem 25 forward
within the conne ng rod I5 to separate the sec..
tions III* and I0". This means includes cam ele
ments 39 and III' which are iixedly mounted on
40
an extended end I0 of the rung I4. Each shaft
29 extends from the cylinder II so that it may be
2l. and means cause the rung I4 to turn clock
wise to the position in which the pin 2l’ will strike
the connecting rod I5. After this position il.
reached ~the friction member 29 and the cam
element I0, merely idle past each other. The
cam 20 may be turned back to its original' posi
tion by turning the cam friction member 2l back
to its original position, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2,
and turning the friction member 28’ to the posi
tion indicated by the dot and dash lines. Then
as the crankshaft I2 rotates clockwise the ele
ment 2li’ will strike against the cam friction ele
ment 29’ and causes the rung I4 to rotate anti
clockwise, and thus turn the cam 20 back to its
original position.
15
When the elements 20 and lll’ are adjusted.
they cause the rung Il to turn within the arms
Il to move the cam 2t against the holding effects
of the frictional elements 22. As the cam 2l is
adjusted, the end 25* of the shaft 25 will pass out
of the lower cavity 2lib and into the raised cavity
20°. When the end 25* is within the raised cavity
20d it will hold the top section I9* separated from
the bottom section Ill’ as indicated by the dot
and dash lines III' in Fig; 1. The shifting of
these elements I9'L and I9h changes the compres
sion space in the engine cylinder and thus the
horse power and the fuel consumption character
istics of this engine.
The spaced radial arms Il are formed with
notched portions Il* on their inner faces which
permit these arms to pass over the forked por
tions I5b of the connecting rod I5 as the crank
shaft I2 rotates. Washer elements 99 are pro
vided between the contacting faces of the plates
2l and the spaced arms I2, to keep them spaced
from each other so that the arms I3 will not
tend to rotate the discs 2l, as the arms Il are
moved on the rung Il.
The operation of the device is as follows:
Asthe crankshaft I2 rotates, the outer end of
the spaced arms I3 will move in an orbit A. (see
adjusted to change the position of the elements
Fig. 1), about the pivotal trunnion point of the
I0 and III'.
The shafts 29 are synchronized. There are
45 sprockets 29* mounted on the outer ends of the
shafts and connected with a chain 29h. One of
-the shafts 29 is provided with a drive pulley 29°
which is manually moved into its desired posi
tion. ’I'he arrangement is such that the friction
50 members 28 may be operated as desired. They
crankshaft I2. As the rung I4 moves in this
orbit, the cam 20 and the plate 2I will move
may be set in different phases or in the same
phases, as desired.
The cam 29 is provided with projecting pins
20° and 20’ (see particularly Fig. 1). These pins
55 are adapted to limit turning of the cam 29 into
two main positions. These pins are adapted to
strike against the connecting rod Il when they
reach their positions. `When the pin 20e strikes
against the connecting rod I5 the cam 20 is in a
position in which the end 25* of the stem 25 is
in the low portion 20° of the cam. This is the
position illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.
T'he second position of the cam 2li is one in
which the cam turns anti-clockwise to a position
in which the pin 2lit strikes against the connect
ing rod I5 and then the cam 20 will be in a posi
tion in which the end 25‘ of the stem 25 is in the
raised cavity 294, as shown in Fig. 5. The two
positions of the cam 29 are obtained as follows:
70
When the segmental cam friction member 2l at
the right in Fig. 1 is turned through 180° to the
position indicated by the dot and dash lines, then
as the crankshaft I2 ‘turns clockwise, the cam
75 element 39 will strike the cam friction member
therewith, by the piston I0 as it reciprocates
within the cylinder I I.
„ When it is desired to change the relative posi
tions of the sections I0‘ and Ißb of the piston it is
merely necessary to rotate the cam friction mem
bers 29 or 28’ through 180°, so that their friction
cam surfaces will engage the cam 20 or 20' dur
ing certain positions of the crankshaft I2, turn
ing the rung Il, which in turn turns the cam 2l,
causing the end 25'L of the shaft 25 to pass out
of the lower cavity 25b and into the raised cavity
20d, or vice versa, to shift the stem 25 forward
or rearwards. As the stem 25 slides forward it
presses against the rocker element 28, which in
turn presses against the top section I9* forcing
this section away from the lower section IIIh
against the holding action of the springs I 9.
The clearance and the capacity of the combustion
chamber are thus reduced, and the compression
increased.
I
When it is desired to move the sections III'L and
IIib towards each other, it is merely necessary to
turn the cam 20 back to its normal position to
permit the end 25'l of the stem 25 to engage the
lower cavity 2lib on the cam 20, permitting the 70
springs I9 to draw the top section I0'L towards
the lower section I9".
It is to be understood that instead of the chain
drive 29h, the two shafts 29 may be synchronized
in any other suitable manner.
amasar
f‘ `While I have illustrated and described the pre
ferred `-`'em‘bodin'ients of -my invention; it is- 'to be
understood that I dcr/‘not- limit myself tothe pre
cise constructions herein disclosed, and the'right
is reserved to all changes and modifications com
ingwithin the scope‘of the invention as defined.
in the ‘appended claims."
s
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i Having' thus described my invention, what I
claixnas new,` and'- desire to secure by United
10
States Letters Patent. is:
-
'
'
`1‘. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinderhead and comprising a top piston
section and a bottom section, means for urging
16 said piston sections together, a crankshaft, a
crank on saidV crankshaft having spaced radial
arms and a rung rotative between said arms, a
connecting rod pivotally connected to said bottom
piston section and pivotally connected to said
20 rung, a cam fixedly mounted on saidrung, a stem
slidably mounted` on said connecting rod and
connected to said piston by engaging said top
piston section and having its inner end abutting
said cam, means for adjusting said cam relative
to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative posi
tion of said piston sections.
2. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinder head and comprising a top piston
section and a bottom section. means for urging
said piston sections together, a crankshaft. a
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial
arms and a rung rotative between said arms. a
3
on both sides of said cam, and-a forked end en
Eagin'g over said cam and said plates, and‘piv
otally connected to said plates.
`
'
‘ s
4. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidablyvmounted
in a cylinder head ‘and comprising a top piston
section anda bottom section, _means for urging
said piston sections together, -a crankshaft, a
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial
armsand a rung rotative between said arms', a
connecting rod pivotally connected to said bottom
piston section and pivotally connected to said
rung. a cam flxedly mounted on said rung, a stem
slidably ‘mounted on said connecting rod and
connected to said piston by engaging said top 15
piston section, and having its inner end abutting
said cam, means for adjusting said cam relative
to said stern whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative position 20
’of said piston sections, said pivotal connection
between said rung and said connecting rod com
prising plates rotatively mounted on said rung
on both side of said cam, and a forked end en
gaging over said cam and said plates, and piv
otally connected to said plates, frictional ele
ments between the contacting faces of said
plates and said cam to hold said plates and said
cam in a fixed position with each other.
5. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinder head and comprising a top piston
section and a bottom section, means for urging
said piston sections together, a crankshaft, a
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial
connecting rod pivotally connected to said bottom
arms and a rung rotative between said arms, a
piston section and pivotally connected to said
connecting rod pivotally oo_nnected to said bottom
`piston section and pivotally connected to saidv
rung` a cam flxedly mounted on said rung, a stem
slidably mounted on said connecting rod and
rung, a cam ñxedly mounted on said rung, a stem
connected to said piston by engaging said top
piston section, and having its inner end abutting
slidably mounted on said connecting rod and
connected to said piston by engaging said top
said cam. means for adjusting said cam relative
piston section, and having its inner end abutting
to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative posi
tion of said piston sections, said means for urg
ing said piston sections together comprising a
lug ñxediy mounted on the bottom section and
having an aperture therethrough, a pin engaged
through said aperture and having one of its ends
anchored in said top section, and a spring co
axially mounted on said pin and operating be.
tween said lug and a headed portion of said pin,
for urging said top section toward said bottom
section.
said cam, means for adjusting said cam relative
to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative position
of said piston sections, said means for adjusting
said cam comprising a shaft rotatively mounted
in an enlarged portion of said cylinder head, a
3. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinder head and comprising a top piston
section and a bottom section, means for urging
said piston sections together. a crankshaft. a
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial
friction member on said shaft, and a cam on an
extended end of said rung, and adapted to be
engaged by said friction member when it is
rotated through 180°.
6. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinder head and comprising a top piston 55
section and ay bottom section, means for urging
said piston sections together, a crankshaft, a
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial
arms and a rung rotative between said arms, a
arms and a rung rotative between said arms, a
connecting rod pivotally connected to said bottom 60
piston section and pivotally connected to said
connecting rod pivotally connected to said bottom
piston section and pivotally connected to said
slidably mounted on said connecting rod and
rung. a cam ñxedly mounted on said rung, a stem
slidably mounted on said connecting rod and
connected to said piston by engaging said top
piston section. and having its inner end abutting
said cam, means for adjusting said cam relative
70 "to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said, cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative position
oi' said piston sections, said pivotal connection
between said rung and said connecting rod com~
prising plates rotatively mounted on said rung
rung, a cam ñxedly mounted on said rung, a stem
connected to said piston by engaging said top
piston section, and having its inner end abutting
said cam, means for adjusting said cam relative
to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative position 70
of said piston sections, said cam being provided
with a lower cavity adapted to be engaged by
said stem for permitting said first mentioned
means to draw said top section towards said bot
tom section.
`
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76
4
2,127,361
7. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination o! an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinder head and'comprising a top piston
section and a bottom section, means i'or urging
said piston sections together, a crankshaft, a
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial
arms and a rung rotative between said arms, a
away from said bottom piston section against the y
normal action of said iirst mentioned means.
8. In an internal combustion engine the com
bination of an adjustable piston slidably mounted
in a cylinder head and comprising a top piston
section and a bottom section, means for urging
said piston sections` together, a crankshaft, a
connecting rod pivotaliy connected to said bottom
piston section and pivotally Aconnected to said
crank on said crankshaft having spaced radial ’
arms- and a rung rotative between said arms, a
rung, a cam nxedly mounted on said rung. a stem
connecting rod pivotally connected to said bottom
piston section and pivotally connected to said
slidably mounted on said connecting rod and
connected to said piston by `engaging said top
piston section, and having its inner end abutting
said cam, means ior adjusting said cam relative
to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
>to move said stem to change the relative posi
tion of said piston sections, said cam being pro
vided with a lower cavity adapted to be engaged
by said stem for permitting said first mentioned
means to draw said top section towards said
bottom section, said cam being provided with a
raised cavity adapted to be engaged by the inner
end of said stem to move it forward within said
connecting rod to urge said top piston section
rung, a cam nxedly mounted on said rung, a stem
slidably mounted on said connecting rod and
connected to said piston by engaging said top
piston section, and having its inner end abutting
said cam, means for adjusting said cam relative
to said stem whereby said crank may be rotated
to reciprocate said piston, and said cam adjusted
to move said stem to change the relative position
oi' said piston sections, said cam being provided
with rollers on the portions which abut the inner
end of said stem to decrease wear and tear be
tween these elements.
„
JOHN HLAsNEY, Jn.
25
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