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Патент USA US2127407

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Aug. l‘6, 1938.
Filed Sept. 24, 1936
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
mag. l, 193&
Filed Sept. 24. 1936
3 Sheets-Shee’; 2
Aug. 1‘6, 1938.,
Filed Sept. 24, 1936
f7g. 6.
3 Syheets-Shee’ß s
/7g. 7
Patented Aug. 16, 1938
Frank William Harbord ‘am! Vernon Harbord,
London, England
Applieati‘on September 24, 1936, Serial N0. 102,435
In Great Britain October 9, 1935
10 Claim's. (Cl. 22—57.3)
This invention relates,~ 170 apparatus for the duce friction and wear by using restraining means
direct production from mo1ten metal of billets, adapted 120 limit the approach of one 130 the other
slabs‚ bars, and the like in forms suitable for use, to within a clearance su?‘iciently ?ne to prevent
and it has some features particularly usefu1 when the entry of molten metal.
5 the metal is a non-ferrous alloy; the inv‘ention
Acoording 120 another feature of the invention
has other features which apply more especially 110 the mould anti cover are arranged 110 be held in
steel, and which have for their object the avoid
effective relati‘on with each other by means of
ance of costly reheating and rolling of large f1uid pressure loading means throughout that part
rectangular ingots in Order to form the sections of them in which the mould cavity is c1osed by
the cover.
Such apparatus, as described for example in
the speci?cations of our p1_‘i0r Patentv N05.
1,891‚813 and 1‚928,562 usually comprises at least
two members which co-operate to ‘enclose a mould
cavity and of which a‚t least one i‘s propelled longi—
tudinally so that as molten metal poured into the
cavity solidi?es the billet thus formed is moved
away from the casting point, causing continuously
the formation of fresh mould cavity ab the cast
20 ing point.
The mould oavity may be in both members er
in one only, and. it may be in a ?xed member or
in a moving member or in both. A moving mem
ber may be rigid, as for example a long straight
‚ member moved in one path‚ or a‚ circular ring
revolving around a vertical 01‘ horizontal axis‚ or
again it may be articulated and form an endless
chain of rigid segments, or it may be a band of
sheet met‘al_ thin enoug‘h to Dass conti‘nuously
According t'o another feature of the invention
the mould eavity is formed in a stationary upper
member hereinafter- called the mould and. Ehe
cavity is closed by a, long or Continuous closing
member, which is caused to travel pas’o the mould 15
which, being stationary can conveniently be water
jacketed. Three water-cooled sides of a mould
of rectangular section, are thus enabled to have
fresh molten metal continually passing over them
near the castirig point, and the rate a1; which they 20
cool the casting compared with that of a single
water-cooled ~cover is proportionately rapid;
Each part of the travelling closing member of the
oavity is in contact only momentarily with molten
metal as this enters the cavity and in cases in
which the closing member is formed by a chain of
segments, it ma‚y be coolecl during its return pas
sage between the outlet end of the mould and the
members ma‚y be moving a.t the same or a.t dif
casting point in any convenient; manner, as for
example, by air o1‘ by immersion in water.
The jacket of the mould may be divided trans
ferent speeds.
versely into ‘owo or more separate sections ea‚ch
30 round favolving ‘cylinders or cone's. The tWo
T0 ensure the prodnotion of satisfactory bil1ets having its own inlet and outlet, and eaeh in1et
it is necessary that the joints between thia co
may be arranged to be supplied with a circulating
operating members sha‚ll be ti'ght ;against the medium ab asuitable temperature, for example, 35
entry of a ?n of molten metal, a‘nd in some case‘s water, oi1, superheated steam or gas, so that th(e
pressure has been aplölied to one member by billet during its solidi?cation es its passes through
weights 01‘ springs which is resisted by th’e‘ ulti
the mould ca‚n be subjectedto controlled cooling
mate supports of the other.
~ and the crystalline structure of the meta1 can be
A_ccoroling to one f‘eature of the present in
thereby modi?ed. and controlled 130 a considerable 40
vention a, force is exerted. upon one such member
tending ~110 press it on to its coeoperating' member,
and acting across the Surface of the joints be
‘tween them by resilient ineans prz‘assing one Way
45 upon one member and the opposite Way upon an
abutment or counter support, ar‘1d the reaction
upon this abutment is transferred to one or more
parts acting directly u'pon the ‘co-operating mem
ber‚ or upon a support Which has no motion rela
tively 110 this member.
This transference of the
abutr’nent 1"eactio’n to the mould members may
be e?‘ected by a 1ink Whose ends act upon the
abutmer‘it and. member directly or through levers
as may be convenient.
In certäxin ca'ses particularly when two co
op‘erating members hereinafter called the m'ou1d
and cover‚ are arranged to move a1; the same
speed, they may be allowed to be in close contaot
with one another; in other cases when there is
relative ,S1iding of one over 1:he other we may re
The mould calvlty being closed as described by ‚
a closing member moving longitudinally past the
two horizontal bearing surfaces ab the edges of
the stationary mould‚ it is important to ensure 45
that the closing member shall make close contact,
o1‘ nearly so, With the inner edges of these bear
ing surfaces, anti sha1l not be prevented from
so doing by ear1ier contact With the outer edges
which might ca.use a Wedge-shaped gap into which
molten metal could enter. For this purpose the
mould and closing member are arranged to be
pressed together by forces acting so that either
the mould or the closing member, er both‚ tend 130
be deflected in cr0ss section more toward the 55
centre of the cavity than at its sides{ each tending
to pre‘sent a ‘convex surface 130 the other, With the
result that contact between them begins ab the
bearing edges next the cavity andthe mo1ten
Thus where the surface of the closing 60
member is capable of readily assuming a convex
is rendered possible by providing each of the
spindles I8 with eccentric journals 20 by means
closing member, the latter may be arranged to be of which the spind1e is rotatably mounted in
plates 21 secured ‘so the frames 4 by means of
pressed towards the mould by one or more 1ines of
rollers acting between the sides of the mould bolts 22, one end of the spindle I8 being secured
cavity. In cases in which the closing member is v to a quadrant member 23. It will be evident
that by loosening the holt 22 and rotating the
constituted by a ohain of rigid segments the more
?exible mould may be pressed towards ‘ehe closing quadrant member 23 the corresponding roller I'I
member by forces exerted a1ong lines Within the can be raised or lowered as desired so as accu
rately 120 determine the position of each of the 10
10 mould. cavity.
cross-sectional form as in I;he case of a ?exible
The invention is illustrated by way of example
in the accompanying drawings of Which Figure 1
is a view in vertical cross-section of the mould
elements and their associated parts of apparatus
15 embodying one form of the invention‚ Figure 2
being a view in sectional elevation of the mecha
nism shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 of the
portion of the mechanism adjacent to the Cast
ing point of ‘ehe apparatus.
Figures 4 to 12 inclusive illustrate another
form of the invention, Figures 4 and 5 being
views thereof in side elevation and p1an respec
Figure 6 is a view in vertical cross-section on
an en1argtäd scale of the mechanism Shown in
Figures4 and 5, Figure 7 being a view of a por
tion thereof in sectional elevation.
Figure 8 is a p1an view of a portion of the
30 mechanism of Figures '7‚ Figures 9 and 10 being
sectional views of certain details of construction.‘
Fig'ures 11 and 12 are views in’vertical cross
section and sectional plan respectively of a modi
?ed construdtion of a portion of the mechanisni
35 shown in Figures 6, 7 and 8.
Referring novv ?rst to Figures 1 and 2 it Will
be seen that the moulding inechanism illus
trated comprises an inverted mould member I
provided with a ?exible water-jaeket 2 and
40 mourited upon the upper edges 3 of supporting
frames 4. Surrounding the vvater-jacket 2 and
secured at their lower ends 110 the mould I, sec
segments I6 relative to I;he mould I while passing
over the roller. The quadrant members 23 after
adjus’tment are again locked in position by tight
ening the bolts 22 which, as shown in Figures
1 and 2, are arranged alternately on opposite 15
sides of the apparatus. The spindles I8 of the
rollers I? are each provided With a lubricating
device 24.
The Segments I6 are of the cross-sectiona]
Term shown in Figure 1, which provides great 20
rigidity and cooling surface and enables the segments to be supported upon the rollers I'I as
closely as possible 110 the mould I.
The upper
surface of each segment I6 is provided with ribs
25 for guiding the segment laterally relative to 25
the mould I and I;he abutting ends of the seg
ments are arranged on1y to engage With one
another adjacent to the upper faces of the seg
ments, as shown in Figure 2, so as ‘so ensure
close contact‚ the lower portions of the opposing 30
ends of the segments being sloped away from
each other as indicated at 26. A portion of each
end of each segment I6 is‚ however‚ provided
With a projection 2'I' for prolonging the support
of the segment in passing over a roller I7. The 35
chain of segments I6 is arranged to be caused to
travel past the mould I by any suitable mecha
nism for this purpose.
II: Will be observed that I;he downward pressure
on the mould I due to the compressed air in 40
the taube ‘I is exerted between the upper edges 3
of the supporting frames 4 so that any trans
The frame 6 and the lovver frames 4 are arranged.
verse de?ection or distortion of the mould I due
to this pressure will tend to cause the inner edges
of the bearing surfaces I9 of the mould to en 45
gage closely with the upper faces of the seg
ments I6 and thus e?ectively to seal the mould
to be normally mechanically coupled to each
other by a nurnber of sets of stirrup levers 8
50 arranged at suitable intervals along the 1ength
01 the mould I, the upper ends of these levers
being mounted in the frame 6 and their 1ower
hooked ends 9 engaging With lugs II] attached to
Referring now to Figure 3 the pouring box 28.
through which the mo1ten metal is introduced 50
into the moulding cavity, is provided with a.
spout member 29 adapted to ?t closely within
the coned end 30 of the mould I and to be
tional pressure members 5 are provided and in
terposed between the members 5 and an upper
45 abutment frame 6 is a ?exible tube ‘I to which
air under pressure is arranged to be supplied.
the lower frames 4. The upper arrns of each
pair of levers 8 are connected. as indicated a.t II
to a spring-controlled plunger I2.
Each of the plungers I2 is connected to an
operating cable I3 and it will be understood that
by exerting a pull on the cables I3 after the
60 compressed air has been released from the tube
‘I, the levers 8 will be moved into the position
shown in dotted lines in Figure 1 in which 111%;s
I4 on the sides of the pressure members 5 enter
openings I5 in the levers 8. The continued pu1l
65 exerted upon the cables I3 will then raise the
I clear of the frames 9.
lower end of the mould cavity in the
I is closed by a chain of segrnents I6
transversely between the lovver frames 4
70 and supported upon adjustable rollers I'I,‘the
supporting spindles I8 of Which are 'arranged
to be adjusted vertically so as to cause each seg
ment I6 to be in contact with the bearing sur
faces I9 of the mould I or to be separated there-'
75 from by any desired c'learance. This adjustment
pressed downwards into close engagement with
the segments I6 during their travel, this being
effected by a suitable spring-controlled or other
mechanism not shown.
In starting the apparatus into operation the
end of the mould cavity adjacent to the pouring
box 28 is ?rst closed by means of a plug mem 60
ber 3I provided with a screw-thread recess 32
and adapted to s1ide longitudinally within the
mould I. The plug member 3I is connected at;
its front end to a member 33 by means of a
spring 34 secured at its ends to the members 3I 65
and 33 and the latter member is connected to
one end of a rod 35, the opposite end of which is
connected to a cross-head 36 adapted to be en
gaged. by the forward ends of the guic1e ribs 25
of a segment I6 ahead of the plug member end 70
of the mould I, as shown at the right-hand. side
of Figure 3.
The molten metal is introduced into the pour
ing box 28 and ?ows through the spout member
29 into the portion of the mould cavity in the 75
mould freut of the plug member 3!, the
air contained in this portion of the mould cavity
escaping through one or more holes 3'! formen! in
the p1ug member 3‘!.
The mo-lten metal enters
the reoess 32 in the plug member 3! and solidify
ing therein, keys the forward end of the com
tinuous billet formed in the mould oavity to the
plug member 3!‚
The chain of segments !6 is set into motion
caused to be of any desired value ‘am’! positively
d‘etermined with a high degree of accuracy.
Lo'cat'ed above the pressure members 5! and
enclo'sed. between upper and lower channel mem
bers 50, 59 is a ?exible tube 60 to which com
pressed air at a suitable pressure is arranged to
be supplied in any suitable manner, spacer mem
‚bers 6! being interposed between the lovver chan
right as viewed in Figures 2 and 3, and the billet
formed in the mould oavity by the molten metal
nel member 59 and the pressure members 5!‚
The upper (ihannel member 58 is secured at in 10
tervals in its length to cross-bars 62 each of
Which is attached at each end‚ as hereinafter de
continuously supplied through the pouring box
scribed, to the upper part of a triangular frame
10 so as to travel past the mould ! from left 110
28 is carrie‘d forwarcl by the movement of the
03 provided with rollers or runners 64 adapted to
15 plug member 3! under the action of the cross
roll on tracks 05 formed on the mould member 15
l1ead‘ 30. The billet contracts in cooling and this
contraction is permitted by the spring 34.
The forward movement of the cast bil1et
effected loy the plug member 3! is assisted. by the
20 frictional engagement of the base cf the billet
With the segments !5‚ the upper faces of which,
if desired, may be provided With serrations en
abling the segme'nts to grip the billet. As shown
40. The several frames !i3‚on each side are piv
otally connected together as indicated at 65 in
Figure 4, and. the upper end of each frame 63 is
pivotally connected to the corrcesponding end
of the cross-bar 62, as indicated at 61 in Figure 6. 20
A cross-bar 68 is provicled adapted to engage at
each end with projecting lugs or arms 59 on the
frames 63, the cross-bar 08 being adapted to be
will be Seen that by releasing oompressed air
25 the opposing ends of each segment is slightly bev
elled as_indicated at 30 for this purpose, and. this ~ from the tube 60 and exerting a pull on the
arrangement is usually found in practice to be cables ’!0‚ the cross-bar 68 can be rnoved upwards
su?icient for ensuring a satisfactory forward and by its engagement with the lugs 69 will effect
the outward movement of the frames 63 about
movement of the billet.
their pivots 5'! to the positions shown in dotted
Referring now to the apparatus shown in Fig
lines in Figure 6, whereupon the rollers 64 being
ures 4 to 12 inclusive it will be seen that the
thus mo»vecl clear of the tracks 65 on the mould
mould oavity is in this form of the invention non
member 40, the cover member 45 and its asso
stituted by an annular recess or channel 39
ciated parts can be raised from the mould mem
formed. in the upper face of an annular mould
35 member 40 of relatively large diameter mounted ber 40 by means of the cables 10.
In order to protect the turn-table 4! from the
upon a turn-table 4! adapted to be rotated in a
horizontal plane about a vertical pivot by any heatiad mould member 40 so as to maintain the
turn-table at as 10W and uniform a temperature
Suitable mechanism (not shown). The turn
table 4! is supported adjacent to its periphery bv as possible, the turn-table 4! and the mould
40 rollers 42 rotatably mounted upon ?xed nivots 43, member 40 are separated from‘each other by
spacing members ‘l!, a screen 12 of asbestos o1‘
the axes of whioh are slightly inclined so as to
intersect the plane 01’ the lower face 44 of the other suitable thermal insulating material being
also provided. for the same purpose. Relative
turn-table at the axis of the» pivot of the turn
tab!e thus ensuring that any distortion of the movement in the vertißal direction between the
mould member 40 anclthe turn-table 4! is pre
45 turn-table due to temperature variations shall
Ventecl by stud bolts 73 secured to the member 40
not cause the turn-table to be raised or lowered
in Figure 3 the extreme upper ends of one of
_ The mould cavity 39 is olosed at its upper end
by a non-rotating cover 45 formed in a n1.1mber 0f
relatively short curved sections each having un
50 wardly turned lateral ?anges 45. ad.iaoent sec
tions of the oover 45 abutting a;zainst one an
othe1* at c.vlindrioallv slidin;r .1'0ints as indioated
at 4'! in Figure 8. Each section of the oover 45
is nrovided with a water-iacket enclosed between
55 the flan2es 46 and a sheet metal or fabrio co-ver
im: 48 which at one. end 0f the cover section ex
tends into a hollow castinsr 49 m‘ovided with inlet
and outlet pipe connections 50 fo1‘ the coolinsz
Arranged above and enclosine the coverine,r 48
are a pair of pressure members 5! for each oover
se‘cüon. the l0wer edges of the members 5! pro
jecting within grooves 52 formed in the upper
65 face of the mould member 40. The pressure
member3 5! are provided with lugs 53 engaging
in oorresponding holes in U—shaped clip members
54, which are adjustably supported by means of
screws 55 upon a transverse bar 56 provided at
70 each end. with a rotatab1e roller or runner 51.
The rollers 5'! are carried on the. upper face of
the mould member 40 and it will be evident that
by suitably adjusting the screws 55 the clearance
between the cover 45 and the mould member 40
75 during the rotation of the mould member can be
raiseo'! When desired. by means of a cable '!0.
and traversing the s?acing members 1!‚ the lower
enols of the bolts 13 passing with considerable
clearance through corresponding holes 14 in the
turn-table 4!.
The driving oonnection between the turn-table
4! and the mould member 40 is effeoted by a
single pait of driving pins arranged a1: opposite
ends of a diameter of the turn-table one of these
plus as shown at 15 in Figure 9 ?tting relatively 55
closely in all directions in a corresponding recess
16 in the turn-table 4! and in a recess '!'! formed
in a boss '!8 on the mould member 40. The other
pin '!9, as shown m Figure 10, ?ts olosely within
a recess 80 in the turn-table 4!‚ the 1‘1pper end
of this pin being provided with a head o-r ro1ler
8! ?tting Within areoess 02 in a boss 83 formed.
on the mould member 40, the recess 82 being
elongated in the direction of the diametral line
joining the axes of the pins 15 and 79 so as to
permit expansion 01' contraction of themould
member 40 in a radial direction
In operation it will be understood that as th
mould member 40 containing the mould cavity 39
is caused to travel p»ast the cover member 45 by 70
the rotation of the t_urn-table 4! the cover mem
ber 45 is maintained in suitably close relation
to the mould member 40 by the pressure due to
the compressed air in the tube 60 and since the
pressure thus exerted. tending to cause the mem 75
bers 40 and 45 to approach each other is~ trans
mitted through the frames 63, this pressure is
balanced so that there is no external reaction.
Furtherrnore the adjustable clips 54 enable any
desired clearance between the mould member 40
and the cover member 45 to be established and
maintained with great precision while the full
air pressure is available 130 oppose any increase_
of this clearance.
Referring now to Figures 11 and 12 an alterna
tive construction of the cover member is illus
trated comprising modi?ed water-cooling ar
The cover member 45 in this construction com
15 prises a casting provided with a number of in
ternal channels or passages 84 extending trans
versely across the member. At each side cf the
member 45 the passages 84 are arranged to com
municate with one another through cavities 85
20 formed in castings 86 which are secured to the
member 45 by bolts 81 and spacing members 88,
the castings 86 being provided with pipe connec
tions 89 for the cooling water.
It Will be seen that the water is thus caused to
25 ?ow in a sinuous path through the cover mem
her 45 thereby effectively cooling this member
during the operation of the apparatus.
According to another' arrangement a water
jacket is so arranged. and attached to the cover
30 that the use of Water under pressure tends to de
?ect the cover towards the mould cavity as de
According to' another arrangement the two
mould surfaces next the cover are not in one
35 plane but are sloped so that the cover and mould
have practically line contact on each eclge of the
mould cavity, and the cover is kept substantially
?at on the face next the molten meta1 by the use
of a rigid water jacket attached. to it so as to
40 resist its distortion in c1‘oss section.
It Will be understood that the invention is not
limited to the particular constructional forms 01'
arrangements of the cooperating mould members
and the various devices associated therewith
45 which have been illustrated and described and
various modi?cations in these and other respects
may evidently be made wi‘thout exceeding the
scope of the invention.
We claim:
1. An apparatus for casting metal comprising
a frame, at least one mould element carried by
said frame, at least one counter mould element,
said mould elements and counter mould elements
being shaped and arranged to form a piece of a
mould having a substantially cylindrical cavity
of any cross-section when abutting against each
other on a longitudinal surface, means for mov
ing the said munter mould elements in an axial
direction relative to the said mould elements,
60 counter support means arranged at the rear of the
counter mould elements, resilient means sup
porting against the said counter mould elements
on the one band and against the said counter
support means on the other hand so as to press
65 the counter mould elements against the mould
elements, and connecting members ?exibly com
nected ab their upper ends to said counter sup
port means and arranged to straddle the mould
elements on both sides of the mould cavity for
70 transferring without substantially bending stress
the force exerted by the said resilient means
from said counter support means to said mould
2. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1‚ in which
the connecting members are arranged to be ti1t
able out of engagement with the frame crosswise
to the direction of thrust to be transmitted so as
to become inoperative.
3. An apparatus as claimed in claim l, in
which the connecting members have cantilever
rollers at their lower ends to engage the cooperat
ing mould members so as to permit an axial
movement of the latter With reference to the 10
connecting members.
4. An»apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further
comprising additional supporting means for re
stricting the relative approximation between the
cooperating mould members.
5. An apparatus as claimed in claim l, in
which the mould element is arranged to move
with reference to the frame, further comprising
rollers for supporting the mould elements, and
means associated with each roller for individual
1y adjusting its height relative to the connect
ing members.
6. An apparatus as claimed in claim 1, further
comprising a turning table, rotatably conneced
With the frame‚ the mould element being arc
shaped and supported on the said turning table,
further comprising a holt connection between
said mould element and said turning tab1e at one
point‚ and a radially slidable connection between
said mould element and said turning tab1e at a 30
position diametrically opposite to said holt cou
7. An apparatus for casting metal comprising
a frame, at least one pair of mould members
sup-ported by said frame and arranged cooperat
ing to form a substantially cylindrical mould
cavity 0f any cross-section, means for moving at
least one of the mould elements in the direction
of the axis of said cavity with reference to the
frame‚ two connecting members arranged at op
posite sides of the mould members closely adja
cent said mould members and. connected at their
upper ends to said counter supporting means and
to. straddle said mould members and releasably
connected at their lower ends to the frame to 45
transmit forces from one mould member to the
cooperating mould member, and elastic means
comprising a Container having collapsible wa11s
and ?lled With ?uid under pressure for pressing
the cooperating mould members together.
8. In apparatus for casting metal, a frame, a
plurality of mould members supported by said
frame and arranged to cooperate in constituting
a mould having a substantially cylindrical mould
cavity, a plug or stopper member closing said
cylindrical mould cavity, driving means for car
rying said plug or stopper member in an axial
direction with reference t0 the mould cavity, and
spring means acting in the same direction for
resiliently conneeting said stopper member with 60
said driving means.
9. Apparatus as claimed in c1aim 1, in which
the elastic means comprise a collapsible tube
?lled with a gaseous ?uid under pressure.
10. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, in which
the elastic means comprise a collapsible body
?lled With ?uid under pressure and means for
venting said body, and. in which the connecting
means are arranged. readily to be detachable
after venting of the collapsible body.
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