Патент USA US2127505код для вставки
Aug. 23, 1938. A. l.. EMENS 2,127,505 ELECTRIC METER Filed Feb. 29, 1932 '2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1441?," A L Aug. 23, 1938. 2,127,505 A. 1_. EMENS ELECTRIC METER Filed Feb. 29, 1952 A @y 2 Sheets-Sheet @Z55/'Él Wm 2 Patented Aug. 23, 1938 _ 2,127,505 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,127,505 ELECTRIC METER Albert L. Emens, La Fayette, Ind., assigner to Duncan Electric Manufacturing Company, La Fayette, Ind., a corporation of Illinois Application February 29, 1932, Serial No. 595,804 a claims. (ci. r11-_34) This invention relates to electric meters, and especially to the type known as maximum demand meters, although in some of its aspects it may be used for other purposes. AÍ maximum demand meter of the type chosen for the illustration of this invention includes in addition to such ordi-' needle had been moved during the month. Ac cording to former practice, the reader would re cord the position of `this sweephand (with an accuracy depending upon his honesty and care~ fulness) and would reset the sweephand to zero 5 so that the process would begin over again. nary killowatt hour meter features as may be According to the present invention, the maxi used, a device for indicating the greatest demand inany period of a given length. For example, lo besides having the usual features for-indicating the total kilowatt hours used during the month, mum demand is registered permanently in a man the maximum demand meter may have a pointer which indicates the greatest amount of energy used in any uiteen-minute period during the 15V month. It should be understood that one purpose of a maximum demand meter is to enable the power company to more equitably bill its customers, since the consumer who uses only a small amount ‘_‘ii of current each month, but who occasionally has an excessive demand, requires the companyv 'to' have expensive facilities for meeting his demand. In other words, the demand register enables the power company to bill the consumers not only l0 di according to the amount of current they use, but also according to their proportionate share of the overhead involved in providing equipment for meeting the peak demand, and in providing the necessary transmission facilities for his own in ?0 dividual maximum demand. The maximum demand indicating function may be performed by providing a needle which is auto matically snapped back to zero every fifteen min utes. It follows that the movement of that needle ner to substantially eliminate the difficulties due to dishonesty or careless reading of the demand 1G indications. Not only are the rights of the com pany thus protected, but the consumer is much better satisfied, since otherwise there is a strong tendency for him to feel that perhaps he is being overcharged. r Occasionally it is necessary to inspect and test the meters, and when this is done it has been necessary in the past for the inspector to be pres ent at the end of the regular fifteen-minute period in order to check the snap-back of the 20 snap-back needle to zero. lf the inspector should start to check this feature at the beginning of the fifteen-minute period, it has formerly been ~ necessary for him to wait the full fifteen minutes. According to one aspect of this invention, the 25 necessity for this wait is avoided by providing means whereby the inspector may readily turn the mechanism up manually to end the period ahead of time, just as a clock inspector might turn the hands of a clock ahead to the hour in 3Q order to check the chimes. In the present in -stance, however, there would be no undesirable results from this setting up. ' In its preferred form, this invention includes -, , by the meter disk during any period (for example, ‘ a reset- lever vfor turning the sweephand back to 35 `zero, an integrator which is operated by this sweephand when it is being set back, and one-way clutches which prevent the sweephand from oper ating said integrator while it is being turned for which is not returned to zero, but remains at 40: the highest point to which said snap-back- de ward by the meter disk, and for preventing the 40 mand needle was moved. Thus, if during the turning of the re-set lever in the wrong direction. first fifteen-minute period the snap-back demand ' This renders the device substantially foolproof, needle shoved the maximum demand needle or for when the meter reader has once displaced the sweephand around to the numeral 10, and was re-set lever, it is necessary for him to turn it a 452 then set back to Zero, it would not again move- complete revolution in order to get it back to its 45 the maximum demand meter during any period sealing position, and in so doing, the meter reader in which the demand was less than the ten units' must turn the sweephand all the way back to indicated by the ñrst period. However, if in a zero, and he cannot turn it forward. As a further safeguard, a counter may be used later period the demand should be, for example, so 12 units, then in that period the snap-back de whichwill count the number of times that the 50 re-set Vlever is operated. This would have the mand needle would move around to the point 12 shoving the sweephand from 10 to l2. When the added advantage that it would permit a deter meter reader comes around he can see from the~ mination from the face of the meter at any time position of the maximum demand needle the fur of the average demand since the cumulative in fifteen minutes) will indicate the demand in that period. This snap-back demand needle may move- another pointer, called the sweephand, thest point to which the snap-back demand. tegrator was last set to zero. , 55- 2 9,127,505 In another aspect the preferred form o! the invention comprises the use of an over-running clutch in the timing mechanism so that this mechanism may be set up without interference with the timing motor, but wherever it is set the motor will immediately begin to function. In this connection, there are added advantages in that the set-up device will indicate that the timer is in operation, and may be calibrated in minutes ll) both to aid the operator in setting it up and to provide a handy timing device for various meterI testing purposes. With these and various other objects in view, the invention may consist of certain novel fea tures of construction and operation, as will be more fully described and particularly pointed out in the specification, drawings and claims ap pended hereto. In the drawings, which illustrate an embodi 20 ment of the device, and wherein like reference characters are used to designate like parts, Figure 1 is a iront elevation of a meter em bodying this invention; Figure 2 is a view of certain parts of the mech 25 anism taken along the line 2-2 of Figure 1; Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along the line of line 3-3 of Fig ure 2; Figure 4 is a side view partly in section, of 30 the structure shown in Figure 3; Figure 5 is a fragmentary front sectional view illustrating the cumulative demand recording features; Figure 6 is a detail view of the re-set mecha 35 nism and its means for operating the cumulative demand integrator; Figure 'I is a diagrammatic view illustrat ing various operative features of this invention; Figures 8 and 9 are detail views of the re-set 40 device; and Figures 10, 11, 12 and 13 are detail views of the over-running clutches, Figure 10 relating to the reset mechanism, Figure 11 to the cumula tive demand integrator drive, and Figures 12 45 and 13 to the drive for the snap-back mecha nism. Although my invention may take many forms, only one has been chosen for illustration. 'I'his form is embodied in an electric meter, as shown in Figure l. This meter may include the usual hands I and dial calibrations 2 for indicating the total kilowatt hours measured by the meter. In addition to this there may be the usual de mand calibrations l with the maximum demand indicating needle l, more commonly called the sweephand, and the mechanism for operating the same. It is in connection with this mechanism that this invention is preferably used. This mechanism is best illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 7. 'I'he sweephand 5 .is rotatably mounted on the shaft 3 and is actuated oy a member 'I which may for convenience be termed the snap-back needle. This snap-back needle is keyed to the shaft 6, and co-acts with an upright portion I in the sweephand I. The shaft 3 is driven by any suitable gear Il, which is driven by the electric meter disk in the same manner as are the pointers I of the power consumption indicator. 'I'his gear Ill meshes with the gear 10 I2 which drives the shaft 6 through the friction clutch I3. 'I‘his clutch I3 slips with compara tively ligbt friction. so that when the shaft is snapped back by being turned counterclockwise back to the aero indication the shaft 3 will also turn without injurious resistance. f In order that the sweephand l may indicate the maximum demand during any fifteen minute period between meter readings, means are provided to set the snap-back needle 1 back to zero every fifteen minutes. Of course the period may be other than ñfteen minutes, but for the sake of simplicity of discussion this de scription will throughout be based on the nfteen minute period. 'I'he snap back of the snap-back needle 1 is accomplished through the pinion Il. on the shaft t and the pivoted rack l1 mounted on the pin I3. The snap-back action is stopped at the zero position by the eccentric Il which limits the return movement of rack I'l. A snap back lever 20 actuated by the spring 2l, and also pivoted on the pin I8 together with a cam 23 for controlling the snap-back lever 23, and the means for operating said cam, is provided. Aa the driving gear Ill turns the shaft 6 and the snap-back needle 'l in a clockwise direction, it also turns the pinion I6 likewise, swinging the rack I 1 to the right. ‘This movement of the rack is not normally resisted by the snap-back lever 20 since the cam 23 has pressed the snap back lever 2li out of range of the rack Il. This cam is driven constantly by means to be de scribed, and when it has made a complete revo lution in the direction of the arrow the cam fol lower 24 on lever 20 is released from the rim 2l of the cam and under the force of the spring 2| falls into the notch 26 in the cam, pressing the rack il back to its starting position, which posi tion is the zero position for the snap-tuck needle 1. The cam 23 is driven through a train of gears 28 by the gear 29. The gear 2B is driven by the shaft 3i through a one-way clutch 30 (to be described). The shaft 3l is preferably driven by ` a self-starting synchronous motor, such as that used in electric clocks. - The meter is preferably sealed in any suitable manner, visibility of the apparatus being permit ted by the glass cover 32 in the usual manner. This glass cover is provided with a hole 3l co axial with shaft 6 through which is fitted the set-back mechanism. Around the hole 34 are formed suitable glass bosses 35. Over the upper boss is applied a cap 3G which is provided with a depressed portion 31 which fits into notches in the glass boss, and into which may be fitted ` a lug 38 on a stationary clutch member 33. This member may be shaped substantially as shown in Figure 10. Fitting over this stationary clutch member 39 is a movable clutch member ‘l to which is pivoted a handle 4I about the hori- , zontal pivots I2. As shown in Figure 10 there is located between the stationary clutch mem ber 39 and the movable clutch member 4l, a clutch roller 44 which is normally pressed by a spring l5 toward the narrow end of a clutch slot i 46 formed in the stationary clutch member, as shown. It is evident that a movement of the movable clutch member 40 in a clockwise direc tion would only tighten the clutch roller Il so that this movement is prevented. A rotation of 1 the movable clutch member 40 in a counterclock wise direction, however, loosens the roller 44. whereby the free rotation of the movable clutch member is permitted. The parts are held in the position described 1 by a stud 48 and the nuts I9. This stud 43 is of course rigidly secured to the outer clutch mem ber l0 and is turned with it by the set-back lever 4I. Keyed to the stud 4l but on the inside of the glass cover 32 is a set-back disk Il (Fig. 9) 1 2,127,505 to which is pivoted the lever 52 carrying at one end a set-back pin 53, and being acted upon at the other end by a spring 54 which tends to press the set-back pin outwardly. In its outer Cl position the set-back pin 53 engages the sweep hand just outside the vertical portion 8. It fol lows that when the lever 4l is turned the pin 53 will strike the sweephand 5 and turn the same counterclockwise until it is released therefrom. The release is accomplished by means of a cam 56 which. as shown best in Figure l, is so shaped as to press the set back pin 53 inwardly and cause its release from the sweephand. It may be noted at this point that various dials used for different meter purposes may have the zero point for the sweephand at slightly different positions. In order to cause the release of the sweephand at the zero position, the cam 56 is made adjustable by supporting it from a ring 58 which is secured by screws 59 extending through slots in the usual manner; However, this can be dispensed with by forming as a cam the portion of the sweephand engaged by pin 53, so that when the sweephand is stopped at the zero position by the snap-back needle, the cam surface on the needle will become effective to overcome the spring 54 and press the pin 53 in ward to enable it to slip free of the sweephand 5. As‘has previously been common practice, it is 30 desirable to seal the re-set mechanism in an in active position so that it may not be tampered with. In the present instance this is accomplished by means of an arm 68 which has an upstanding lug 6i extending from and preferably integral with the cap 36 which as previously described is locked against rotary motion by the depressed portion 31 which ñts into a corresponding notch in the glass boss 35. The lug 6l and the set back lever 4I are perforated, as indicated at 62, 40 so that when these parts are in the position shown in Figure 6 a wire may be passed through them and sealed with the customary lead seal. 65 turns the gear 66 on the shaft 61 to which is secured the pointer 6B. This train of gearing is also shown in Figure 5. From this ñgure it is seen that the shaft 51 also carries a pinion 69 which turns the gears 18 and their associated pointers 1I in the usual manner. Pointers 68 and 1| with their associated dial markings com prise a cumulative demand integrator. It has previously been recognized as desirable that a minimum of power to be used in operating 10 an electric meter. For this reason, it is preferred that the sweephand 5 be operated freely in its movement by the meter, leaving the operation of the pointers 68 and 1I to the return stroke of the sweephand 5. To accomplish this the one 15 way clutch mechanism 13 is provided. 'I‘his mechanism comprises an inner clutch member 14 rigidly connected to the gear 64 and with it freely rotatable on the shaft 6. Around the in ner clutch member 14 is the -outer clutch mem 20 ber 15 which, as shown best in Figure 6 is rigidly secured to the sweephand 5 by means of the col lar 16 which is rotatably mounted on the shaft 6. This outer clutch member 15 constitutes a hous ing and together with the inner clutch member 25 14 forms a clutch raceway 80 in which is carried the roller 19 actuated toward the small end of the raceway by the spring 18. Due to the nature of this over-running clutch the hand 5 may be turned freely in a clockwise direction by the me 30 ter mechanism, but when it is turned counter clockwise in resetting, it causes the clutch to en gage, and therefore turns the gear 64. ’I‘urning of the gear 64 in a counterclockwise direction, through the train of gears‘65 causes the pointer 35 68 to turn in a clockwise direction. 'I'he ratio in the train of gears 65 is such that the resetting of sweephand 5 turns the integrator including pointer 68 through a number of graduations cor In the present invention this locking together has responding to the number of graduations through which the sweephand 5 is rotated. In other words, if the sweephand 5 has been moved to the position l2 on its scale, the resetting of the sweep an additional advantage in that it requires the meter reader to make a complete set-back op eration. Inasmuch as the one-way clutch roller 44 prevents rotation of the set-back lever 4I ex cept in a counterclockwise direction, it is impos pointers 68 and 1I. It is therefore substantially 45 impossible for the meter reader to falsify the de mand readings without detection, since he will read the cumulative total of the pointers 68 and sible for a meter reader after he has once un sealed the lever 4I and started turning it, to again seal it until he has turned it through a complete revolution. The set-back pin 53 is so related with respect to the locking position of the set-back lever 4I that when the lever is locked the set back pin is in an inactive position at the bottom part of its cycle, that is, between the cam 56 and the furthest point of movement of the sweep hand. This insures a complete reset of the sweep hand to zero when the reset lever 4l is turned one 60 3 . revolution. _ In meters formerly known commercially, the re-setting of the sweephand to zero left no record of what the sweephand had previously registered. Neither the customer nor the company would have any way of knowing whether or not the me hand to zero will add 12- to the reading of the 1|, rather than, or as well as the position of the sweephand 5. Of course, the difference between 50 the reading of the integrator including the point ers 68 and .1I before and after a given re-setting of the sweephand 5, will indicate the reading of the sweephand prior to the said re-setting. As a further safeguard against improper 0p 55 eration, and for other purposes, a counter may be provided for registering the number of times the re-setting mechanism has been operated. It is evident that a simple division of the increase in reading of the needles 68 and 1| by the increase in the total number of re-set operations on such a counter will give the average of the various de mand readings during a given period. As previously stated, it is sometimes desirable to'inspect and test the meter, such an inspection 65 ter reader correctly read the demand indication. should include a check up on the snap-back op According to the present invention, however, eration of the snap-back needle 1. However, this snap-back occurs only when the cam 23 is in the position shown. In prior commercial devices, these maximum demand indications are perma nently and cumulatively registered every time the sweephand is re-set. The mechanism which ap plicant has devised for performing this is quite simple. As illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 7, the sweephand in its return movement turns the 75 gear 64 which, through a suitable train of gears this cam was driven directly by a synchronous 70 electric motor, with the result that there was no Way yto hurry the occurrence of the snap-back. According to the present invention, the over running or one-way clutch 30 is provided between the shaft 3l and the gear 29. This permits the 75 4 alamo» gear 2| to be turned even though the motor or the gearing associated with the same (not shown) prevents the turning of the shaft Il. Means are necessary, and so that the meter reading oi the definite time of the set-back may be taken any time prior to the next automatic set-back. When this is done. it may also be desirable to provide an extra integrator operative in conjunction with provided for conveniently turning the gear 2l, this means comprising the pinion I2 meshing with the gear 2i and keyed to the shaft B3, which is suitably journaled, as shown. The shaft I8 is the integrator including pointers i, and set back to zero whenever the snap-back needle is set back, so that the reading of the total- power con sumption may be made at any time, as of the last automatic set back. Under these conditions, 10 the reading at the time of the last set-back can provided with an extension having a head Il pro iecting to the front of the meter dial and pro~ vided with a slot for a screw driver, as shown best in Figures 2 and 3. This permits the turning of the cam 2l by a screw driver applied to the head B4, so that the meter tester may quickly at any time be determined by subtracting the reading of the auxiliary integrator just men tioned from the reading of the pointers I. turn the cam to the position at which the snap back takes place. It is to be understood that many other em-‘ As a matter of further convenience this head 84 is providedwith an arrow to indicate its proper direction of rotation, and a pointer which may point to suitable calibrations on the dial, as shown in Figure 3, which calibrations may bodiments of the invention, including some in improved form, will be apparent, and in the course of time more will be devised by those skilled in the art. It is not desired that this invention be limited to the details described, for its scope includes all such forms or improve indicate minutes or other intervals of time. . This will not only aid the tester in knowing the po siticn of the cam 23, but it will also provide a convenient timer for any other purpose. ments as come within the spirit of the following claims, construed as broadly as the prior art will permit. In or der to prevent tampering with the head I4 it is located underneath the glass cover 32, but this is not objectionable, as the head 84 is turned by hand only during testing, at which time the cover 32 is removed for other reasons. - What is claimed is: 1. An electric maximum demand meter in cluding a pusher element, means constantly tending to move said pusher element forwardly in proportion to the power consumption, snap The meter 30 reader need never remove the cover, since the back means for causing the return of said pusher element after the lapse oi a given period, and manually operable means for causing the opera tion of said snap-back means in advance of its set-back lever 4I is on the outside of the cover, and since the friction clutch I3 permits the set back of the sweephand 5 and the snap-back nee dle 1 to the zero position regardless of the po sition of the cam 23. In view of the foregoing description, the op schedule; said manually operable means having a portion visible during ordinary meter read ings, said part being rotated by said return means in its normal operation, whereby the meter reader eration need only be briefly reviewed. Dur ing the ordinary running of the meter the snap back needle ‘I is rotated clockwise by the meter 40 drive, shifting the sweephand 5 ahead of it for successive periods of say fifteen minutes each. At the end of each period the snap-back needle 1 is set back to zero through operation of the rack il of the spring pressed lever 2U, as it is s. LA can readily see whether or not said first named means is in operation. 2. An electric maximum demand meter in cluding a pusher element, means constantly tending to move said pusher element forwardly in proportion to the power consumption, snap back means for causing the return of said pusher element after the lapse of a given period, and manually -operable means for causing the oper released by the cam 23, the cam 2l being con stantly rotated, preferably by a suitable synchro nous motor. When the meter is read, the set back lever 4i is unsealed and lifted from the lug 6I and rotated in a counterclockwise direction to sweep the sweephand 5 back to zero. When the hand reaches this position, the lever Il is released from its co-action with the hanu by the pressing in of the peg 53 under the influence of the cam 56. The lever 4| is then again sealed to the lug 6i. As the sweephand 5 was rotated counterclockwise as above described, it turned the gear 64 through the medium of the one-way clutch 13 and this gear 64 through suitable other gears turned the pointers 68 and ‘Il an amount 60 corresponding to the amount that the sweep hand was set back, i. e., an amount corresponding to what had been the reading of the sweephand. The meter reader can make- sure that the syn chronous motor is operating by merely glancing . at the head 8l which will be rotated by the motor. This head 84 may also be turned with a screw driver after the case 32 has been removed, in or der to rotate'the cam 2l to the position which permits the snap-back of the snap-back needle A 1, thus rendering the inspection of this feature quite simple. It should be realized, of course, that if desired, means may be provided for rendering the set back operation automatic, so that manual oper ations by the meter reader will be entirely un ation of said snap-back means in advance of its . schedule; said manually operable means having a portion visible during ordinary meter readings, said part being rotated by said snap-back means in its normal operation whereby the meter reader can readily see whether or not sa'id iirst named means is in operation, and indicating means as sociated with said visible moving portion to serve as a convenient measurer of time. 55 3. An electric maximum demand meter in cluding a pusher element, means constantly tending to move said pusher element forwardly in proportion to the power consumption, snap back means including a snap-back release mem ber for causing the return of said pusher element after the lapse of a given period, and manually operable means for causing the operation of said snap-back release member in advance of its schedule; said snap-back means including a nor mal source of power continuously operating at constant speed, and mechanical means directly driven by said source of power and directly driv ing said snap-back release member including a' one-way drive between said source of power and 70 said driven release member which is constructed to allow said driven release member to be driven faster than its normal speed without altering the natural movement oi' the normal source of power. 4. An electric maximum demand meter in- 'l5 2,197,505 5 indicating independently the demand in succes sive periods, means for causing a return of said pusher element at the end of each such period, a sweephand operated by said pusher element to the point of its greatest movement, a cover for consumption, return means for causing the snap said meter mechanism, a re-set device rotatably back of said pusher element after the lapse of carried by the cover and the operation of which a given period, manually operable means for is necessary for setting back said sweephand to causing the operation of the effective part of said' zero, an integrator operated by said sweephand snap-back means in advance of its schedule; said in its setting back movement to indicate the ex cluding a meter mechanism and a case for said mechanism adapted to be sealed against tamper ing, said mechanism including a pusher element, means constantly tending to move said pusher element forwardly in proportion to the power snap-back means including a normal source of power, and a one-way drive arranged to permit the movement of the part thereof operated by said manually operable means while the natural f' movement of the normal source of power is main tained; said manually operable means being con nected to drive said effective part and located in a position to be readily accessible when said casing is opened but inaccessible within said casing when said casing is closed and sealed. 5. An electric maximum demand meter in-' cluding a pusher element, means constantly tending to move said pusher element forwardly in proportion to the power consumption, snap back means for causing the snap back of said pusher element after the lapse of a given period, and manually operable means for causing the operation of said snap-back means in advance of its schedule; said manually operable means having a portion visible during ordinary meter readings, said part being rotated by said snap back means ín its normal operation whereby the meter' reader can readily see whether or not said first named means is in operation, and calibra tions associated with said visible moving portion to serve as a convenient measurer of time and aiding the tester in determining the proximity in time of the next snap back operation. 6. An electric maximum demand meter having tent of said movement, means for sealing said re set device in an inactive position, and one-way movement means including a first member im movably secured to the cover, a second member rotatable with the device and at a fixed angular position with respect to the device, a one-way locking element carried by one of said members. and a spring urging the locking element into engagement with >the other of said members one of said elements being so notched where it is engaged by the locking element as to positively prevent movement of said device except in the resetting direction, while permitting movement in the resetting direction. and means for causing the release of said re-set device from said sweephand when said sweephand reaches the zero position. 8. An electric demand meter comprising a meter mechanism including a pusher element for indicating independently the demand in succes sive periods, means for causing a return of said pusher element at the end of each such period, a sweephand operated by said pusher element to the point of its greatest movement, a cover for said meter mechanism, a re-set device rotatably carried by the cover and the operation of which is necessary for setting back said sweephand to zero, an integrator operated by said sweephand in its setting back movement to indicate the ex tent of said movement, said re-set device includ a case and including within the case an angularly ing a handle external of the cover and a sweep movable pusher element, means constantly tend hand-engaging member positioned inside the ing to move said pusher element forwardly' in proportion to the power consumption, spring op erated means for causing the return of said angular position with respect to the handle, pusher element to its starting point after the lapse of a given period, maximum demand indi cating means operated by said pusher element to a position corresponding to its greatest move ment, and including a shoulder movable arcuate ly through less than 360°; and reset means in cover and rotatable with the handle at a fixed means for sealing said re-set device in a single position in which position the sweephand-engaging member is out of the range of movement of the sweephand, and one-way movement means in cluding a first member immovably secured to the cover, a second member rotatable with the han dle and at a fixed angular position with respect 50 cluding a member within the case movable to the handle, a one-way locking element carried through a cycle of 360° and engaging said shoul by one of said members, and a spring urging the der during part of said cycle to return said in locking element into engagement with the other dicating means to its zero position, and movable of said members one of said elements being so during a subsequent part of its cycle to a position notched where it is engaged by the locking ele Ul of rest angularly outside of the angular move ment as to positively prevent movement of said ment of said shoulder; an integrator operated by 'handle except in the resetting direction, while said indicating means as it is set back to zero to permitting movement in the resetting direction. indicate exactly the amount of its set-back movement. 7. An- electric demand meter comprising a meter mechanism including a pusher element for and means for causing the release of said re-set device from said sweephand when said sweep hand reaches the zero position. ALBERT L. EMENS.