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. Aug, 23, 193s.`
i
°
w. HARPER. JR»>
SPARK
, 2,127,512
PLUG
`
, Filed- Julie 15, 1956
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ATTORNEY
lPatented Aug. z3, 193s _
. .2,127,512
y ‘UNITED ASTATES I'F.ßfri-:ivr oEFiCEY
`signor to H. B. Motor. Corporation, New York,
N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application -Jima 13,` 1936,
ì
to increase the eiiiciency and smoothness of oper- f
,
'
(Cl. 12R-169)
17 Claims.
This invention relates to spark plugs, and aims
ation of internal combustion- engines.
v
Serial No. 845991
_
The rapidity of the ignition of the fuel mixture
contained in an internal combustion engine is
one of the factors which> affects the power output'
per unit of fuel and also the smoothness of- oper-ation. For most satisfactory -operation of the
engine, the ignition of the entire fuel charge
l should be. as nearly as possible instantaneous.
Fig. 5 is a transverse sectiony on the line 5--5 of l
Fig. 4;
~
..
.
.
Fig. 6 is an axial section of a unitary spark plug
.adapted to be screwed into the wall of a cylinder;
and
«
.
`
Fig. 7 is a transverse section on the line 1_1.
of Fig. 6.
,
.
,
The spark plug shown -in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 in
cludes an insulator I I of ordinary construction, a
metal body I2 ofspecial construction, and -two
I have ascertained that the rate of propagation ' ' electrodes I0, 2i. The insulator Il is preferably a
of flame in an explosive mixture in an internal
»combustion @engine is relatively slow when the
porcelain insulator with a long skirt such as is
used in the Champion .14 mm. spark plug. 'I’he
engine is operating at- -less than itsv maximum body I2, which most desirably consists of :a Isingle
power. I attribute this to the fact that, when the piece of metal, has a’ nut portion I5, an externally l
throttle is partially closed so that the engine threaded tubular portion I6 which extends well`>
develops less than its maximum power, the fuel beyond the inner end ofthe insulator II, and a
charge which is drawn into the engine is diluted shield portion I1 which substantially closes the
to'a substantial extent by the burnt gases which ,inner end of the tubular portion but contains
passages hereinafter described. In the. form illus
) remain in the clearance space between the piston
and the head of the cylinder at the end, of the trated in Fig. 1, the shield portion I'l provides a
exhaust'stroke. While such unexhausted burnt hollow projection of reduced diameter projecting
fuel is small compared to the- displacement vol-~ from the inner end of the tubular portion I6. The
ume of the piston, it is of substantial volume in body I2 supports the insulator II inthe usual
- 'comparison with the volume of fuel drawn in
manner, a nut I3 being used to secure the in
when the engine is throttled down. The presence ' ' sulator to the body. 'I'he tubular portion I6 and
of burnt gases mixed with the incoming i'uel the shield portion I'l, of thev body-enclose _the
appears to have the effect of reducing the speed inner end portion of the >insulator II, and provide
of propagation of the iiame when the charge :a `chamber I4.- The chamber I4 has a cylindrical
portion I8 within the tubular portion I6 lof >the
l is ignited from a spark, as is customary. The
slowness of the ignition materially reduces the body, a well I9 of reduced diameter within the
eñiciency‘of the engine.
'I'he spark plug which I have invented produces
practically instantaneous ignition, even when the
i fuel and air mixture in the engine -is diluted withburnt gases.` ’ Its use thus adds to thefuel ein
shield I'l, and a ñaring portion 20 connecting the
wellL and the cylindrical portion. The body I2
carries a transverse electrode 2I beyond the inner
end of the insulator II. The electrode 2I cooper
' ates with the central rod electrode I0 to provide a
ciency of automobile engines. It has also other
,advantages which will hereinafter appear from
a detailed description of the spark plugs embody
spark gap 22 at the inner end of the cylindricalV
plug -similar to that shown in Fig. l, except that
gentially.
portion I8 of the chamber I4.
-
~
When the body I2 is screwed into the spark
plug opening of a cylinder, the threaded portion
i ing my invention, which are shown as illustrative
I6 of the body is in the wall of the cylinder head,
examples in the accompanying drawing in which:
Fig. lis anaxial section of a unitary-spark plug , while the shield I1 of the body projects inwardly
embodying the invention and> adapted to be from the cylinder head into the lclearance space
provided between the cylinder head and the end
screwed into an opening ln a cylinder head;
Fig. 2 is a transverse section on the line 2-2 of of the piston. The chamber It` is placed in com 45
munication with>the cylinder by passages or bores
Fig. l;
y
Fig. 3 is a transverse section on the line 3-3 of 23 extending through the side Wall of the pro-~
shield I'l from its outside to the well I9.
Fig. 1, indicating the manner in which burning jecting
As seenjin Fig. 1, the bores 23 are inclined up
gases are projected from the spark plug into the wardlyifat a small angle as they enter the Well I9.
’ cylinder;
As seenin Fig. 2,» the bores 23 are inclined to
Fig. 4 is an axial section of a‘composite spark radii the body so that they enter the well I9 tan
- it consists of an ordinary spark plug screwedinto _
special casing;
The operation of this spark plug is as follows:
During the compression stroke of the engine, the
E
2,127,512
fuel mixture, which may be diluted with a certain
amountI of burnt gas, enters the «chamber It
through the bores 23, displacing burnt gas remain
ing in the chamber into the upper portion of the
chamber surrounding the insulator I I, so that the
fuel mixture ñlls the lower portion of the cham
ber ifi and surrounds the spark gap 22. IFrom
the inclination of the bores, it results that the
fuel mixture enters as a swirling body of gas rising
from the well I9 into the lower part of the cy
l. The casing 25 carries no electrode, since a
spark gap 22’ near the lower end of the cylindrical
portion i8’ of the chamber It’ is provided by the
lindrical portion Iß of the chamber Id.
similar to that shown in Fig. 1.
This
> swirling body of gas displaces the burnt gas in
the chamber without substantial'intermixture
therewith. The spark gap 22 is located sub->
15 stantially on the axis of the swirling body of fuel
mixture. This places the fuel mixture in the best
condition for quick ignition from a spark in the
gap, since the molecules of fuel in the swirling
body are directly exposed to a spark at the gap,
20 even though they are separated by molecules of
burnt gas between them. Furthermore, as the
bores 23 are not directed towards the spark gap
and the spark gap is located axially in the swirling
mixture, there is no current of gas across the
IO Ul
spark gap which, by its blowing action, would
interfere with the elîectiveness of the spark. It
follows that when a spark is produced at the
gap 22, the fuel mixture in the lower portion of
the chamber I4 is instantly ignited. The ex
panding burning gas passes out through the bores
23 as jets _of ñame extending well into the body
of mixture in the clearance space between the
cylinder head and the'piston, so that this body
is instantly ignited by direct contact with the
ñame, even though-the presence of molecules of
burnt gas between the fuel molecules tends to
reduce the rate of ñame propagation in the mix
ture.
I
40
~
portion I6’ and the well and bores contained
therein are similar to corresponding parts in Fig.
‘
The insulator I I is protected from radiant heat
from the burning mixture in the cylinder by the
two conventional electrodes I0', 2|’ of the spark
plug 2ï.
I
It is thus apparent that the casing 25 provides
an attachment which may be screwed upon an
ordinary spark plug to provide an ignition device 10
The spark plug shown in Figs. 6 and 7 is
designed to be placed in an opening in a cylinder
wall rather than in a cylinder head. The tubular
portion |62 of its body |22 is closed at its end by 15
a shield I'I2 having thel form of a transverse wall
with concave inner and outer surfaces. At the
center of the inner surface of this wall is an
electrode _2|2 which cooperates with the central
rod electrode |02 to provide- a spark gap 222 near 20
the lower .end of the chamber |452. Passages or
bores 232 extend through the wall |12. The bores
`232 are inclined outwardly from the axis of the
device as they pass inwardly through the-shield
|12. At the inner en'd of each bore is a deiiectingv 25
surface 28 which directs gas entering through the
bores toward the axis of the device above the
spark gap 222. In this case, the body of fuel
mixture entering through the bores tends to swirl ‘
in planes parallel to the axis of the spark plug 30
and, as before, the entering gas is directed so
as not to cause a current of gas across the spark
gap!
.
'
The flame directed outwardly through the bores
232, after the gas in the chamber |42 has been 35
ignited, is directed in the general direction of the Y
axis of the device, so that the flame passes across
the fuel mixture contained in the clearance space
between' the cylinder head and the piston from
40
a point on the circumference of this space.
The width of the spark gap 222 may be ad
This result is attained by so directing
the passages 23 that no straight line which can be
justed by placing shims between the insulator
drawn through them will intersect the insulator.
The spark plug shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is pro
II2 and the shoulder of the body |22 on which
the insulator rests. The adjustment may be ob
served through a diametrical window bore 242 in 45
shield I1.
,vided with means for regulating and observing
'
the width of the spark gap. 22.' 'I'he transverse the tubular portion |62 of the body. '
In this specification and in the claims which
electrode 2| has a drive fit in the body I2, so
that the distance of its end from the rod electrode follow, the words “inner end” have been used in
I0 may be varied by driving it in or out ‘in this ` connection with various parts of the spark plugs
to indicate the end which is directed into the
hole. In order that the adjustment may be ob
served after the spark plug has been assembled, a cylinder when the spark plug is in use, that is to
transverse bore 24 is provided'in the threaded say, the lower ends of the parts of the spark plugs
4portion I6 of the body. As seen in Fig. 2, this as they appear in Figs. 1, 4 and 6. l
x
bore is not quite diametrical, but has its axis
While the drawing shows three of the passages
Cit Cil nearly on a. tangent to the rod electrode I0 so
23, the number of passages may be varied as deas to provide a small window through which th'e sired without departing from my invention, and it
width of the spark gap 22 may be observed before is practical, although less desirable, to use only
the spark plug is screwed into the cylinder- head. one such passage. Consequently, in the claims
After the spark plug has been screwed in, the which follow the number of passages is not speci
ends of the bore 24 are closed by the wall of the ñed and the word “passages" where used in the
cylinder, so that the presence of this bore does
50
_
l
55
claims should be understood to include the use of
not interfere with the operation which has been f only
one passage except where a “plurality” of
described.
'
’
.
'
Figs. 4 and_5 show an ignition device similar
to that shown in Fig. l, except that the one-piece
body I2 is replaced by a composite body consist
ing of the body 25 of an ordinary spark plug 27
I and a special casing 25 Into which the'spark plug
70 26 is. screwed. The casing 25 hasA a nut por
tion I5' and a tubularï'portion I6' which is
threaded internally for reception of the spark
plug body 26, and also threaded externally like the
tubular portion of the ignition device shown in
75 Fig. l.. The shield I1' at the end of the tubular
passages is expressly speciñed.
What I claim is:
'
'_
1. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal body supporting the insulator and having
an externally threaded tubular portion extending
beyond the inner end of the insulator, a shield
closing the inner end of said tubular portion and 70
providing a hollow projection of less diameter
than said tubular portion, and electrodes posi
tioned to provide a spark gap within the tubular
portion of. the> body near its inner end, said hol
low projection containing restricted passages 75
arancia
3
throng-hits side walls directed towards points j ets of flame produced by -the ignition of this part
. _spaced from the spark gap.
`of the mixture into the main body of the mix
’
2. A spark I,plug ~comprising an insulator,- a
` metal body supporting the insulator and yforming ’
a casing providing an enclosed> chamber sur
ture.
.
9. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal- body supporting the insulator and form
rounding the inner end _of the insulator andfhav- A ing a casing providing an enclosed chamber sur
' ing a cylindrical portion anda well oi’ reduced
diameter, _the casing containing restricted pas
` . sages entering said well and inclined towards the
rounding the inner end of -the insulator, and elec
trodes positioned to provide a spark gap in the
chamber, said casing containing restricted pas
peripheral portion of the lower end of the cylin-r
drical portion of the chamber, and electrodes po
sitioned to provide a spark gap located in the
sages entering the chamber tangentially >below
diameter, said casing containing a plurality of
restricted passages entering the well of the cham
ber tangentially, and electrodes positioned to pro
points spaced from its axis.
11. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal body supporting the insulator and forming
vide a- spark gap located close to the inner end
_a casing providing an enclosed chamber sur
yoi’ the cylindricalportion of the chamber.
rounding the inner end oi’ the insulator, and elec
trodes positioned to provide 'a spark gap in the
chamber, said casing vcontaining restricted pas
the spark gap and all inclined ,in the same di
rection to cause the entering gas to _swirl in the
I cylindrical portion of the chamber close toits chamber.
10. A -spark plug comprising electrodes, an ln- inner end.
3. _A spark plug comprising an insulator, a I _sulator, and a metal body supporting the insu 15
metal body supporting the insulator and forming lator and the electrodes and forming a casing pro- _
viding an enclosed chamber surrounding the in
a casing providing an enclosed chamber sur
ner end of the insulator and containing passages
rounding theinner end of the insulator and hav
ing a cylindrical portion and a well oi' reduced all'vof which enter the chamber tangentially at
. 4. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal body supporting the insulator and form
ing a casing providing an enclosed chamber sur
roundingthe inner end of the insulator and hav
ing a cylindrical portion and a well of reduced
30 diameter, said casing containing a plurality oi
restricted passages, each having a‘length greater _
than' its width and entering the well of the cham
ber tangentially and inclined toward the inner
end of the cylindrical portion of the chamber, and
35 electrodes positioned to provide a spark gap lo
40
`
sages so inclined and arranged as to direct all
gas entering the chamber against the outer cir
cumferentiai wall of the chamber immediately
upon its entrance and before it strikes the insu
lator or the spark gap.
_
12. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal body supporting the insulator and having
an externally-threaded tubular portion extending
beyond the inner end of the insulator, a shield 35
closing the inner Aend of said tubular portion, and
electrodes positioned to provide a spark gap near
the inner end of-the chamber enclosed by the
cated close to the inner end of the cylindrical
portion of the chamber and near the axis o! the
chamber so that it is not in line with said tan
gential passages.
body and shield, said shield containing restricted
- ' 5. The method of igniting a fuel mixture in an
passages, all of which are so inclined that the ams
internal vcombustion engine, which consists in
of no one of Athem intersects the insulator and '
causing a small part of the mixture to swirl about
the axis of no one of them passes through the
an axis, producing _a spark within the swirling
spark gap.
body of gas at an intermediate point of _its axis
to ignite this part of the mixture, and projecting
.
13. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal body supporting the insulator and forming '45
jets of flame produced 'by the ignition in this an enclosed casing surrounding the inner end
part oi'the mixture into the main body oi' the voi’ the insulator, and electrodes positioned to pro- »
mixture.
'
l
46. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
ing a casing providing an enclosed chamlmr sur
inclined that their axes `do not intersect each
other and no one of them intersects either the
rounding the inner end of the insulator, elec
insulator or the spark gap.
' metal body supporting the insulator and form
trodes positioned to provide a spark gap near the
55
-
»
i4. In a spark plug, the combination oi'
inner end of thechamber, said casing containing
insulator and a metal bodysupporting the insu- _ -
a restricted passage so directed as to cause gas
lator and forming a casing providing an enclosed
chamber surrounding the inner end of the insu 55
entering therethrough to swirl in the inner end
portion of the chamber about the spark gap as Ia
center and so proportioned that a straight line
4 drawn through it cannot intersect the insulator.
7. A spark plug comprising an insulator, a
metal body supporting the insulator and pro
viding an enclosed chamber surrounding the in
ner end of the insulator, electrodes positioned to
70
vide a spark gap in the chamber, said casing'
containing a plurality of restricted passagm so '
lator, said casing containing restricted pmg'es
so inclined and arranged as to direct all gas en
tering the chamber'against the outer circumfer
ential wall oi the chamber immediately upon its
entrance and before it strikes the insulator.
15. In a. spark plug, the combination of an
insulator, a metal body supporting theinsulator
provide a spark gap substantially on the axis of
the chamber, said casing containing a plurality
of restricted passages each having a length greater
than its width and entering the chamber tan->
gentially to create therein a body of gas swirling
and having an externally-threaded tubular por
tion extending beyond the inner end of the insu»-`
ìlator, and a shield closing the inner end of said
about the spark gap as a center.
as. their wi ths and all so inclined that a straight
line drawn through any one of them cannot in
l
8. The method of igniting a compressed fuel
mixture in an internal combustion engine which
comprises so moving a small part of the mixture
-_ as to create a zone of reduced pressure therein,
producing a spark in this zone of reduced pressure
76 to ignite this part of the mixture, and projecting
tubular portion and containing restricted pas?
'sages havi lengths at least oneshali as great "
70
tersect'the
' 16. A spark
insulator.
plug comprising
.
electrodes , pro
lviding a sparkgap, an insulator, and a metal
body _forming lssj-_casing vproviding an. enclosed
chamber surrounding thel inner endo! the insu 75
4
2,137,513
lator and the spark gap and containing gas ena
trance passages so positioned that a Astraight: line
drawn through any one of them cannot intersect
rounding the inner end of the insulator and con
taining passages inclined so as to cause the en
entering gas to swirl in the chssmber.
tering gas to swirl about the exis of the cham
bei', and a. pair of electrodes positioned to pro
vide a. spark gap in the chamber spaced from its
‘ 17. A spark plug comprising on insulator. e
inner end- and substantieily on its exis.
the insulator and so inclined as to ceuse the
metal body supporting the insulator end form
ing a, casing providing on enclosed chamber sur
‘ 1 HARPER, Jal
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