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Патент USA US2127536

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Aug. 23, 1938.
‘
_
P. SCHLUMBYOHM
’
'
‘METHOD OF ENHANCING THE SAFETY OF- LIQUID‘ FUEL
" Filed'0ct. 12,_1955
II‘?
Ilql
will l I
l’l'l‘l'l
2,127,536
Patented Aug. 23, 1938
. 2,127,536
UNITED STATES PATENTOFFICE
' , METHOD or snrrancmc THE SAFETY or
v
_
moon) FUEL‘
.
' Peter Schlumbohm, New York, N. Y.', assignor of
fourteen percent to George Von Seebeck, New
York, N. Y.
Application October 12, 1935, "Serial No. 44,801
In Great Britain January 24, 1935
10 Claims.
The present invention relates to the storage of
fuel both for keeping purposes as well as for stor
age during use, as for example in the fuel tank of
an engine.
.
benzene, which readily forms explosive mixtures
-
>
'
The object of the invention is to provide a
10 method of enhancing the safety of the fuel dur
ing storage whereby danger of ‘the substance in
flamlng or exploding during the storage is re
_ duced to a minimum.
,
-
With this object in view the invention consists
in adding carbondioxide ,at low temperatures to
. the fuel and in storing the mixture of fuel and
carbon dioxide at low temperatures. Carbon di
oxide is especiallysuitable if the fuel is petrol
or benzene as used for automobiles and aero~
planes; due to the reciprocal solubility of carbon
dioxide in petrol and of petrol in liquid carbon
dioxide, this system petrol/carbondioxide has
special ,physico-chemical properties, especially at
low temperatures, which were found to be valu
able for the purpose set forth. The system
petrol/carbondioxide is e. g. superior to the sys~>
tem petrol/nitrogen, if low temperatures are ap
plied. Generally speaking, the invention consists
in cooling the liquid fuel by means of refrigera
tion
to low temperatures and in saturating the
30
fuel at this low temperature with a gas which
does not form explosive mixtures with the vapours
of the fuel.
, .
An important feature of the invention is to
establish the low temperature system petrol/car
e: m bondioxide
by adding directly solid carbondioxide
into the petrol, thus using, the carbondioxide ice
both as a refrigerant. and as a source of the car
4
bondioxide which is to be added to the petrol.
Under these circumstances, temperatures of
-80° C. can be reached and maintained for the
mixture; the temperature may, however, be above
this, if the maximum effect is not aimed at.
'It is understood that the mixture might also
be obtained without using solid carbondioxide;
the fuel might be cooled down‘ to low tempera
tures by means of a refrigerating machine and
‘carbondioxide gas might be added until av certain
“saturation" has been effected.
Another .way
50 'would be to cool down the fuel by means of a
refrigerating machine e. g. to —_30° C. and to add
then solid carbondioxide ice into the cold fuel for
the purpose of saturating the fuel with carbondi
e. g._ a burning torch can be extinguished by
immersing the torch-even slowly-—into the mix-v
be extinguished by pouring themixture on the
?ame. The effect is to be explained by two facts;
the low'vapour pressure at the low temperature.
prevents the quick formation of great masses of
vapours of the fuel, and on the other hand the
cold fuel is rich in vcarbondioxide which is evolved
from the fuel when the fuel gets warmed by the
?ame. The effect of carbondioxide gas on ?ames
is known.
I -
The mixture has to be stored in a tank which
is heat insulated or otherwisekept at low tem
perature.
15
'
In order to make use-of the invention for the ‘ ‘
safety of automobiles or aeroplanes, such a stor
age 'tank with “unburnable petrol" must be
equipped with additional means in order-to sup
ply .the motor with burnable petrol of normal
quality.- For this purpose the petrol which ‘is
drawn from the storage tank must be heated and
thus “degassed” on its way from the storage tank
to the carburetor. The coldness of the mix
ture is‘used for practical refrigeration and cool
ing purposes, e. g.'for conditioning the air and
for keeping foodstuffs. This cooling is preferably
‘effected in countercurrentheat exchangers. It
is particularly advantageous to use the mixture
for refrigeration and cooling while on its way to
the motor. In this way the fuel mixture gets
warmed up, e. g. to the temperature of the sur
rounding air, prior to reaching the engine, the
carbondioxide being expelled- thereby at the same
time. The separation of the expelled carbondi
oxide from the petrol ‘can be‘obtained by known
technical devices, as illustrated in Fig. 2 of the
‘accompanying drawing,‘ partly in cross-section,
partly in view.
'
»
'
'
‘
40
Fig. 1, illustrates, partly in cross-section, partly -
in view, and vfully diagrammatically, the general
installation of heat exchangers 'as used for warm
ing up the fuel mixture on its way from the, stor p
5
age tank to' the carburettor of an aeroplane, e. g.
Fig. 2is ‘an arrangement to show an apparatus
for separating the gaseous carbon dioxide,'which
has been evolved from the fuel mixture under
the in?uence of heat conveyed by the heat‘ ex 50
changers,'from'the liquid fuel which enters the
carburettor‘.
.
3
The expansion energy of the carbondioxide lib
erated from the fuel may be used to raise‘ the
liquid
fuel to a higher level than the storage ves 55
The cold petrol/carbondioxide mixture is safe
- oxide gas.
55
against ?re. It was found experimentally that
ture, and that a ?ame, e. g. a burning match, can
,
More particularly, the invention relates to the
$1
storage of fuel of a volatile nature, e. g., petrol,
with air.
‘
(Cl. 44-—9) .
.
2,127,536
sel, to force it through pipe lines, to feed it to the
engine or to other purposes.
other vehicles, or stationary engines, driven by
l. The method bf enhancing the safety of liquid
fuel during the storage and use thereof, by cool
ing the liquid fuel to low temperatures, and by
dissolving in the fuel at this low temperature a
gas which does not form explosive mixtures with
volatile liquid fuel.
the vapours of the fuel.
_The invention particularly aims at the safety
of aeroplanes, but it also can be used in connec
tion with motor cars, refrigerating vans, and
_
The invention will also be of value for the petrol ’
filling stations; in addition to the safety factor
10 ‘the cold petrol will have “service" value, meaning
' that the owner of the ?lling stationhor even his
customer, might use the coldness of the petrol for
practical refrigeration purposes.
The invention opens a new market for the man
15 ufacturers of carbondioxide ice, and it will lower
considerably the costs of this substance for re
frigerating purposes, as part of the costs of the
applied carbondioxide ice have to be calculated as
20
What I claim is:
‘2. The method of enhancing the safety of liquid
fuel during the storage and use thereof, by cool
ing the liquid fuel to ‘low temperatures, and by 10
dissolving in the fuel at this low temperature a
gas which does not form explosive mixtures with
the vapours of the fuel, the gas being a gas which
_in its liquid state would show mutual solubility
with the liquid fuel.
15
3. The method of enhancing the safety of liquid
fuel during the storage and use thereof, by cool
ing the liquid fuel to low temperatures, and by
to be paid for the safety factor.
In _Fig. l, the storage tank I of an aeroplane is
partly shown. The tank is equipped with heat
insulation 2, and the mixture of e; g. gasoline and
dissolving in the fuel at this low temperature a
gas which does not form explosive mixtures with
the vapours of the fuel, said dissolved gas being
a certain percentage of carbondioxide passes from
the storage tank I to the carburettor I3 of the
4. The method of enhancing the safety of liquid
fuel during‘ the storage and usethereof, by cool
ing the liquid fuel to low temperatures, and by dis
motor ill, by means of a tube 3. This tube 3 is
used for effecting heat exchange between the fuel
carbondioxide.
’
solving in the fuel at this low temperature a gas
as
and brine, air, or other cooling means as to be . which‘does not form explosive mixtures with the
applied for refrigeration purposes. In Fig. 1, vapours of the fuel, said dissolved gas being car
three countercurrent heat exchangers are illus
bondioxide, and said cooling being effected by
trated in order to dispose of practical refrigera
means of solidi?ed carbondioxide.
tion at three different temperature levels. The
5. The method of enhancing the safety of
i first heat exchanger in connection with tube 3 is liquid fuel during the storage and use thereof,
illustrated diagrammatically by the circuit system by cooling the liquid fuel to low temperatures, '
4, 5, 6, in which 6 indicates a pump 6, pumping a
brine through the circuit system in the sense of
the arrows shown.
The second countercurrent
heat exchanger is illustrated by the circuit sys
tem l, 8, 9, in which 8 indicates a pump for pump
ing the brinegthrough the circuit system in the
sense of the arrows shown. The third counter
> current heat exchanger is illustrated by the tub
ing system Ill, l2, through which air passes in the
sense of the arrows shown under the in?uence of
a propeller II. The tube 3 has preferably the
form
of a spiral 3a within the tube I 0, to offer
45
greater surface for the heat exchange.
__
Instead of leading from the tube It) directly to
the carburettor IS, the installation as illustrated
in Fig. 1, could be substituted at‘part A-A by
and by dissolving in the fuel at this low tempera
ture a gas which does not form explosive mix
tures with the vapours of the fuel, said dissolved
gas being carbondioxide, the cooling of the liquid and the dissolving of the gas being effected
at the same time by adding solid carbondioxide
directly into liquid gasoline.
6. In the method of enhancing the safety of
liquid fuel during the storage and use thereof,
by cooling the liquid fuel to low temperatures,
and by dissolving in the fuel at this low tempera-.
ture a gas which does not form explosive mix‘
tures with the vapours of the fuel, the inven
tive step of warming the mixture of the liquid
fuel and the gas on its way to the carburettor
In Fig. 2 an
of a motor‘by means of heat exchangers.
'7. In the method of enhancing vthe safety of
65 carburettor can be applied, as no difficulties can
ture a gas which does not form explosive mix
tures with the vapours of the fuel, theinventive
50 the arrangement as shown in, Fig. 2.
arrangement is shown to separate the gaseous _liquid fuel during the storage and use thereof, 60
carbondioxidekwhich has been evolved from the by cooling the liquid fuel to low temperatures.
fuel mixture under the in?uence of the heat con
and by dissolving in the fuel at this low tempera
veyed to the mixture by the heat exchangers, ture a gas which does not form explosive mix
55 from the liquid fuel which enters the carburettor tures' with the vapours of the fuel, the inventive
II. This separation is effected, following the in
step of warming the mixture of the liquid fuel
vention, by creating a liquid trap l5, IE, to the and the gas on its way to the carburettor of a
effect that the ‘gaseous carbondioxide passes motor by means of heat exchangers, said heat
through tube l8 and a check valve it into the exchangers being adapted to supply cold to air
'
60 suction tube of the motor where the liquid fuel conditioning equipment.
enters into the carburettor I‘! after having passed
8. In the method of enhanching the safety of
the U-shaped system l5, Hi. This arrangement liquid fuel during. the storage and use thereof,
has the advantage that the automatic inlet con
by cooling the liquid fuel to low temperatures,
trol, swimmer needle or the like, of the standard and by dissolving in the fuel at this low tempera
arise from gas bubbles.
The‘ degree of safety will depend on the per- ’ step of warming the- mixture of the liquid fuel and the gas on its way to the carburettor of a
centage of carbondioxide added to the liquid gas-v
oline and rather wide variations are possible. A
70 proportion of 25% in weight of, carbondioxide
added to 100% in weight of‘ gasoline, would be
motor by means of heat exchangers, said heat
exchangers being adapted to supply cold for cold
storage purposes.
.
a
-
.
su?icient protection - in many ‘cases.
9. In the method of enhancing the safety of
Having now particularly-described the nature . liquid fuel during the storage and use thereof,
of my invention, and disclosed the manner in
75 which it is to be performed,
by cooling the liquid fuel to low temperatures.
and by dissolving in the fuel at this low tempera- 75
2,127,0230
ture a gas which does not form explosive: mix
tures with the vapours oi the iuel, the inventive
step of warming the mixture oi’ the liquid fuel
and the gas on its way to the carburettor of a
motor bymeans or heat exchangers, and pro
viding a liquid trap adapted to separate evolved
3.
by cooling the liquid fuel to low temperatures,
and by dissolving in the fuel at this low tempera
ture a gas which does not form explosive mix
tures with the vapours of thei'uel, the inven
tive step of warming the mixture of the liquid
fuel and the gas on its way to‘ the carburettor
gas from the liquid and means for conducting of a motor by means of heat exchangers, and pro
the separated gas to the suction tube of the mo viding a‘ liquid trap adapted to separate evolved
gas from the liquid and conducting said sepa
tor.
’
10. In the method of ‘enhancing the safety oi’ . rated liquld to the carburettor of the motor.
PETER SCHLUMBOHM.
liquid fuel during the storage and use thereoi, ~
10
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