Патент USA US2127608код для вставки
Aug. 23, 1938... ' L. |_. MANLEY 2,127,608 cmcum CONTROLLER Filed Nov. 6, 1954 /////// 4.; 47 INVENTOR 2,127,608 Patented Aug. 23, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ‘ 2,127,608 CIRCUIT CONTROILER I Lee L. Manley, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Hugh H. Eby Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsyl vania Application November 6, 1934, Serial No. 751,679 8' Claims. (Cl. 200-—11) This invention relates to switches, and partic ularly to multiple switches controlling simulta neously a plurality of circuits. It is among the ‘objects of this invention: to 5 provide a switch of simplicity and ease of manu facture; to provide a switch of compactness and small diameter, while maintaining both low con tact resistance and negligible electrostatic capacitance between adjacent contacts; to pro vide a switch having multiple contacts which is possessed of de?nite self-indexing; to provide a switch assembly arranged for, a single-hole mounting while providing a maximumnumber of contacts; to» provide a multiple-contact switch 15 with soldering connections so designed as to maintain low capacity; to provide a switch with integral connectors so designed as to reduce sub sequent soldering and connecting steps or oper ations; to provide a multiple switch in which the 20 clearance between contacts is such as to‘ enable the number of ‘contacts to be a "maximum; to reduce the cost of manufacturing and assembling multiple switches; to provide an edge of metal as a contact in a multiple switch; to provide in a 25 multiple switch assembly a movable contactor having substantially axial pressure upon the ?xed contacts; to provide a multiple switch assembly in which a contactor is so arranged with the ?xed contacts as to rotate in operation, to reduce 30 wear and friction and to reduce contact resist ance;~to provide a multiple switch with ter minals in- staggered relation so as to facilitate attachment of connectors without increasing capacity; to provide a switch contact element 35 with a terminal so spaced from the switch as to be directly attachable to the controlled instru mentality without the use of an intermediate connector; to provide improved contact elements in a switch; to provide contacts of a switch that Fig. 1 represents a bottom or re?ected plan of one form of multiple switch according to this invention; Fig. 2 represents a vertical section taken on line 2—2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 represents a transverse section through the form of ‘device of Figs. 1 and 2, taken on line 3--3 of Fig. 2; Fig. 4 represents a transverse section of the switch of the preceding ?gures, taken on line 10 4-4 of Fig. 2; Fig. 5 represents a fragmentary section through the ?xed plate of the switch with one form of contact threaded therethrough; ' Fig. 6 represents a similar view with the con 15 tact element clinched into engagement with the ?xed plate; Fig. 7 represents a fragmentary section taken at line 1-1 of Fig. 2 through the moving and ?xed contact elements according to one form 20 thereof; and Fig. 8 represents a modi?cation and simpli?ca tion of the movable contacting means and com prises a vertical section through the respective 25 elements and contacts. There are many situations in which it is desired to have double-throw circuit closures of 4, 6 or 8 poles, as for instance in short-wave radio re ceivers. The requirements for such switches are, however, quite rigid, including as necessary ele 30 ments the minimum of capacity, the minimum of contact resistance, the utmost in compactness, and low cost of production with long life. It is also essential that the indexing of the switch be de?nite. . 35 Switches of the type to which this invention relates may have provision for ?xed or stator contacts to the number of perhaps 24, and such number or even a higher number is contemplated with this invention, although for clarity of dis 40 40 are formed, instead of being punched and formed, ' closure the switch of the invention is shown as to reduce the cost of construction; to form'switch _ contacts of wire; to provide switch elements that having 18 contacts. With 18 ?xed contacts it is possible to obtain a six-pole, double-throw switch. are threaded into a support‘ instead of, being eye ' By omitting contact or by failure to attach con letted or staked;tto provide a switch with a plu nectors as desired, any smaller number of poles 45 45 rality of contacts so arranged as .to minimize the. may be used. I metallic dust path between ‘contacts ‘due to nor For purposes of illustration an embodiment of mal wear; to provide a contact surface of silver or the invention will be presumed to have a rela the like at low cost; to provide‘a contact for a switch that may be punched, swaged, coined or tively ?xed and immovable plate 25 made of an 50 50 molded so as to o?er an edge of metal to the moving contactor; and other'objects which will become more apparent as'the description pro ceeds. ~ . . _ In the accompanying‘ drawing, forming, part 56 of this description, insulating material such as ?ber or a phenolic condensation product. The plate 25 is mounted ' upon the reduced end 26 of a bushing or sleeve'2'l having a threaded shank 28 arranged to be moved axially into a single opening of a panel or the, like. to center and anchor the switch in the man 55 2 2,127,608 ner commonly employed with‘such devices. The bushing 21 has an axial bore 30 and the reduced portion 26 is turned over or ?anged upon a disc 3| as at 32. Disc 3| has a pair of spaced up standing ears or stops 33 and 34, and, if desired, a depending ear 35 disposed in a suitable opening in the stator plate 25, to anchor the disc. Plate 25 carries ?xed contacts to be described. The movable part of the switch assembly in 10 cludes a shaft 36 rotatably disposed in the bush ing 21, having peripheral groove 31 into which a C washer 3B is inserted to abut the end of sleeve 27 and thereby to prevent axial shaft movement in one direction. The shaft 36 extends axially be~ yond the ?ange 32 of the bushing 21 and has a shoulder 40 against which the stop disc 4| having the integral radial lug 29 is frictionally held by '20 the insulating plate 42 formed of any suitable material, such as ?ber or a phenolic condensation product or the like, and which in turn is fric tionally held by a washer 43, the latter being suit ably secured to the end 'of shaft 36, as at 44. It will be understood that a suitable knob or other rotating means (not shown) will be attached to 25 the free end of shaft 36, and that the radial lug or stop 29 will be positioned between the upstand ing stops or ears 33 and 34, so as to positively limit the oscillations of plate 42. In a common form or‘ switch, the cooperating stops are so 30 spaced as to permit oscillation of the movable plate through an arc corresponding to the.dis tance between adjacent contacts on ?xed plate 25. A unique feature of the present invention is that no connections are made to moving contac tors, eliminating the necessity for inefficient and troublesome spring or pig-tail means for estab lishing a positive electrical path to moving con tact members. Plate 42 carries contactors to be described, but these contactors function as bridg ing members to establish an electrical connection between a pair of fixed contacts. ‘ Present-day switches not only have widely dis proportionate contact resistance between adja cent circuits, but the ?xed contacts, owing to for example, the disc-shaped plate 25 has an annular row or series of equally spaced apertures 45, close to its periphery, and in number as many as the maximum number of contacts to be em ployed. A second annular series of apertures 46 Cl is more closely grouped inwardly of and with each aperture in radial alignment with the respective outer apertures. Each pair of radially spaced ap ertures 45 and 46 forms the locating and anchor ing means for an associated contact. A wire or drawn conductor 41 of suitable metal of any desired cross section, such as square or polygonal for instance, is formed or bent to the pro?le shown in Fig. 5, in. which a short leg 48 merges at substantially a right angle into the contact area 50, at the outer end of which the wire is bent downwardly at 5| in substantial parallelism with the leg 48. The leg 5| may be short and be formed into a soldering terminal. In the same operation that shapes the contact initially to the form shown in Fig. 5, or in a separate operation, the angular edges of the contact area 50 may be rendered less sharp, as by rounding them, for in stance as shown in section in Fig. 7, or by coining. Contacts 4‘! may be plated with silver or other 25 metal to improve their surface conductivity. A plurality of contact elements according to Fig. 5 is operatively associated with appropriate pairs of apertures, as by threading the longer shank 5| of each contact downwardly through an 30 outer hole 45, until its short leg 48 seats in hole 46, and thereupon, as by a single punching opera tion, the longer leg or shank 5| is bent around as at 52 in Fig. 6 to be clear of the plate 25, and in one form the end is bent to form the soldering 35 connection 53 of the form shown, or of any de sired form. The end of short leg 48 is bent over toward the outer opening 45, and clinched to the plate to ?rmly anchor the contact. It is a fea ture of this assembly that the inner ends of the contacts are bent radially outwardly instead of 40 inwardly, since the preferred bend does not cause the increase in total inter-contact capacity of the contact assembly which would result were the ends to be still more closely clustered by such in 45 ward radial bending. The hooked end 53 of the contact element may their wide lateral extent, are so limited in num ber that the maximum number of poles for double-throw circuit control is inadequate for the requirements of the art. 'The number of contacts ' is limited by the necessity for maintaining a wide assume any form desired in accordance with re gap or clearance between the side edges of the ?at quirements, and it is a feature that, whereas one contact may have the form shown in Fig. 6, the contacts in order to keep the inter¢contact elec 50 trostatic capacity at a minimum. As such adjacent contact may have a terminal end of a switches are constructed, it is impossible to in~ different ‘outline, or may be bent up or down out of lateral registration with the ?rst-mentioned crease the relatively small number of poles avail hook, so that alternate terminals may be verti able without an undesirable increase in one or more dimensions of the switch unit, or without cally staggered to facilitate attaching of con 55 an even less desirable increase in capacity. In nectors (not shown). It will be understood that some types, knife edges operating relatively to the where desired the terminal lug may be obviated and the contact extended as a connector. ?at contacts are resiliently connected to eccen It is a feature of importance in the forms of tric anchors, so that the resilient urge is asym ?xed plate which have been described, and in the 60 metrical of the ?xed contacts and therefore un even and varied, and also causes a train of metal many obvious modi?cations thereof that those dust to be formed across‘ the gap between the‘ skilled in the art may evolve, that the contacts may be attached to a previously prepared plate, ?xed contacts. This obvious disadvantage be comes worse as the gap between the ?xed con tacts is reduced by increasing the number of cir cuits to be controlled by the switch without greatly increasing the size of the switch. It is a broad feature of this invention to pro 70 vide ?xed contacts exposing an edge to the mov ing contactor, and having small area in the di rection of movement of the moving contactor. This is satisfactorily accomplished by the use of wires as contacts. . In the form of contact shown in Figs. 5 and 6, and this may be a single or a gang operation, as desired; or the contacts may be suitably'held in 65 a mold, and the plate molded into anchoring en~ gagement with the contacts. The form of ?xed contact disclosed is relatively thin transversely in a direction parallel to the upper surface of plate 25, and is preferably of such thickness perpendicular of the plate that the upper contact surface is well spaced from said plate surface. Regardless of the transverse width, it is preferable that the vertical or per ' pendicular dimension be such as to form ample 3 2,127,608 clearance for the middle of the moving contactor, frictionally in an aperture 66‘ of plate 42, so as normally to be retained therein, and may have to be described, especially while the edges there the depending stud 82 of slightly greater diam of are engaging the contact surfaces. Referring to Figs. 2 and 7, there is shown one eter than the inner diameter of the small end 83 of coil spring 15, so as to be frictional-1y en form of substantially universally adjustable ro gaged thereby. when the stud 82 is forced into tatable contactor that is of economical and'e?i cient construction and operation. The movable the small end. In the assembly of Fig. 8 the axial thrust is ‘ plate 42, already described, is provided with an annular series of equally spaced apertures. The "spread over the entire area of ‘the contactor ‘l6, 10 and the contactor is therefore completely free 10 apertures are preferably the same in number as the maximum number of poles in the switch. to adjust itself to any condition of seating that Each opening 66 may form a guide surface of may be required, thus insuring good electrical itself or it may be provided with a guiding eye let such as that shown at 61, having a ?ange 58 on the contact side of the plate 42, and serv ing as a guide for the slidable shank, pin or support 10 of a moving contactor. Pin 10 has a pointed head ‘H, arranged to engage recess ‘E4 in contactor 12. Contactor 12 may have any 20 pro?le or outline. desired, but is preferably a single-based spherical segment. The shank 10 has a ?ange 1011 or other suitable device to check axial motion of conically coiled spring 13, and is surrounded by the spring 13, 25 the small end of the spring abutting the ?ange 10a, and the large end of. the spring engaging the ?ange 68 of the eyelet 61, if provided, or the lower surface of the movable plate 42 if the open ing 66 is the guide of itself. It will be observed, in Fig. 7, that the contactor ‘I2 is evenly spaced from and is symmetrical relative to the contact portions 50 of a pair of wire or edged contacts, and that the thrust of the spring 13 is axial with respect to the shank ‘I0 and thus symmetrical 35 relative to the spaced contacts. The contactor 12 might be cooked so as to be asymmetrical, but owing to symmetrical axial pres-sure, the con tact resistance is equalized and good contact is established with each of the spaced contacts. With'this form of contactor, lateral thrust on 40 the wiping surface is resisted both by the side walls of the eyelet 61, and by the conical form of the resilient element. It is desirable that con tactor 12 be as close to movable plate 42 as. rea sonably possible so as to decrease the tendency toward lateral sway. To this end the spring may be compressed to a point where the turns of the coil lie in the form of a ?attened cone or even in a plane, and the spring is preferably so designed that the coil may be compressed to lie in a plane without coil interference. It is also contemplated that the contactor ‘l2, pivotally engaging the shaped head ‘II of the shank 10, may also carry directly the ?ange 10a against which the spring 13 abuts. In the previously discussed forms of contactor mountings, the contactor is prevented from mov ing any substantial amount in the line of wiping relative to movable plate 42. In each case the lateral thrust on the contactor is transmitted through the axial pin. In Fig. 8 there is shown a modi?cation of the bridging contactor that is not only simpler and less expensive to make, but which also has greater universal resilience and freedom, and in which all thrust is trans mitted directly by a spring element. In one form of this modi?cation, as shown in‘ Fig. 8, a conicalVcoil spring 15, which may be of wire, ?at ribbon or wire tape, has its large end seated within the hollow contactor 16, the rim 11 of which is spun, bent, crimped or turned into engagement with the large end of spring 15 so as to anchor the latter in the contactor. A short pin ‘I8 has a ?ange 8B and on the 75 upper side has a stud 8| arranged to engage contact. - By forming the coil spring of ribbon, inter ference between adjacent turns is prevented‘dur 15 ing compression of the spring, and the spring is substantially self-aligning. The latter feature enables it to resist lateral deformation, thereby improving the operation of the switch in vwhich it is used by maintaining the contactors substan 20 tially in their normal positions relative to plate 42. Referring to Fig. 8, the large end of spring 15 applies a substantially uniform pressure to contactor ‘l6, insuring even pressure on the con 25 tacts. A feature of interest and importance in a pre ferred form of the invention, in which electrical connection between ?xed contacts is accom plished by means of a universally adjustable ro tatable contactor, is the fact that rotation of 30 the contactor is secured during the switching operation. Each contactor is normally in elec trical contact with a pair of ?xed contacts in cluding a pole contact, and oscillation of plate 42 moves the contactor over the pole contact, to engagement with the other pair including the same pole contact. The ?xed contacts are nor mally disposed radially on the plate 25, and they are therefore outwardly divergent. With the ro tatable contactor in engagement with. a pair of 40 outwardly divergent contacts, the axial pressure urging the contactor downwardly between the ?xed contacts has a resultant force in a direc tion substantially bisecting the angle between the adjacent contacts. If the play in the contactor 45 is appreciable, there may be a movement in the direction of this force. When the contactor slides over the pole contact and away from the outside contact of the ?rst pair, this force is effective to establish a contact point between 50 the contactor and the pole contact, that is out of alignment with the axis of the contactor in its line of oscillation, thus causing rotation of the contactor about this point as a pivot. As these points are constantly shifting with switch 55 ing operations, there is continued oscillation and rotation of the contactor to maintain uniformly distributed wear. - The pressure exerted by the conical spring urges the contactor downwardly between adjacent 60 ?xed contacts. During rotation of the rotor in operation of the switch, the spring is further compressed as the contactor passes over the in tervening contact. Due both to the force exerted by the spring and to the relative shapes of the 65 contactor and the contact, the switching mecha nism _moves with a de?nite mechanical and audible snap from one conductive position to another, and thus urges the contactor toward and into a position intermediate two adjacent con 70 tacts. The resulting automatic self-indexing is an important feature of the present invention. I claim: ' ‘I 1. _A multiple switch including plural contacts formed of wire and radially self-secured at 75 4 2,127,608 equal intervals around a circle upon an insulating element, plural spherically rounded contactors of size sui?cient to bridge two adjacent contacts and simultaneously actuated by a movable in sulating disc, pins in said insulating disc, a coni~ cally coiled spring anchored to each of said con tactors and positioned at its small end upon one of said pins to urge said contactor toward said contacts, whereby said switch is automatically 10 indexed into each of its conductive positions, each said contactor being out of direct physical contact with its pin and arranged for self seating on ad jacent contacts and for limited response to the resultant thrust radially of said circle pursuant to 15 axial thrust on divergent contacts to secure ?rm electrical engagement and low contact resistance. 2. A multiple switch having plural contacts formed of wire and radially self-secured and equally spaced in a circle upon a ?xed insulating 20 plate, plural spherically rounded contactors large enough to electrically connect two adjacent con tacts, and means for simultaneously actuating all of said contactors including a movable insulating plate, pins equally spaced in a circle upon said movable plate, and a resilient member anchored to each of said contactors and positioned upon one of said pins to permit independent motion of said contactor toward and into a position inter mediate adjacent contacts, and into a circuit 30 closing position of small contact resistance with two adjacent divergent contacts out of alignment with the initial thrust of the resilient member. 3. A multiple switch including a stator and a rotor, divergent radial contacts on the stator, a contactor on the rotor engaging a pair of said divergent contacts, the rotor and contactor being resiliently connected in operative association and the contactor having a contact surface substan tially curved in the direction of relative move‘ ment of the rotor and stator so as simultaneously to engage juxtaposed divergent contacts with part of the curved contact surface below the level of adjacent divergent‘ contacts, the operative as sociation of the rotor and contactor being such 45 that the contactor may respond to and adjust itself in intimate electrical engagement with the said juxtaposed divergent contacts as a resultant of substantially axial pressure on divergent ?xed contacts, of the radial outward urge on the con— 50 tactor due to such axial pressure, of the relative rotative urge on said rendering it capable. of rotation, lateral shifting and turning relative to said rotor and arranged for self seating in engagement with said pair of contacts as a resultant of the axial thrust and the reaction of the domed contactor from the divergent contacts. 5. In switches a wiping contact assembly in cluding a substantially hemispherical segment, a tapered helical coiled spring having its larger end engaged with the segmental contact, a rotor 10 having a pin, the smaller end of the coil engaging said pin, the coil and contact arrangement being such as to enable axial movement, bodily lateral movement and oscillation about an axis transverse of the axis. 16 6. In switches, in combination a stator and a rotor, the stator comprising an insulating mem ber and a plurality of radially disposed relatively divergent ?xed substantially rounded elongated contacts, the rotor comprising an oscillatable member having a wiping movement relative to the ?xed contacts of the stator, the member compris ing a substantially arcuate surface arranged to simultaneously engage adjacent ?xed contacts with a portion of the arcuate surface below the level of the fixed contacts and arranged to slid ingly wipe such adjacent contacts, resilient means arranged to impart substantially axial thrust on the member to urge it to frictional ‘engagement with adjacent divergent radial stator contacts, 80 said member and resilient means being so ar ranged that the said member can oscillate about an axis substantially radial of the axis of said rotatable member. 7. A contact member comprising a hemi 35 spherical hollow dome having an inturned flange, a tapered coil spring having its large end en gaged in the dome beneath the flange, a pin en— gaging the small end of the spring, rotor means having an aperture, said pin disposed in the aper 40 ture, the connection between dome and pin being only through the spring. 8. In switches, a self seating wiping contactor having driven arcuate switching movement and a curved contact surface, said contactor comprising a driving member, means resiliently coupling the member and the contactor in such a manner as to enable motement of the contactor to a seated contacting position as a resultant of substantial axial pressure on the contactor, lateral bodily pressure in one direction, transverse tilting pres— sure on the contactor in another direction and 56 disposed contacts mounted upon the stator, a rotor, a domed contactor, means resiliently operatively associating the con tactor with the rotor so as to impart a thrust substantially axially of the contactor to urge the 60 latter to intimate contact with a pair of said livergent contacts, said contactor including means rotative torque of the contactor, and a stator, divergent radial contacts on the stator arranged to be engaged by the contactor and having such 55 clearance between contacts and between the con tact peaks and the stator as to contribute by reaction toward the development of said pressure and torque. LEE L. MANLE'Y.