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Патент USA US2127686

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Aug. 23, 1938..
c, J_ HATHORN
-
2,127,686 w
SNAP SWITCH
Filed Jan. 7, 1937
2 Sheets-Sheet l‘
5150K
5
W
'
ATTORNEY.
Aug. 23, 1938
‘
2,127,686
c. J. HATHORN
SNAP SWITCH
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Jan. 7, 1957
"
INVENTOR. “
_
C/QreQCe’J HWZ/JOFOI
A TTORNE Y.
> Patented Aug. 23, 1938
42,127,686
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,127,686
SNAP SWITCH
‘ Clarence John Hathorn, St. Marys, Pa., assignor
to The Stackpole Carbon Company, St. Marys,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application January 7, 1937, Serial No. 119,375
'7 Claims. (Cl. 200—67)
My invention relates to a control for'an elec
ing member and the terminals. As a corollary,
tric circuit and relates particularly to a snap an object of my invention is to minimize the
switch for completing or interrupting the elec
heating of the elements of the switch by reduc
trical circuit at the option of the operator.
ing the contact resistance.
v
5
In my prior patent application Serial No.
A still further object of my invention is to 5
701,802, ?led December 11,_ 1933, I have disclosed simplify the construction of_ the device so that
a pivoted bridging member which‘ makes a good it may be manufactured in quantity lots at a
contact with the stationary contact terminals
low cost.’
even though there is a slight variation of the
10 throw arm or the ?xed terminals from their, pre
determined correct position.
'
struct an inter?tting elongated rece'ss- or open- 10
'
ing on a bridging member which is cooperative
with a pin whereby the pressure of each side of
the bridging member may be equalized or evenly
In certain switches where the circuit is com
pleted by the bridging of two ?xed or stationary
terminals by a non-pivotal bridging member, the
distributed when ' the-‘bridging member is in
15 incorrectpositioning of‘ one or both of the ?xed
closed circuit position.
terminals maywresult in one portion of the bridg
ing element from the live terminal results. in an
20 arc being established between the separated live
and which possesses a maximum amount of serv
iceability and of strength.
elementswith its destructive result of eroding
‘
,
'
'
v
ing my invention.
Fig. 2 is a sectional viewtaken on the line
30 the force or torque imparted‘ to the bridging
2——2 0f
'member by- the throw arm is normal to an
(that is the throw arm) , "then a freezing or stick
1
contact terminal.
40 construct a snap switch which will not stick and .
collect thereon.
' .
Another object of my invention is to obtain.
i5 a'verylowccntact resistance between the bridg
,
member which can be oscillated and which also
can be moved in a linear direction to- properly
engage ?xed contacts——one of said contacts be
_
50 ‘able electrical bridging member whereby the ter
iminalswillialwaysbe kept clean or will of them
selves brush aside‘v any dust orvdirt. that may
I
‘ Fig.5 is a diagrammatic view of a bridging
which will be eifective in operation even though
some elements may be improperly aligned during
a. frictional or sliding or wiping contact between
'
spaced from the incorrectly aligned stationary
Therefore, an object of my invention is to
the stationary electricalfterminals and the mov
V
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view of a bridging
member which can only be oscillated and where
in a terminal ‘shown in dotted lines is. incor
rectly located. The diagram shows a main con
tact surface of the bridging member being
ing of the electrical vbridging member makes the
It is a further object of my invention to mini
mize the sparking or arcing between the ‘termi
nals and their cooperative-bridging member.
‘It is another object of my invention to provide
'
prising the snap switch.
plication of the force and the pivot point. How
ever, if the pintlev or pivot for the bridging cinem
her is comparatively near to-_ the turning force
the course of manufacture.
1.
Fig. 3 is an exploded view of the elements com
imaginary radius drawn between the point‘of ap
I
20
drawings in which:v—
Fig. 1 is a'plan view or ‘a snap switch embody
‘
ber is pivotally, rotated into’ bridging position,
v
'
is read in conjunction ‘with the accompanying 2:
Furthenin switches where thethrow arm is
pivotally mounted and where the bridging mem
device inoperative.
c
inafter be fully described when the description
terminals and/or the bridging member will be
'
’
With the above and related objects in View,
my invention consists in the details of construc-,
tion and the combination of parts that will here
or pitting of the electrical contact surfaces
which establishes a high resistance, and also re
duces the e?ective lifevof the switch, since the
away.
15
improved device of the character described,
‘which is simple and economical in construction,
one of the terminals. “This spacing of the? bridg
burned
.
Other objects of my invention are to provide an
‘ing member being spaced a small distance from
to CA
‘
A still further object of my invention is to con
ing improperly aligned. ' I
'
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view showing 45
my improved switch connected to a- volume con
trol or rheostat.
' Fig. '7 is aside view of a‘ modi?cation of my
invention.
1
Fig.8 is a front view of Fig. 7.
Fig. 9 is an exploded View‘ of another modi?
cation of the bridging member and the insulating
bushing.
Fig. 10 is- an exploded view of still another
2,127,686
2
modi?cation of the bridging member and throw
ings for rivets which retain the snap switch to a
arm.
bined volume control and snap switch unit, both
devices usually being operated by a single control
volume control or rheostat which forms a com
Fig. 11 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
modi?cation of the base having a molded pintle
therein about which the electrical bridging mem
ber oscillates.
Referring now in greater detail to the drawings,
shaft.
in Fig. 1 is shown a type of snap switch wherein
the overall diameter of the switch is aproximately
recess M and is of the type described in my prior
10 133g inches and the overall thickness of the base
Patent No. 2,057,829, granted October 20, 1936.
Upon the pintle F is pivotally mounted the metal
is approximately 1A1 inch. The switch mechanism
hereinafter further described is mounted within ‘
a chamber of an insulated base, generally desig
nated A, which is preferably comprised of a mold
15 ed phenolic condensation product. A body por
' lic throw arm E as well as a trigger, generally des
tion I0 of the base is substantially flat and from
its periphery extends a flange H which is sub
stantially circular on its outer bounding surface.
The flange has a plurality of recesses or notches
20 i4, i5, and I6 on its inner curved portion, and
the recesses or notches communicate directly
with the central chamber of the base.v The func
tion of the notches I4, 15, and 16 will be herein
after described in conjunction with the various
25 elements which they complement.
A plurality of small openings l8, I9,‘ 20, 2|, 22
and 23 are formed in the base. The surface de
?ning the opening 22, centrally located in the
base, serves as a bearing for a freely longitudinally
movable insulating pin or pintle; generally desig
nated as B. The insulating pintle B comprises a
cylindrical shaft 24 and an enlarged head 2%. ‘An
electrical bridging member or blade, generally
designated as C, oscillates about the shaft of the .
35 equalizing pintle B as its pivot, and it also sup
ports an insulating washer, generally designated
as
D.
I
'
~
"
The switch is usually operated at a pre
determined portion of movement of the control
shaft.
A trigger and bridging member pivot or pintle,
generally designated as F, is located within the
>
The enlarged head 26 is pressed downwardly by
a throw arm, generally designated as E,'which
presses on the upper surface of the head 26, thus
preventing the bridging member from falling out
of position. The washer‘D serves as an electrical
insulator between the steel throw arm E. and the
spring H, which is on one side, and the metallic
bridging member, which is on the other side.
Openings 2! and 23 are spaced from one :an
other on the circumference of an imaginaryicircle
which has its center substantially in the central
axis of-the opening 22, and the openings 2! and
50 23 receive the shank of each of the electrical con
ducting rivets 28 and 30.
Each of the electrical conducting rivets 28 and
30 are similarly constructed so that a description
of one rivet or contact will suf?ce as the descrip
55 tion of all the rivets ‘or terminals. Rivet 28 has
ignated as G, the latter beingv the actuated ele
ment of the snap switch whereby the switch is
operated to open or to closed circuit positions.
The throw arm E is located between the trigger G
and the base, and the metallic arm E has its free
end 34 slightly offset from its pivotally held end
36.
20
'
An opening 38 on the longitudinal axis and
adjacent one end of the throw arm is substantially
circular and is of a diameter to readily ?t over
the largest diameter of the pintle, in order to
expedite the assembly of the throw arm of the
pintle during the steps in assembling the ele
ments of my snap switch. The circular opening
38 merges with an elongated slot 39 which is of
a width whereby it may oscillate or pivot about
the bearing F. A small central opening 40 in the
longitudinal axis of the throw arm receives a
bushing 42, the bushing'in turn receiving the tip
44 of one leg of the torsional spring, generally
designated as H.
‘
p ,
An elongated opening 46 on the end 34 of the
throw arm receives an insulating bushing 48,
and the bushing 48 is constructed so that its di
ameter is less than the width of the opening 46.
However, a head 50' of the insulating bushing
is of greater width than the width of the open
ing so that the bushingv cannot pass through
the throw arm opening 46.
'
>
~
The bore 52 of the bushing receives the end
or tongue 54 of the lever arm-56 of the bridg
ing member C. The bridging member or blade 45
C has a substantially flat central portion 58
and offset contacting arms 60 and GI.
The movable arm 6| has an auxiliary or aro
ing surface’GlA, which surface ?rst engages ‘the
auxiliary stationary contact 3| wherejthe arc
is made, and the vertically extending front or
main contact surface GIB engages the main
stationary contact 32. When the contacts are
separated, the auxiliary stationary contact 3|
and the arcing surface GIA are the last sur~
faces to separate thus taking the arc, hence pre
an enlarged intermediate portion 3| which is flat
serving the main contact surfaces. An arrange~
on one side and abuts-against the base-and its
' ment similar to the above is made for the ‘sta
upper surface (the auxiliary or ‘arcing stationary tionary terminal 30 and the movable ‘arm 60.
contact) is formed in the shape of a, truncated
From the central portion 58 of the electrical
60 cone, and from the smaller diameter of the trun
I blade C extends the lever arm 54 which is at
cated cone extends the bridging ‘member contact right angles to the contact arms 60 and 6|.
portion 32 (the main stationary contact). The An elongated rectangular-like slot or opening
purpose and functionof this structure is more .62 cooperatively receives the insulating pintle
fully set forth in my prior ,patent application B, and the length of the slot 62 is longer than
Serial No. 701.802, ?led December 11, 1933, which the diameter of the pintle shank 24. This is
vI have already mentioned.
The outside of the shank of the rivet 28 is ex
panded to hold a terminal 34 to which exterior
terminal 3d a ?exible electrical lead Wire may be
soldered or otherwise suitably attached thereto.
The end of the rivet 28 adjacent the outside ter
minal 3A is expanded to retain the rivet and ter
minal'34 ?rmly together, and also establishes ‘a
good electrical contactvbetween the rivet and the
7.5
terminal. The openings [9 and 20 serve as open
for the purpose of having the blade move in a
linear direction. The elongated slot 62 has its
longitudinal axis disposed at an acute angle with
respect to the line joining the main contact
surfaces 60B and BIB of the blade C. This
angular construction of the slot 62 prevents any
sticking of the pintle B and the surfaces de?ning
the slot 62.
'
It is to be observed at this point-that the sta
3
2,127,686
tionary terminals 28 and 30 limitthe movement
of the bridging member C in. a clockwise direc
tion which also is the position of the bridging
member when the circuit is closed, ‘and the throw
arm E and wall 10 limit movement of the bridg
ing member C when it is moved in a' counter
clockwise direction. The bridging element C may
‘not only oscillate about pintle B, but it may move
in a linearpdirection with respect to the pintle B.
The above described construction and func
10
tion of the bridging member is importantin the
following respect: Assume that‘ the holes 2| and
23 are not-located properly with respect to the
ger J is substantially ?at and has an opening
in'one end 80, which opening receives a portion
of the torsional spring H, and two spaced arms 10
82, 83 extend outside of the flange 12 but in the
same plane as the ?at body portion 80. t
pintle B in the base A so that terminals 28
Fig. 9' shows another -modi?cation of my
invention showing an insulating bushing which
and 30 will be located in the position 28 and 30X,
serves as a pivotal connection between the me
diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 4. If a slight
tallic throw arm E and the oscillatory blade CI.
space existed between the bridging ‘member and
one of the terminals in the base, then one of the‘
terminals would not receive the full movable
contact pressure since the other terminal would
The electrical conducting bridging blade CI
has its turning force appliedto a lever arm 90
which extends substantially in the same plane as '20
prevent movement of the throw arm in a rotary
direction, and when current flows, an arc would
>
exist in the space, hence pitting the contacts.
However, with an equalizing arrangement such
as the elongated angularly disposed slot 62, illus
trated diagrammatically in Fig. 5, then the bridg
ing member C is not constrained by its pintle or
the lever arm but is free to move in a linear
direction because of the respective elongated slots
62 and 46.
By the above structure, it is readily seen that
errors committed in assembling the unit ~or in
constructing the elements of the switch .will not
result in excessive pitting of the terminals or the
bridging member with its detrimental eifect of
creating high resistance and shortening the life
of
the
switch.
'
l
1
A ?at torsional expansion spring H having
a central portion coiled has one tip 44 enter
the bushing 42, and the other tip 64 enter an
openingin the notch formed at the free end
of the trigger G. The torsional "spring not only
imparts rapid movement orsnap action to the
throw arm when the trigger G is moved to a
point whereby the dead center position, of the
spring is reached, but thetorsional spring H
tends to press the throw arm in. a direction to
wards the base. This dual effect of; the spring
keeps the throw arm pressed upon the head of
the pintle B. The trigger G has upturned arms
66 and 61 which are engaged by an eccentrically
positioned pin ‘H which may be on an insulating
plate 12 of a volume control, generally desig
nated ‘as V, as shown in my prior issued Patent
55
arm 'E, Fig. 1, ismoved in a counterclockwise
direction.
In Figs. 7 and'8, I showa modi?ed construc
tion of my improved snap switch wherein the ele
ments designated by the same reference charac
ter or numeral as those shown in Fig. 3 are of
similar construction. However, the toggle trig
No. 2,057,839.
,
In order to actuate the snap switch, either
the arm 66 or the arm 61 of the trigger may
be engaged by the eccentrically mounted pin ‘H
which projects normally to thev plane of the
60 volume control insulating disc "depending on
the position of the eccentrically' mounted pin
and the position of the ears 66 or 61.
~
A washer 69 is placed adjacent the metallic
trigger G, and the upper end of the trigger pin
65 F is peened over to hold the triggerarld throw
arm in position.
~
moves around a central pivot or pintle B and
the major portion of the bridging member.
In other words, the lever arm 90 extends sub
stantially parallel to the throw arm E. An in
sulating pivot K has an enlarged portion 92, and
the transverse end has a slot 94 which receives
the lever arm 90 of blade Cl. A narrow circular
portion 96 on the pin K inter?ts with the elon
gated slot 46 in the throw arm whereby the pin K
may slide bodily the entire length of the throw
arm opening 46.
, The diameter of the'enlarged portion 92 is great
er than the width of the slot 4'6 so that the pin
does not pass through the slot. The pressure on
the throw arm by the torsional spring prevents the 4»;
various elements from separating from their op
erative relationship. The main contact surfaces
600 and BIC on bridging member Ci are arranged
similarly to the main contact surfaces MB and
6 B on blade C. The slot 62C is arranged similar
1y to the slot 62 on blade C.
In Fig. 10 I illustrate another modi?cation of
my invention wherein the throw arm El has two
depending ears 96 and 98 which are stamped from
the ends of the throw arm El. The depending
arms 9'6‘ and 93 straddle the extending lever arm
ltiL'and the tip- Hi2 of the throw arm serves as
is
the limiting member. A piece of insulation I M
can be forced on arms 96 and 98 so that the me- .
tallic arm El will be insulated from the bridging
member C2.
,
so
,
In Fig. 11 I show a modi?cation of the molded
base wherein a pintle or stud W6 is integrally
formed with the base, and the pintle I06 inter
?ts with an opening in the bridging member C.
Although my invention has been described in
considerable detail, such description is intended
as illustrative rather than limiting, since the in
vention may be variously embodied, and the scope
of the invention is to be determined as claimed.
I claim as my invention:—
1. A snap switch comprising an insulating base,
a pivot, a forked trigger pivotally. mounted on
said pivot, a metallic throw armv pivotally mount~
ed at one end and having an elongated opening
at the other end, means between said trigger and
to
is
said throw arm for pressing ‘said throw arm in
It is to be observed that the coiled portion of
the spring H which tends to exert an expansive
force freely moves in the recess l5. The tip
a‘ direction towards the base and for imparting
rapid movement to saidthrow'arm when said
34 of the throw arm moves in the recess l6 and
plurality of ?xed electrical terminals mounted
on said base, an electrical bridging member for
engaging said terminals whereby the circuit will
a wall 10, partially de?ning the recess l6, en
gaged by the side of the throw arm when the
switch is in open circuit position limits the
75 movement of the throw arm when the throw
15
trigger is moved to a predetermined position, a
to
be closed, a pintle on said base located between
said terminals, said bridging member having an 75
4
2,127,686
enlarged opening therein for receiving said pintle,
a lever arm connected to said bridging member,
and an insulating bushing movably mounted in
the opening of said throw arm and receiving a
portion of said lever arm whereby movement of
said throw arm will oscillate said bridging mem
ing therein for receiving said pintle, a lever arm
connected to said bridging member, and an in
sulating bushing movably mounted in the open
ing of said throw arm and receiving a portion of
said lever arm whereby movement of said throw
arm will oscillate said bridging member, said
her, said enlarged openings on said throw arm
enlarged openings on said throw arm and said
and said bridging member enabling the bridging
member to exert equal pressure on each terminal
10 when the switch is in closed circuit position.
2. A snap switch comprising an insulated base,
a plurality of stationary electrical terminals
bridging member enabling each contact member
of the bridging member to exert equal pressure on
each terminal when the switch is in closed circuit 10
position.
'
in said base and about which said bridging mem
ber oscillates, said bridging member having an
5. A snap switch comprising an insulated base,
a plurality of stationary electrical terminals
mounted in said base, an electricalbridging mem
ber having a lever arm, said bridging member 15
adapted to engage and to be disengaged from
said stationary terminals, an insulating pintle
,having an enlarged head and loosely‘mounted in
said base and about which pintle said bridging
20 enlarged opening which cooperatively receives
member oscillates, said bridging member having 20
mounted in said base, an electrical bridging mem
ber having a lever arm, said bridging member
15 adapted to engage and to be disengaged from said
stationary terminals, an insulating pintle hav
ing an enlarged head, said pintle loosely mounted
the insulating pintle, the enlarged head of said
pintle pressing the bridging member in a direc
tion towards the base, a throw arm and a trigger
25
30
each of which is pivotally mounted, a spring
connected between said trigger and said throw
arm whereby rapid movement will be imparted
from said trigger to said throw arm, said spring
also being adapted to press the throw arm in a
direction towards the head of said pintle, and said
throw arm having an elongated opening to loose
ly receive the lever arm of said bridging member
an enlarged opening which cooperatively receives
the insulating pintle, the enlarged head of said
pintle pressing the bridging member in a direc
tion towards the base, a throw arm and a trigger
each of which is pivotally mounted, a spring 25
connected between said trigger and said throw
armwhereby rapid movement will be imparted
from‘ said trigger to said throw arm and also to
press the throw armin a direction towards the
head of_ said pintle, an insulating bushing in 30
ter?tting with an elongated opening of said throw
whereby said bridging member exerts equal pres
arm, a portion of the lever arm on said bridging
sure on each terminal when the switch is in closed
member inter?tting with said insulating bushing,
said bridging member adapted to exert equal
circuit position.
'
A snap switch comprising an insulating base,
35 a 3.forked
trigger pivotally mounted, a metallic
pressure on each terminal when the switch is in 35
closed circuit position.
-
throw arm pivotally mounted, a torsional spring
between said trigger and said throw arm for
ducting bridging member having o?set blade
pressing said throw arm in a direction towards
arms, a rectangular-like opening -in the center of
40 the base and also for imparting rapid move
ment to said throw arm when the trigger is
6. In an electrical switch, an electrical con
said bridging member, a pivot inter?tting with 40
said rectangular-like opening whereby said bridg
moved to a predetermined point; a plurality of ing member may oscillate or move in a linear di
?xed electrical contact terminals, a pintle on said rection, an integrally formed lever arm on said
base located betwen said terminals, an electrical bridging member, the tip of’ said lever arm up
45 bridging member for engaging said terminals to turned, means to move said tip whereby the
close the circuit, an insulating bushing, said bush
bridging member may be oscillated, and terminals
ing inter?tting with an elongated opening in the arranged to be bridged by said bridging member.
free end of said throw arm, said bridging member
'7. YA snap switch comprising an insulating base,
having an enlarged opening for receiving said a forked trigger pivotally mounted, a throw arm
pintle, a lever arm connected to said bridging" pivotally mounted, a spring connected between
50 member, and a portion of said lever arm inter
said trigger and said throw arm for pressing said
?tting with said bushing in said throw arm where vthrow arm in a direction towards the base and
by movement of said throw arm will oscillate said also iorimparting rapid movement from the
bridging member about said pintle so that the throw arm when the trigger is moved to a pre
pressure on the terminals will be equalized when determined point, a plurality of ?xed electrical
5.5 the switch is in closed circuit position.
terminals, -a pintle on said base positioned be
4. A snap switch comprising an insulating base, tween said terminals, an electrical bridging blade
a forked trigger pivotally mounted, a metallic for engaging said terminals to close the circuit
throw arm pivotally mounted at one end and
or to be disengaged from said terminals to open
having an elongated opening at the other end, said circuit, an insulating bushing, said bushing
means between said trigger and said throw arm inter?tting with an elongated opening in the
for pressing said throw arm in a direction towards free end ofsaid throw arm, said bridging blade
the base and for imparting rapid movement to having an enlarged opening for receiving said
said throw arm when said trigger is moved to a pintle, a lever arm connected to said bridging
predetermined position, a plurality of ?xed elec
blade, said lever arm being substantially parallel
65
trical terminals mounted on said base, an elec
to said throw arm, and a portion of said lever arm
trical bridging member for engaging said ter
interfitting with a recess in said bushing whereby
minals whereby the circuit will be closed, a pin
movement of said throw arm will oscillate said
tle on said base located between said terminals, bridging blade about said pintle.
said bridging member having an enlarged open
CLARENCE JOHN HATHORN.
70
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