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Патент USA US2127738

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AugG 23g, 193„
F. KUGEL.
2,127,73s
HYDRODYNAMIC FLUID COUPLING
Filed Aug. 10„ 1936
au?
s
2 Sheets-Sheet l „
Aug. 23p 1933..
`
F, KUGEL
2,127,738
HYDRODYNAMIC FLUID COUPLING
Filed. Aug. 1o, 1936
'
2 sheets-sheet 2
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Patented Aug. 23, ,1938
2,127,738
UNITED STATES PATENT oFFicE
Application August 10, 1938, Serial No. 95.301
In Germany August 14, 1935 l
'14 claim» (01; iso-_54)
The invention relates to hydraulic power trans
these scoops being arranged toleifect a complete
mitting devices, such as ,hydraulic couplings or ` emptying of the working chamber. In ,order to
Atorque converters, and iii-particular to the pro
obtain the large slip between primary and
vision, in such devicesg’wofs. rotating reservoir secondary parts necessary for the working of the
chamber connected by separate passages to the
working chamber so as. to take up the working
fiuid‘temporarily notl required, and thereby to
enect a quick emptying and ?lling of the fluid
circuit.
.
working chamber.'
-
.v
'
through a iluid coupling 'with a control valve in
to work as soon as a sumciently large difference
its closed position.
in speed» existed between the fluid and the scoops. l
Figure 2 is a similar section through _a ñuid
coupling with the control valve in its open posi- l5
. reservoir chamber from the working chamber
through the same canals by which it entered, as ,
soon as the slip decreased in response to a change
in the operating conditions. By this use of a com
mon intake and discharge passage, either thefilling or the emptying conditions were interfered
with and unfavorably inñuenced.
One object ofthe present invention is to provide
a hydraulic power transmitting device wherein
two separate connections between the reservoir
chamber and the working , chamber allow the
working fluid to enter and leave ‘the working
chamber by separate paths, thus providing the
most favorable arrangement for filling and empty~
ing the working chamber.
l
' '
v
-
, Another object is to provide such a device
wherein the reservoir chamberv is arranged in the
primary or driving part of the deviceby reason of
the fact that the latter rotates always at >maxi
- mum speed so that theV working fluid storedy there
stands under high pressure, due to centrifugal
force.` If the speed of the prime mover operating
the primary or drivingv part of the hydraulic
coupling or torque converter can be varied, -cen
40 trifugal force may be utilized to effect 'the en
trance of theV working fluid from the rotating
reservoir chamber into the working chamber
through passages in the primary wheel, these be
ing preferably adjustable. The centrifugal force
' may be varied by changing the speed and thus
50
chamber 'is connected to a ring valve which may ~
throttle or even interrupt the flowv of fluid to the
’ Hitherto, in such devices. the ‘discharge of the
working fluid to the reservoir chamber has fre
quently been effected by scoop tubes which started
In such prior devices the fluid returned to the
30
scoops, the speed of the primary wheel is either 5
decreased or the discharge valve of the reservoir
In the drawings:
,
‘
.
Figure 1 _ is a vertical longitudinal sectionv
tion.
"
Figure 3 is a similar section through a fluid
coupling having an automatic regulating device
for the control valve.
f
A
Figure 4 is a cross section along the line l-l inV 20
Figure 1, showing the scoop tube construction. ‘
Referring tothe drawings in detaiLin >Figure 1
the primary wheel a >is connected with a variable
speed engine by the driving shaft al. The second
ary wheel bis mounted on the driven shaftbl.' Awall ‘26
a2 connected-with the primary wheel a, together~
with the _back of the latter, forms the rotating
chamber u, while coupling casing aii extends over
the secondary part~or turbine wheel b and forms
a bearing for shaft b1 and is sealed against the 30 v .
shaft b1 by the'stuillng box f. Primary wheelv a
is provided with passages p the openings of which
are preferably adjustable. These passages p form
a connection between the chamber u and the core
space r. In the secondary part h, scoops m and 35
canals n are provided to return the working fluid _
from the transmission circuit to the chamber u
along overiiow edge‘t.'
'
When starting the coupling, the secondary part
b of the coupling is at' rest. - As the speed ofthe 40
primary part a. increases, the fluid in the chamber
u is -urged from the chamber u, through the pas
sages p by centrifugalV force, thus filling the
fluid circuit, i. e. engaging the coupling. With
decreasing speed of the engine, and thus of the A4&5
the slip between the wheels. If the 4speed of the
prime mover is not variable, a valve is arranged
to control the supply of fluid to and from the
primary part a, the scoops m gradually come into
operation, due to the increased slip, and empty the _
working chamber and rotating chamber, respec
tively. This valve, operated automatically or
manually, controls' the supply of working iluid
In Figures 1 and 2 the blade wheel, driven by a
from the reservoir chamber to the working cham
ber.
Another object is to provide such a device with
scoops at the circumference of the secondary part,
fluid circuit` to the chamber u,
_
constant speed engine, is _marked a.. „ This `wheel 50 .
is connected with the engine shaft al by means
of a shell a“, which is integral with the engine
shaft a1. >Blade wheel b is fastened on the shaft b1
of the machine, to be driven and inclosed by the
coupling casing a3 connected to the primary blade 55
2,127,738
wheel a. The coupling casing a.l forms a bearing
return the fluid to the chamber u so that finally
for the output shaft b1 and is sealed thereagainst
by means of the stuffing box f. The back of the
a complete emptying and disengagement of the
coupling is again obtained, and the driven ma
primary blade wheel a and the shell a2 connected
chine comes to rest.
thereto, inclose the hollow space u serving as a
In order to assist the flow of the fluid from
the secondary wheel b to the chamber u, it is
reservoir chamber for the working fluid which
is temporarily not required by the coupling. A
number of passages p lead from this chamber _to
preferred to provide the secondary wheel b with
the core space r of the coupling. These passages
p can be closed by the valve body s, to which the
an overflow edge t projecting into the chamber
u. It is further preferred to construct the valve
body s in such a manner that it will also form 10
one of the lateral limiting walls of the chamber u.
ring valve s1 is connected. In the position indi
. cated, the valve s1 closes the blade canals ofy Accordingly, when the valve body s is moved, for
the purpose' of filling and thus engaging the cou
the primary wheel and at the same time the an
nular portion sa also closes the passages p leading pling, this wall will have a displacing effect on
the ñuid in the chamber u, whereby the filling of
15 to the core space r. 'I'he valve body s can be ad
justably moved from the outside, adjusting sleeve the coupling is accelerated.
Thus it will be seen that in the operation of
i in an axial direction through the operating con
nection formed by the pin j and the slot k. By the coupling shown in Figures 1 and 2 the fluid
moving the valve body s towards the driving shaft contained in the space u is urged outwardly by
al, the circuit is thereby opened for working fluid reasonof the centrifugal force created by the
through the blade canals of the primary wheel a rotation of the coupling. 'I'his fluid is forced
from the reservoir chamber u by way of the ythrough the bores p in the coupling rotor a. by
core space r and passages p. Secondary blade reason of this centrifugal force, when the valve
wheel b is fitted with scoops m connected by member s and its annular portion s3 are shifted
to the left, as shown in Figure 2. Thus the ring
canals n to the part of chamber u near the axis.
When starting with the valve s1 closed (Figure slide valve s1. and the annular portion sa cooperate
l) , the secondary part or rotor b is at rest. With ' to produce the desired result. 'I‘he ring slide valve
increasing speed of the primary part or rotor a, s1, by altering the circulation within the coupling
however, any fluid that might have remained rotors a and b, increases the slip in thefrotor a
between the blade wheels will be thrown out by so y that the scoop tube comes into operation,
centrifugal force, caught by the scoops 1n and whereupon the fluid within the rotors œ and b is
led through the canals n to the space q near thev conducted through the scoop tubes m and the
axis, whence it then flows back to the chamber- space q into the chamber u. To prevent the
u. Since a return of the fluid accumulated in the escape of the fluid at the same time through the
chamber u into the working circuit is made im-- bores p, the annular portion sa comes into action,
possible by the closed condition of the valve s1. and closes the inlets to the bores p. When it is
an almost complete discharge of the working fluid desired to fill the coupling again, the slip is once
from the coupling spaces a, b, q and r to the more reduced by moving the slide valve s1 and an
15
20
25
30
chamber `u is secured. This means that the cou
nular ,portion s’ by shifting ‘\the shift member i
pling cannot transmit any torque when started
so that the working fluid canlflow freely through 40
with the valve 81 in this condition.
the bores p, from the chamber u, to the rotors a.
»
The working fluid accumulated in the chamber
u is now influenced bythe rotating walls and sub
jected to centrifugal pressure. As soon as the
valve body s is moved to the left by meanslof
displaceable sleeve i (Figure 2). the consequent
and b of the coupling.
»
In the modined construction of Figure 3 there
is shown means to provide for an automatic en
gaging and disengaging ot the coupling in re 45
sponse to the' input and output speeds or to the
shifting of the ring valve sl uncovers the passages
slip. This is realized by utilizing a _centrifugal
p so that the fluid passes through the passages 'p
mechanism c, which becomes operative te dis
into the working space of the coupling at high
velocity. The coupling thereby acquires the ca
pacity to transmit torque, i. e. the coupling is
is exceeded.
place the valve body s as soon as a certain speed
,
_ This centrifugal mechanism c consists of a ily
engaged. Secondary runner b then starts to ro
weight c1, on an arm c’. pivotally mounted on
tate, whereupon the fluid which is still discharged
the pivot member c’. Likewise mounted upon
by scoops m to the rotating axis does not reach
the chamber u any more, but is immediately re
turned to the coupling spaces a, b and r by cen
trlfugal force. The scooping efi'ect of the scoops '
m decreases with the increasing speed of the sec
the pivot member ca is an arm c4, pivotally con
nected at' its opposite end to a link c‘. The link 56
c* is pivotally attached to a lug s’ mounted upon
the valve body s.
In the operation of the apparatus shown in
ondary wheel b and finally ceases completely, Í
due to the centrifugal force counteracting thev
passage of the iluid through the canals n. @The
coupling spaces a. b and r thusremain completely
filled, 'whereby the full transmitting capacity of
the coupling is obtained. -
,_
.When stopping the coupling, the valve body-s
is moved to the right (Figure 1) , whereupon the
>ring valve s1 closes the openings to the blade
canals ofthe wheels a and b, and simultaneously
closes the passages p. This interruption of the
fluid circuit immediately causes a considerable
_Figure 3, the rotation of the casing aI creates
centrifugal force which causes the ily weight
c1 to move outward, swinging the arm c4 to move
the link ci- to the left. lIfhis action shifts the
valve body s to the left, overcoming the thrust
of the coil spring h1 and causes' the ring valve
s1 to Open the passages».
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It will be understood that I desire to compre
hend within this invention such modifications as
come within the 'scope of the claims and the in
vention.
.
I claim:
'
4
A
1. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
coupling so that the speed of the secondary wheel aworking chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
b decreases considerably, due to the load on the , rotor therein, -and inclosing casing for said de
machine being driven. This speed reduction I, vice additionally forming the outer wall of a ro
causes the scoops mito become-operative again to l tatable reservoir connected to one of said rotors 75
' reduction in the transmission capacity of the
3
2,127,738
for' varying the ‘_flow of fluid through both
and extending substantially to the- periphery said
iluid passage and said working circuit.
thereof, a iiuid passage extending'irom the pe
_8. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
ripheral region of said reservoir and running in
working chamber, >a driving. rotor and a driven
an axial ‘direction to said working chamber, and l'arotor
forming' a working’circuit therein, _a iiuid
a peripherally disposed valve member arranged reservoir,
a fluid passage interconnecting said
adjacent said iluid` passage and inovable rela `iïiuid reservoir and said working chamber, and a
tivelyvthereto. for varying the now of fluid-there
_valve member having portions movable rela'
to both said iiuid passage and working
2. In a hydraulic power -transmitting device, tively
circuit
for varying the ilowv oi `iiuicl through both
a working chamber. a driving rotorand'a driven the said iiuid passage and said working circuit,
through.
_
A
-
’
rotor therein, a rotatable reservoir associated `in _ said valve portions being movable simultaneously »
one o! said rotors, a ñuid passage interconnect
across said fluid passage and said working cir
ing said reservoir and said working chamber, a - cuit,
whereby to valve the duid flow- therethrough
valve member arranged adjacent said fluid pas#
ilk
single motion of said valve.
sage and movable relatively thereto for varying by9.a Ina
hydraulic power transmitting device,
the flow of iluid therethrough, and means re- '
a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
sponsive to the rotation of one 'of said rotors for
forming a working circuit therein, a iiuid,
automatically varying the setting of said valve ' ` rotor
reservoir, a iluid passage interconnecting said
iiuid reservoir >and said working chamber, a valve
3. In a hydraulic power transmitting device, a member'
having portions movable relatively to
member.
'
,
-
working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, a rotatable reservoir associated in
both said iluid passage and working circuit for
varying the flow oi' fluid through both the said
ñuid passage and said working circuit, and means
responsive to the rotation oi.' one of said rotors
` one oi said rotors, a ñuid passage interconnect
ing said reservoir and said working chamber, and
a valve‘member having .portions movable rela
for automatically varying the setting of said valve
tively to said ñuid passage and also relatively to
the iluid circuit within said working chamber for
10. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
varying the now of iiuid through both said iiuid a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
passage and said working chamber iluid circuit. , rotor’ forming a working circuit therein, a i‘luid
4. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
member.
30
_
\
`
reservoir, `a iluidv passage interconnecting said
fluid reservoir and said working chamber, a valve
.
a Working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, a rotatable reservoir associated in
one of said rotors,£a huid passage interconnect
ing said reservoir and said working chamber, a
-valve member arranged adjacent _said iluid pas
sage and movable `relatively thereto for varying
the flow of iluid therethrough, means responsive
to the rotation oi one oi' said rotors for auto
ì
member having portions movable relatively to
both s_aid ñuid passage and working circuit i'or
varying the ilow of ñuid through both the said
iiuid passage and said working circuit, and yield
ing means urging said valve member toward its
-- closed position.
matically varying the setting of said valve mem
40 ber, and yielding means urging said valve mem
'
_
ber toward i closed position. `
5. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
_.
11. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,`
` a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, an inclosing casing for said device
-additionally forming the outer wall of a rotatable
reservoir connectedv to one of said rotors and
rotor therein, _a rotatable reservoir associated in
one of said rotors, a fluid passage interconnect
extending substantially to the periphery thereof,
a iiuid intake passage extending from the pe-f
riphery of said reservoir to said working cham
ing said reservoir and said working chamber, a. ber, a separate iiuid discharge passage intercon
valve member having portions movable relatively - necting said reservoir and said working chamber, '
to said iluid passage and also relatively to the
iluid circuit within said working chamber for
varying the iiowotÍ fluid through both said fluid
passage and said working chamber fluid circuit,- '
and yielding means urging said valve member to
ward _its closed position.
.
6. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, an inclosing casing Ior- said de
vice additionally forming the- outer wall o! a ro
- tatable reservoir connected to one oi said rotors
and 'extending' substantially to the periphery
thereof, a`relatively short fluid intake passage
extending from said reservoir at a location near
vthe periphery of one of said rotors to' said work
ing chamber, a'separate discharge passage ex
tending irom said working chamber to said reser
voir, and a peripherally disposed valve member
arranged adjacent said intake passage `and mov
able relatively thereto for varying- the ilow of
iiuid therethrough.
_
»
'7. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor forming a working circuit therein, a huid
reservoir, a iiuid passage interconnecting said
iiuid reservoir and said working chamber, and a
valve member having portions- movable relatively'
75 to both said iluid passage and- working circuit
and peripherally disposed valve means for controlling- the flow of iluid through one'of said
passages.
Í
'
'
'
'
l2. In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
a working chamber, a. driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, an inclosing casing‘for said .device
additionally forming' the outer Wall of a rotatable
reservoir connected to one of said rotors'and
extending substantially to the periphery thereof, y
Va iiuid intake passage extending >from» the pe
riphery _of said reservoir to said working cham
ber, a separate iiuid discharge passage intercon
necting said reservoir and said working chamber,
disposed valve means having a
valve member disposed near the periphery-of one
‘ and peripherally
of said rotors for controlling the ilow of iiuid
through said intake passage. '
-
13.` In a hydraulic power transmitting device,
a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, a' rotatable reservoir associated
'.with one of said rotors, a fluid intake passage
and a fluid discharge passage interconnecting
said reservoir and said working chamber, valve
means for controlling the ilow of fluid through
one of said passages, and means responsive to
the rotation of one oi'said rotors for automati
cally varying the setting of said' valve means.
4
2,127,738
14. In a hydraulic power transmitting device.
a working chamber, a driving rotor and a driven
rotor therein, an inclosing casing for said device
additionally forming the outer wail o! a rotatable
reservoir connected to one oi said rotors and ex
tending substantially to the periphery thereof,
a relatively short iiuid intake passage extending
from the periphery of said reservoir to said work
ing chamber, a separate fluid discharge passage
interconnecting said reservoir and said working
; chamber, valve means having a valve member dis
posed near the periphery of one of said rotors
adjacent said working chamber for controlling
the now of ñuid through said intake passage, and
a scoop on said discharge passage within said
working chamber arranged to assist the emptying. 5
of the working fluid from said working chamber
into said reservoir in response to the attainment
of a predetermined slip between said driving and
driven rotors.
FRITZ KUGEL.
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