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Патент USA US2127775

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Aug. 23, 1938.
M. KADENACY
‘
2,127,775
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE‘
Filed Sept. 27, 1954
5 Sheets-Sheet l
Aug. 23, 1938.
M. KADENACY
INTERNAL COMBQSTION ENGINE
Filed Sept. 27, 1934
2,127,775
5 Sheqts~$heet 3
Aug. 23, 1938. I
M. KADENACY
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Filed Sept. 27, 1954
“
AIR/1
F910.
$127,775
‘
5 Sheets~$heet 4
Aug. 23, 1938.
-
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
‘
2,127,775
M. KADENACY
Filed Sept. 27. 1954
’
5 Sheéts-Sheet 5
Patented Aug. 23,v 1938 V
2,127,775 -
UNITED STATE S‘YPATENT ' orFicE.
-
alarms l.’ -
m'rsamr. cormus'rrox ‘enema
Michel Kadenm, Paris, France
September 27, 1984. Serial No. "5,814
ApplicationGreat
Britain August 14, 1934
v
In
~. 14 Claims.
(or. 123-85l
This invention relates to two stroke cycle inter
nal. combustion engines operatingonpetrol or
v
invention.
-
_ Figure 9 is a timing diagram relating to
heavy oil or any other combustible fuel, in which
the vacuum or high depression left in the work
Figure 8.
"
-
.
‘
Figure 10 shows curves relating to the arranie
ments described with reference to Figures 8 and 9.
Figure 11 relates to a detail of the invention.
In any-engine of the type to which the inven
5 ing chamber by the exit of the explosion gases
from the latter, substantially as a mass is utilized
for introducing a new charge under atmospheric
pressure.
‘
' and serves to illustrate another feature of the
tion relates, exhaust is eifected by employing
the energy of the explosion gases and the vacuum 10
'
In such engines it is found that at certain
10 speeds a torque or brake means effective pressure
or the high depression left in the working cham
is obtained or approached which is practically ber by theexplosion gases when they are dis
ideal for the engine under consideration and charged from ‘the latter substantially as a mass
that at other speeds the torque falls below this for recharging.
'
optimum value for reasons inherent to the par
These conditions of operation are illustrated 15
ticular
construction
adopted,
but
always
because
15
in Figure 1 in" which E0 is the point at which ex
at these ‘moments the quantity of pure air re
haust opens, and the angle 1! indicates the part
tained in the working chamber is insu?lcient to of the cycle occupied by the massexit of the
give the optimum torque.
‘ burnt gases.
The main object of the invention is to provide
The admission A‘commences at A0, about or 20
20 an improvement in such an engine which per
a little before the end of-the mass exit and while
the exhaust port is still open, and it closes at a ‘
mits these falls in the value of the torque to be
corrected or compensated at different speeds and
combats the progressive reduction in the amount
point established in a normal manner.
On account of the high depression existing in
of air drawn in naturally under’ atmospheric
the cylinder at the end of the mass exit of the
pressure during the main charging, thereby ren
dering the engine torque stable at all speed ranges
burnt gases and of the ‘small quantity of residual
within practical limits.
'
cases contained therein, there will never be any
advantage in commencing the main admission
‘
A further object is to enable the engine to be
una?ected by any objectionable in?uences aris-v
30 ing from the provision of silencers and from
piping which may extend from the latter.
under compression
The invention will now be described with refer
ence to the accompanying drawings, in which >
Figure l is a general diagram illustrating the
3 basis of the improvements according to the pres
,
g
The main charge is admitted under atmospheric
pressure, as stated above. and this charge is
sucked- into the cylinder from the atmosphere
by the depression, without any preliminary com
pression, the volume of air thus admitted being
approximateLv equal to or even greater than the
cylinder
volume.
Y
.
‘ _
The charge thus admitted will reach a pressure
Figure 2 shows curves illustrating the applica- . approaching atmospheric pressure more or less
tion of the invention to engines of the type in according to the moment in which the exhaust
ent invention. _
question.
40
‘
Figure 3 ‘illustrates generally the application
of the invention to engines in which the main.
exhaust port closes after the main admission
port.
45
Figure 4 is a timing diagram relating to
Figure 3.
'
‘
.
Figure 5 illustrates the general application of
the invention to engines in which the main ex
haust port closes before the main admission port.
50
Figure 6 - is a timing diagram relating to
Figure 5, and
‘
.
Figure ,7 indicates curves obtained with such
an engine.
I
Figure 8 represents a particular case of an en
55
gine cylinder such as that shown in Figure» 3
port closes positively and according to the shape
of the cylinder and the characteristics of the
distribution and of the exhaust.
_
Various means have already been put forward
by the applicant for constructing an engine oper
45
ating in the manner described above.
All these constructions employed alone give
optimum points in the operation of the engine
on either side of which the mean effective pressure
falls‘ away more or less rapidly.
‘
"
In particular the applicant in a British specifi
cation No. 35,067} 33 has described the influence of
the exhaust pipe upon the peak point; and in
another British specification No. 35,068/33, he has
described the in?uence of the angular separation
between exhaust opening and inlet opening.
2
2,127,775
With an engine constructed according to one
or the other of these two British speci?cations,
a curve maybe obtained such as the curve I in
Figure 2, in which the ordinates represent B. H. P.,
the abscissae represent R. P. M., and the polar
straight lines represent ideal B. H. P./R. P. M.
curves at different brake mean effective pressures.
The reasons for which these curves adopt this
10
form are as follows:
The violence of the explosion is proportional
increasing or decreasing order and become
stabilized at certain values and at certain en
gine speeds.
It also appears that even the peak points which
are indicated on the curves by the letter “0”
are points of stability, which may themselves be
lower than the‘ value which the air introduced
into the cylinder by the vacuum left by the is
to the pressure and the temperature at the mo
engine.
ated a little before or a little after the most
favourable moment for utilizing theiwhole of the
volume and the whole of the intensity of the de
pression in the space to be ?lled.
As a consequence the amount of fresh air ad
mitted is reduced to unfavourable proportions.
If the quantity of fuel introduced remains the
same, a less violent explosion will follow for the
two following reasons which combine in their
action—-(1) the reduction of oxygen and (.2) the
35
curve of engines of the type to which the inven
tion relates present anomalies which are of an
to the quantity of fresh air (oxygen), to the
quantityof. fuel introduced, to the more or less
exact proportions of these two elements and then
ment of the explosion.
The quantity of air which enters the cylinder
is proportional to the intensity of the depression
and volume of the space in which this depression
exists. This volume and this intensity are de
pendent upon the violence of the explosion per
unit of the explosive masses.
In the case as described above, if the speed 01'
the engine is changed, the moment at which the
admission of the gases commences becomes situ
30
The above remarks which are the result of
practical experience, show very clearly that the
bad proportion between-air and fuel.
As a consequence the output of the engine com
mences to fall until it becomes stabilized at a
lower level.
If there is a depression in the exhaust piping
which lasts too long after the closure of the ad
mission, and if the exhaust is then still open, a
suction will be produced upon the charge in the
cylinder, and in this case the quantity stored in
the cylinder at the moment of closure of the ex
haust port or of the last port to close will be un
der a partial vacuum and the ?nal compression
at the moment of explosion will be reduced, con
sequently the charge drawn in will again com
mence to decrease and a still weaker explosion
will follow.
This affords another explanation of curve I
in Figure 2.
'
By combining the means provided according
to the above two British speci?cations, and by
suitably situating their peak points at two ad
jacent speeds, the peak portion of the B. M. E. P.
of the engine is ?attened out and extended, and
a curve such as the curve 2 is obtained.
Further, in another British speci?cation No.
60 35,069/33, the applicant’ has described means
which permit the cylinder to be protected more
effectively from'the effect of the return of the
burnt gases to the cylinder and to stabilize this
‘unstable phenomena with variations in the speed
of the engine.
,
i
If these means are employed in combination
with the foregoing, the range of speeds over
which the engine maintains its peak B. M. E. P.,
is still further extended and a curve such as the
curve 3 in Figure 2 is obtained. '
.
According to the case, the degree of stability
thus obtained may extend over a varying range
of speeds and mayeven extend in a favourable
case - over 50% of the running speeds of the
75 engine.
suing gases can produce in the output of the
In view of the fact that after each fresh ex
plosion, the out of balance effect increases al
15
ways until a new point of stability is reached, it
is clear that by introducing into the cylinder :1
small quantity of supplementary air a little great
er than the resultant loss after each explosion, 20
the engine will be stabilized at its optimum out
put for the quantity of fuel introduced.
As a consequence the amount of air to be added
to the natural atmospheric charge contained in
the cylinder is very small. It may vary between 25
5% and 25% of the cylinder volume and in cer
tain cases it is even less than 5%. For example
an opposed'piston engine constructed by the ap
plicant gave a B. M. E. P. of 142 lbs/sq. in., at
about 1200 R. P. M.
30
The quantity of air drawnlby suction into the
cylinder measured 860 c. c., the volume of the
cylinder being 700 c. c.
_
At a speed of 900 R. P. M. with disturbances
producing a reduction in the amount of fresh air 35
retained in the cylinder, the mean pressure fell
to 99.4 lbs/sq. in., and the quantity‘of air sup
plied measured 700 c. c. This reduction in the
pressure and in the quartity of air sucked in oc
curred in successive steps and represented a new 40
point of stabilization for the engine.
, A correction was required but this correction
was not 160 c. c. as it might appear. On the
contrary, it was found that by introducing a sup~
plementary charge of 50 c. c., the B. M. E. P.
rose and became stabilized at 142 lbs/sq. in., for
all speeds.
It will thus be seen from the foregoing that
the engine can be stabilized very advantageously
by means of supplementary air preferably intro
duced under pressure, so as to ensure or supply
a quantity of air sufficient to absorb the highest
charges of fuel compatible with the cylinder
volume.
'
It is clear that if it is desired to supercharge
the engine according to the invention, the normal
charge must ?rst be utilized and must then be
completed by the supercharge proper.
'
In this case the supercharge will blend with
the supplementary charge, which will be sup
60
plied at or towards the end of the admission and
will be prolonged a little further after the closure
of the last port in order to give the superchargef
or the pressure of the supplementary air will be
increased; or the supplementary air will be ad
mitted under a high pressure.
As a general rule the supplementary air should
be introduced towards the end of the natural
atmospheric admission and prolonged a little 70
after the closure 01' the last port.
This supplement will always be less than the
volume of the working chamber and will be in
troduced‘ under a pressure higher than atmos
pheric pressure.
‘
75
3,
. 2,127,775‘
opposedpistons, as an example of case (b) when
inlet closes after exhaust.
In .this example the main inlet ports A’ and
exhaust port E’ are at the opposite ends of the
By this means the curve 4 is obtained which
approaches a practically perfect stability.
By referring again to Figure 1 it will be seen
that supplementary compressed charge may be
introduced over the whole angle A, but it will
not be to the best advantage to utilize the whole
cylinder..
the advantage of recharging by utilization of the
depression existing in the cylinder would thereby
commence at CD. a little before the closure of
the exhaust port and will terminate at CC. a
little after closure of the main inlet port.
fected towards the end of the main admission,
after full use has been made of the depression
The B. H. PJR. P. M. curves obtained are in
.
dicateddn Figure 7.? The line 3-3 represents
The useful angle of the cycle is-indicated dia
grammatically by the. angle C in Figure 1; This
angle commences towards the end of the atmos
pheric admission and terminates a little after the
closure of the last exhaust or admission port.
Two main cases may be considered:
10
The timing diagram is illustrated in Figure 6.
In this case the supplementary admission will
sion, the supplementary admission should be ef-.
‘
'
pressed air such as the compressor H. _
.
In order to correct or compensate this main
admission obtained by utilization of the depres
!or recharging.
'
the same end of the cylinder as the admission
ports A’. This port F is controlled by a slide
G and is in connection with .a source of com
- of_ this period for this purpose, because some of
be lost.
.
A supplementary inlet port F is provided at
the practically ideal curve at a B. M. E. P. or 142
lbs/sq. in., for the engine, and the curve l-—2
is the curve given by‘ the main atmospheric 20
charging.
It will be seen that the peak point or this curve
,
is situated on the ideal line 8-3, and that it is,
therefore, necessary tocorrect the other parts
of thecurve 1-2 where the values fall below 3-3.
(a) In which the exhaust closes aiter inlet.
(1)) In which exhaust closes before inlet.
As an example of the ?rst case, we may com
The eiIect of the supplementary air is to bring
s’ider the engine cylinder illustrated in Figure 3,
in which the main exhaust port E and inlet port
A are both controlled by the single piston.
The timing diagram oi.’ such an engine‘is illus
3.0 trated in Figure 4, in which the exhaust opens
the curve into the position 3-4.. As can be
seen from this curve 3-4, the supplementary
air has corrected the curve l--2 both at low and
high speeds._
'
.
l
,
'
30
V
In bothcases a and b, when Iit is desired to
obtain a supercharge the compressor which gives
a at E0; inlet opens a little after at A0 and closes
at AC, and exhaust closes at EC, a little after AC.
In this case the cylinder, while being charged '
the supplementary charge will "be employed tor
.under atmospheric pressure, remains under a the supercharge, and this supplementary ‘ ad
partial vacuum on account of the suction through mission will‘ then be‘ continued a little iurther in 35
order to effect the supercharge.
the exhaust.
,
'
In view of the fact that the supplementary '
The 3:11. P./R. P. M. curve with full unusa
tion of the admission by suction will be such as ' ‘charge (and the supercharge, when there is any)
the curve 3 (Figure 2). This curve will have a admitted is not great in proportion to the volume
of the cylinder and that t e crank angle occu
40 peak stabilization point 01 about 85.2 lbs/sq. in. ' pied by this admission is latlvely short, it will
B. M. E. P., which pressure is nevertheless well
below the ideal point. The practical ideal sta
bilization point will be around 142 lbs./sq. in.
A supplementary charge in this case not only
renders the engine stable at all speeds, but liits
45 the highest polntto 142 lbs./sq. in., so that the
. B. H. PJR. P. M. curve becomes the curve 4
(Figure 1).
“This supplementary charge may conveniently
be introduced through the supplementary inlet
-D connected to a compressor such as that indi
cated diagrammatically at P'and controlled by
a valve such as C, operated by suitable means
such as the push rod V and rocker arm R.
55
,
‘
In Figure i it is ‘seen that the supplementary
compressed, charge will extend over the angle C,
commencing at G0 a little before the closure of
the main admission port, and terminating at CC
a little after the‘ closure of exhaust.
60
_
The quantity or air indispensable in this case
is small.
40”
always be advantageous to admit this. supple
mentary charge under a fairly high pressure and
through relatively small distribution oriiices,
whereby a mechanical simplification and economy 45
are obtained.
A high pressure for the supplementary air or
the supercharge, presents no objections, because
since the volume 01' air admitted is small, the
expenditure in horse power is small in propor 50
tion to the increase in output obtained from the
engine.
»
.
In an engine of the type to which the inven
tion relates, no scavenging is necessary for the
workings! the engine.
55
‘
Consequently, the timing of the engine may be
so established‘ that the exhaust port is close
soon alter the main inlet port opens.
~
It will, however,- be advantageous'to continue
the exhaust opening a little further and to close 60
it aite'r it has been employed usefully, for ex
'
For example an‘ engine of 1.5‘ litres turning at - ample at the moment when the charging air
1300 R. P. M. constructed by the applicant gives
a B. M. E. ‘P. of 85.2 lbs/sq. in., and an output
65 of 24 B. H. P. with the main charge admitted
. under atmospheric pressure. With the supple
mentary air supplied at a more‘ or less high
pressure in the manner described alcove through
suitable distribution orii‘ices the H. M. E. P. be
reaches the exhaust port and is about to escape
through the latter.
-
I
.
An example of such an arrangement is given (55
in Figure 9, which represents a timing diagram
for a two-stroke engine, in which exhaust is
closed at or about the end of the period of useful
employment of the depression left in the cylinder
by the issuing explosion‘gases.
In this example exhaust opens in the usual
I! it‘ is desired to apply; a supercharge. this I
supercharge may be made by continuing the sup“ manner at E0 and inlet opens a little later at
A0, more particularly at that moment during the
‘ plementary charge a little further alter the old»
exhaust period when the, maximum depression
sure of the exhaust port.
_
1
‘Figure 5 illustrates an engine cylinder with has ‘been ?nally established in’ thecyiinder as
comes 142 lbs/sq. in., and the B. iii. l9. Aill.
'
2,127,775
a consequence of the mass exit of the burnt gases
supplementary charge and/or the supercharge
therefrom.
by means of a suitable control. In this case the
valve will open twice.
Exhaust and inlet then remain open together
for a period of time during which charge is ef
Ii
fected by atmospheric pressure.
In the examples described above, an indication
has been given of the appropriate and advanta
‘
A little after bottom dead centre, exhaust is
geous time for eifecting a supercharge. The ad
vantages‘ that can be obtained with supercharg
closed at EC and the admission continues for re
charging the cylinder up to a point AC estab
lished in a normal manner.
10
ing in an engine of the type described will be
.
better appreciated by considering that in all
Figure 8 illustrates diagrammatically an en
known supercharged engines, the supercharge
gine cylinder adapted to operate according to
this cycle and having the main inlet and exhaust
ori?ces at the opposite ends of the cylinder.
becomes confused with the main charge.
According to the present invention, the main
charge enters naturally under atmospheric pres—
. The main atmospheric admission valve is in
sure.
dicated at A” and the exhaust port at E". The
supplementary inlet port is indicated at J, and
is in connection with a source of compressed air
such as the compressor K. With the main
atmospheric pressure as in the case of high alti
tudes, or to increase the pressure in the cylinder
above atmospheric pressure in the case of super
charging effected under atmospheric pressure,
this engine gives a curve such as the curve l—-2
~ in Figure 10, having a peak point at 85.2 lbs/sq. in.
In such an engine it may be of advantage to
charged engines.
There will, therefore, be a great advantage in
open a supplementary outlet B to the atmosphere
at or about the closure of the main exhaust port ‘
E" and before the closure of the admission port
A".
By this means the inertia of the entering air
is employed in order to pass more air through
the cylinder.
This improves the cooling, gives
greater purity to the charge and increases the
amount of air admitted under atmospheric pres
sure by the main charging. .
The portion of the cycle through which such
a communication may be opened is shown in
It will be seen that in this
example the said communication opens a little
35 Figure 9 at 30-38.
before the closure of the main exhaust port (EC),
and closes a little before the closure of the main
admission ports (AC). This result may be ob
40
tained by arranging the supplementary outlet
, B to the atmosphere at the end of the cylinder
opposite the main admission port and by con
' trolling this outlet by any suitable means such
as a sleeve L. In the latter case any suitable
45 means which are indicated at C’ will be provided
in order to close the main exhaust port while the
outlet B opens. By the use of this supplementary
outlet the curve of the engine is brought into the
position 3-4 (Figure 10).
It is seen that the peak‘ point does not change
but that at slow speeds the curve is brought
nearer the ideal curve at 85.2 lbs/sq. in. If now
the supplementary charge is applied, this will
commenceat CO, a little before the closure of
55 the additional outlet and will terminate at CC,
a little after.the closure of the main admission.
The curve is thus raised to the position 5-6
and ‘now coincides with the ideal curve at 142
lbs/sq. in. and is stable at slow and high speeds.
When the exhaust and inlet ori?ces are-at
the same end of the cylinder it'will be advané
tageous to provide means for dislodging the'
pocket of burnt gases which may be retained in
the other end of the cylinder. This object may
be attained by providing a valve at this end of
the cylinder and controlling this valve in such
The source of compression will only have
to supply the quantity of air required in order
to bring the pressure in the cylinder to normal
20
the economy of power. required in order to produce this effect, as compared with known super
charged engines.
I claim:
>
25
1. A method of charging two-stroke cycle in
ternal combustion engines, which comprises in
troducing the main charge by atmospheric pres
sure, by controlling an inlet ori?ce so that the
said inlet ori?ce is opened when the exhaust 30
gases are moving outwardly through the exhaust
passage consequent upon their mass exit from
the cylinder and while the exhaust ori?ce re
mains open and in introducing supplementary
charge under a pressure higher than atmospheric 35
pressure towards the end of the atmospheric
admission period, the said supplementary intro
duction of charge being continued until shortly
after the closure of the main inlet and exhaust
ori?ces in order to ensure atmospheric pressure
in the closed cylinder.
2. A method of charging two-stroke cycle in
ternal combustion-engines, which comprises in
troducing the main charge by atmospheric pres
sure, by controlling an inlet ori?ce so that the
said inlet ori?ce is opened when the exhaust
gases are moving outwardly through the exhaust
passage consequent upon their mass exit from"
the cylinder and while the exhaust ori?ce remains
open and in introducing supplementary charge
under a pressure higher than atmospheric pres 50
sure towards the end of the atmospheric admis~
sion period. the said supplementary introduction
‘of charge being continued after the closure of the
main inlet and exhaust ori?ce in order to supply 55
a supercharge.
3. A method of charging two-stroke cycle in
ternal combustion engines which comprises in
troducing the main charge by atmospheric pres
sure, by controlling an inlet ori?ce so that the 60
said inlet ori?ce is opened when the exhaust gases
are moving outwardly through
the exhaust pas-
'
sage ‘consequent upon their mass exit from the
cylinder and while the exhaust ori?ce remains
open, and so that the said inlet ori?ce is reclosed
after the said exhaust ori?ce is closed, and in
a manner as to admit a small quantity of addi
tional air su?icient to dislodge the pocket of introducing supplementary charge under a pres
sure higher than atmospheric pressure towards ,
burnt gases fromthis end of the cylinder.
70
Figure 11 shows the portion of the cycle during the end of the atmospheric charging period, the
said supplementary ‘introduction of charge com 70
which this additional admission should‘ be ef
'iected. It may commence at D0 or about or mencing shortly before the end of the atmos
a little after. the opening of themain'inlet port,’ pheric admission period and terminating shortly
.after'
the end or the atmospheric admission
and it may terminate at DC shortly after.
period.
75
Such a valve may also serve for admitting the
-_4. A method or charging two-stroke cycle in
5
2,127,775
ternal combustion engines, which comprises in
troducing the main charge by atmospheric pres
sure, by controlling an inlet ori?ce so that the
, said inlet‘ ori?ce is opened when the exhaust
vi gases are moving outwardly through the exhaust
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
the cylinder through a main outlet substantially
as a mass and fresh charge is admitted by atmos
pheric pressure through a main inlet which is
opened while the main outlet is still open, when
the burnt gases are moving outward through the
passage consequent upon their mass exit from exhaust passage as a consequence of their mass
the cylinder and while the exhaust ori?ce remains - exit
the cylinder and cause a suction effect '
open, and so that the said inlet ori?ce is reclosed to befrom
exerted in the cylinder, the said engine
before the said exhaust ori?ce is closed, and in having a supplementary inlet in connection 10
introducing supplementary chargev under a pres
through a duct with a compressor, and means
sure higher than atmospheric pressure towards for
controlling said supplementary inlet for the
the end of the atmospheric charging period, the
introduction
of supplementary compressed charge
said supplementary introduction of charge com
mencing shortly before the end of the atmospheric toward the end of the main atmospheric charging
admission period and terminating shortly after
period.
the closure of exhaust.
5. Method of charging two-stroke cycle internal
combustion ‘engines which comprises exhausting
the burnt gases from the cylinder into an exhaust
system substantially as a mass, admitting fresh
‘‘
'
~
‘
it
10. A two stroke cycle internal combustion en-' '
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
the cylinder through a main outlet substantially
vas a mass and fresh charge is admitted by at
charge into the cylinder by‘ atmospheric pressure
when the saidv issuance of the burnt gases is in
, full progress and causes a suction effect to be
' exerted in the cylinder, while the exhaust port ‘is
mospheric ‘pressure through a main inlet which 20
is opened while the main outlet. is still open, when‘
the burnt gases are moving outward through the
still- open, in’ the interval elapsing between the
25 said exit of the burnt gases and the instant when
thevpressure of the returning gases becomes effec
tive within the cylinder, and introducing sup- '
plementar-y charge into the cylinder under a pres
sure higher than atmospheric ‘pressure in the
30
interval between‘ the commencement of the at
mospheric charging period and the instant of
closure of the last port to close. \
6. A method of charging two-stroke cycle inter
nal combustion engines which comprises intro
ducing the main charge by atmospheric pressure,
by controlling an inlet ori?ce so that the said
exhaust passage as a consequence of their mass
exit from the cylinder and cause a suction effect
to be exerted in the cylinder, the said engine
having a supplementary inlet in connection
through a duct with a compressor, and means
for controlling said supplementary-inlet for the
introduction of supplementary compressed charge
toward the commencement ‘of the main atmos
30
pheric charging-period.
11. A two stroke cycle internal combustion en
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
the cylinder through a main outlet substantially ,
as a mass and fresh charge is admitted by at
35
mospheric pressure through a main inlet which
is opened, while the main outletv is still open,
when the burnt gases are moving outward
inlet ori?ce is opened when the exhaust gases‘ through the exhaust passage as a consequence
are moving outwardly through the exhaust pas
sage as a consequence of their, mass exit from the
40 cylinder and while the exhaust port remains open,
of their. mass exit from the cylinder and cause
a suction effect to be exerted in the cylinder,
and is closed before the main outlet closes, the
and in introducing a relatively small supplemen- _ said engine having a supplementary inlet in con
tary charge under a pressure higher than atmos
pheric pressure towards the end of the atmos
pheric ‘admission period.
7. A method of charging two stroke cycle inter
_nal combustion engines which comprises intro
' ducing the main charge by atmospheric pressure,
by controlling an inlet ori?ce so that the said
inlet ori?ce is opened when the exhaust gases are
50 moving outwardly through the exhaust passage
as a consequence of their mass exit from the
' cylinder and while the exhaust port remains
open, and in introducing supplementary charge
under a pressure higher than atmospheric pres
55 sure and separately from the said main charge
towards the end of the atmospheric admission
period."
,
'
8. A two stroke cycle internal combustion en
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
60 the cylinder through a main outlet substantially
as a mass and fresh ‘charge is admitted by at
mospheric pressure through a main inlet which
is opened, while‘ the main outlet is still open,
when the burnt gases are moving outward through‘
nection through a duct with a compressor, and
means for controlling said supplementary inlet 45
to commence the introduction of supplementary
compressed charge towards the end of the‘ main
atmospheric charging period and to terminate
said supplementary charge after ‘the closure of
the main outlet._
12. 'A two stroke cycle internal combustion en
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
the cylinder through a main outlet substantially
as a mass and fresh charge is admitted by atmos
pheric pressure through a main, inlet which is 65
opened, while the main outlet is still open, when
the burnt gases are moving outward through the
exhaust passage as a consequence of their mass
exit from the cylinder and cause asuction e?ect
to be exerted in the cylinder, and is closed after 60
the main outlet closes, the said engine having a
supplementary inlet in connection through a duct
with a compressor, and means for controlling
said supplementary inlet ‘to commence the intro
duction . of supplementary compressed charge
65 the exhaust passage as a consequence of their‘ towards the end of the main atmospheric charg
‘ ing period and to terminate said supplementary
mass exit from the cylinder and cause a suction charge, after the closure of the main inlet.
effect to be- exerted in the cylinder, the said
engine having a supplementary inlet in connec
tion through a 'duct with a compressor, and
70 means for controlling said supplementary inlet
for the introduction of supplementary‘compressed
charge during the main atmospheric charging '
period.
75
9. A two stroke cycle internal combustion ‘en?
13. A‘two stroke cycle internal combustion en
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
the cylinder through a main outlet substantially
as a mass and fresh charge is admitted by atmos
pheric pressure through a main inlet which is
opened, while the-main, outletis still open, when
the burnt gases are moving outward through the
as
2,127,175
exhaust passage as a consequence of their mass
exit from the cylinder and cause a suction e?'ect
to be exerted in the cylinder, and is closed after
the main‘ outlet closes, the said engine having a
supplementary inlet in connection through a duct
with a compressor, and means for controlling said
supplementary inlet to commence the introduc
tion of supplementary compressed charge before
10
opened, while the main outlet is still open, when
the burnt gases are moving outward through the
exhaust passage as a consequence of their mass
exit from the cylinder and cause a suction eifect
to be exerted in the cylinder, the said engine
having a supplementary inlet in connection
through a duct .with a compressor, and means for
the closure 01' the main outlet and to terminate 7 controlling said supplementary inlet for the in
said supplementary charge after the closure of
the main inlet.
14. A two stroke cycle internal combustion en
gine wherein the burnt gases are discharged from
the cylinder through a main outlet substantially
15 as a mass and fresh charge is admitted by atmos
pheric pressure through a main inlet which is
troduction of supplementary compressed charge
during the main atmospheric charging period, a
supplementary outlet on the cylinder and means 10
to open said outlet at or about the closure 01 the
main outlet and to close said supplementary out
let at or about the closure of the last main ori?ce
to close.
'
..
_
MICHEL KADENACY.
15
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