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Патент USA US2127787

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Aug. 23, 1938.
Filed July 1'7. 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
/ ?/
?NVEN nw'
Aug. 23, 1938.
Filed July 17, 1955
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
' .Se/miat
Aug- 23, 1938- ` .
Filed July 17, 1955
5 Sheets›$heet 4~
Fig. 10. I
~ '
Aug.›23, 1938.
Filed July 17. 1935
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
fig. 17.
A an EY5~
drums, but on the central-y, '?ows continuously
and automatically either in each :individual cir
culation unit or in indlviclual groups of such
units, or again, through the entire tube system.
The water must therefore always take a,
de?nite path predetermlned by the constm?ctlcn
so that a uniform cooling of all the tube& is
In all these cases, however, the disadvantage is
present that the kinetic energy in the steam-water
mixture at the upper end of the evaporatlng tube
is dissipated.
Such a loss of kinetic energy is disadvantageous.
for example, if the water, more or less freed from
steam, continues to círculate by being ledthrough
downcomers hack to the evaporating tubes, be
Since in the new boller, even under different
10 conditions of load and operation, for example,
cause on account of the check to the circulation,
the mass of water must be accelerated again.
even with varyíng quantities oi' water_ in the ch'
culation units, the riser parts of the circulatlcn
the present invention is characterizecl by the fact
units are well cooled, the heating surfaces can he
worked at a high rating.
The new hoíler comblnes the essential advan-?
tages of known ?ash hollers and water-tulle
boilers witl?'?out the dlsadvantages mentloned
cu?'rlng in bollers of these types.
ed with'the flash boller, the new
Agnlshed particularly by its lower
ul lncreaseol safety ln operation.
3, lt is especially suitable even for
'37 virtue of_ its small weight, a&
h?re, and can in acloíitäon he aal
lnllecl in 'power lnstallatlons aa nn
auxíliary i"
per-zl; leads.
trucks an 'i
.Also Wl
, clly varv'íng leads,
ene.: ,
in rail motor cars, a Safer operation without
that, over a suñícíently long stretch of the ?ow
path of the mixture, transfer ducts are provide&
leading to a pipe or containe?' and connected, to
the mixtnre tube, so that over this Stretch the
gas or vapor can freely separate and pass into the
connected plpe or container from the lic?uícl,
which. continues to ?ow in the mixture tube.
In consequence of this arrangement, no sepa 20,
rator ccntainer is interposed in the ?ow-path of
the mixture, and in addition the tube traversecl
by the míxture cloes not pass through a con
In contrast to the prccesses oí' separation 25
carriec? out in steam-separating drums and in
known. steam driers, the separation of stearn and
water according to this pari; of. the present in«
vention is not brought about through stopping
application of compllcateé. regulatins? anna›
or interrnptlng the flow of water, preferably ,I
is ensu?'ecl and; a further latitncle in the r- t"
content is
lcled so
to prevent
hand uncle
lvle loco of Water
on the c
assžstc-d by the action of impact, or hy sudclen
hand an m
in the circu.
therehy a st?f?cient length of time, so- that the
steam can escape freely from the water, which
continues its course unchecl?ied.
*ation of the steam from the moving
nisslhle eva-;meeting
.. n unlts.
On account. of the lower degree of sensitiv *
of the new hcller, the feed, as above rn n .-'`
can he to
certain extent acceleratccl, or t'a›
layed; in „
if the
are feed
not lmmecžlate
nalz??tme ls enectecl by connectíng a riser tube to .y r
a section cí tube preferably running either hoti! 4 I
-zrntclly or with a slight ävrclination. In this sec
to provide eil'?cient appan
“erancl efu
pipe is connecteà to
issue holes or
oncnings prcwícled in the neper wall of the mix
'for sem
iG?' 'cart of
the n'n??wre t???he into vllnch
according to the present invent?on, it ic
steam anti
changes of direction, hut by proviçlžng a Sufiz
cíentlv long stretch of 'the path of ?ow, and
It will he seen that in a waterutnhe "'
ture _ tuhe.
able for the speci?c use referred to, la
a ›
ce?ble generally ?for separa'ting gas &nel/or va_
from a mlxtnre of gas and/“or vapor and llom ?
flowing through a tube, but for con
part of the invention will he descrlheo! helcw
stea?n can he separate& on the inner side of the
cnrve since the water, under the action of cenn
trlí” al force, moves in contact With the outer
hall of the curvecl tube.
lít is already linomi to Wíthdraw steam on the
`reíem?-nce to a míxture of steam anal water ex_
cent where otherwise indicatecl.
Hitherto the separation of steam from
From a mžxture
to this ?owing
the present
a curved
"wen on
inventlon denis with apparatus which, :a
r ture of steam and water produced in ever-lo
tubes, has been commcnly e?ected in. a stcarn
and-water drum
which the open encls of
If the dlscharge of these tulles lies below the
50 surface of the water, the steam generate&
_ then force its way through the snperincomh
layer and in consequence must entraln a ?wm?tíoy
of water, butthe
if thespace
of the (ir-nm,
'cases the
steam must stlll contain a large pronart-lon of
water because, in the mixture ejected, the stearc
and water are in a state of relative turhule-nce
and so prevent the desh-ed sudden separation ci”
In contrast, to such arrangements, this part oi
of a curvecl tul?eírom a mixt??re of
&team and.
?owing the?'ethrough. With this
object, a tuhnlar connection is introduce& into the
curveíl ”tulle from the cuter side of the bend,
provided. near the inner wall of the
cirrvecí tube on the side turned away from the cli
rectlon ol flow with e small. inlet opening for the
!a substantiel separatlon of steam from the mov GO
ing water cannot, however, he eflected_ in this
In contrast thereto, according to this part oi'
the present invention. as great as possible a sep~
araticn of steam ls eífected by connecting to the 65
lnner side of the curved tubeja lead-off pipe, into
_which an elcngated clischarge opening, compris
ing perforatícns provided in the inner Wall of the
the steam and water particles.
For such reasons, in order to obtaín dry steam,
steam separators or driers have been constructecl
which for the separation of the steam and water
rely either on the impact prlnciple, or on› the
action of centriíugal force, or on sudden changes
description, particularly when taken in conjunc
tion with the accompanyíng drawings which form
o! direction.
a part thereoi.
bend over a suf?cic-ntly long Stretch, discharges.
?m'thot oh?šects and advantages of the inven
tion will appear' more fully from the following
In the drawings:
curs through suction due to other steam-gener
Figure 1 shows a diagrammatic view of a cir
ating tubes.
culation unit according to the invention,
Figura 2 is a cross section, on a larger scale, of
the upper part of the unit showing one form'of
apparatus for separating the steam generated
from the circulating water.
Figure '3 shows diagrammatically ,one form› of
a group of circulation units connected in series
10 to form a coil with a horizontal axis.
Figura 4 shows a modification having a plu
rality of circulating units fed from a reservoir.
' Figure 5 shows diagrarnmatically, in vertical
section. a further example of the new water-tube
Figure 6 is a diagram of a part of the same in
plan View.
20 tion of the new boiler. I'
Figure 10 is a vertical section through yet an
'other form of the invention.
Figura ll is a diagram of a part of the same in
elevation and partly in section.
Figura 18 is a cross 'section on the line iB-IS
of Figure 17.
in the circulation units shown in Figures 1 to 4,
the heated riser or steam generating tube is in
dicated at i, and the unheated or only slightly
heated downcomer at 2. In the upper part of the
unit, the riser is connected to the.downcorner by
a bend having a large radius of curvature and at
the bottom by a bend with a smaller radius of
curvature, sudden changes of directionbeing thus
avoided throughout so 'that a circulation unit is
provided with a closed circulating path free from
By means of a pipe 3, feed water is fed into the
downcomer 2 in the same direction as the?ow
therein. the steam 'generated in the riser part
being led oiT at the upper intermediate part of
46 the unit where the riser connects ,with the down
comer. '
With this object, a lead-off pipe 8 is connected
to the intermediate tube l which is provided with
` holes or slits 5 opening thereinto. In. addition,
a connecting pipe 'lis provided between the steam
outlet duct B and the downcomer 2, so that water
condensed or entrained can 'escape into the down
group closed in_ itself. The ?rst riser l is con
nected to the next downcomer 2, this downcomer
to the second riser, this again to the next down-i
comer, this downcomer to the third riser and
this to the thirri downcomer, which is connected 10
back to the ?rst riser.
The unit is red through thepipe &into the
downcomer i which delivers into the first riser I
only. On the other hand, steam .is withdrewn
through a lead-od pipo t provided at the upper 15
part oi each individual circula'tion unit forrned
By virtue of the bend of large radius, the steam
water mixture in the riser I is transrerred with
out 'substantial resistance to flow into the more or
less horizontal length 4. in which it can continue
?owing at a high velocity. In this length of tube
i a comparatively long path is provided in which
steam can separate by passing through the open
ings 5' into the steam lead-off pipe 8.
The length within@ which the separation of
steam from the continuously moving water is
completed is indicated in Figurez by a. v
The circuiation in an individual unit is in th?s
form no longer completely independent of the
circulation in the other units. but the advantage 20
is Secured that the total circulaticn is divided
into individual circulations and each circuiation
unit contains only a small mass of water, though
variable between wide limits. and that at no point
of the boiler can a large mass of _water accumu
Figures 12 to 17 show different forms of con
` struction of the' separating apparatus, partly in
3, three circulation units. each comprising a
riser and a downcomer, are connected into a.
of a riser and a downcomer.
'Figuresm 8 and 9 are diagrammatic vertical
sections through three further forms of construc
In the :form of the invention shown in Figure
In this modi?cation, the individual circulating
units, each iorrned of riser and downcomer parts.
are independent from one another so that the
ä?te which by its inertia could check the circula
As a modified iiorm, however, each downco?ner
.of a group may he ieri. as will be described be
Fie i shows circulatina units with a reser
voir ti arranged in the feed pine, the water level
in this reservoir being lower than the points
where the steam is led o? and lower aiso than the
upperrnost heated sectionsoi' the risers i of the 85
From the lower part of the reservoir, feed
pipes il lead to the downcomers 2 oi 'the circula
tion units, while steam lead-of! pipes t deliver
steam into the upper part of the reservoir. The 4.0
feed water which ?ows into the reservoir after
passing through a trickle preheater in, for ex- '
ample, is heated by the steam in the reservoir 8.
The feed pine is indicated at i2, and the steam
pipe leading to theyplace of consumption at !3.
This reservoir is then connected with the cir'
culating units by the water inlet tubes which de
liver into the downcomers. The feed is delivered
into this reservoir and from it each unit takes
the feed water required. In consequence. the 50
water content in the tubes even with irregular
feed or load varias less rapidly.
The water content of the boiler is in this way
increased without exercising a disturbing in- i
fiuence on the circulating system. such a reser
voir, to which a water-level indicator can be ?t
ted, is advantageously applied to larger boilers
with several circulating systems connected in par
ailel. “The water lever in the reservoir can.,
moreover, be subjected to larger variations or 60
leveLvwithout endangering the cooling of the in-'
dividual units.
It is, therefore, possible with a new boiler pro
videdwith this arrangement to withdraw sud
denly, in a. manner known in itself, larger quan 65
tities of steam, without the necessity of imme-.
diateiy adjusting the firing and feed. since even
with smaller water content o! the circulating'
circuiation of the individual small quantities of units. the upper -heated parte of the steam-gen
water likewise takes place with complete inde
erating tubes arestill well cooled. on the other 70
pendence in each unit. This Construction has hand, the possihility exists of reading boilers with
reservoirs only'frqrn time to time.
the advantage that the circulation is not dis
turbed by steam-generating processes working› g `Obviously it is not necessary that all the steam`
pipes _of the circulation units should be led to the
under other conditions of circulating and- heat
reservoir. Ailthat is necessary is that a balance 75
' ing, so that no de?ection of the ?ow of water oc
of pressure should be established between the
reservoir and the 'circulation units, and for this
purpose a connection of any sort between the
steam lead-oil' sections of the circulation unit
and the upper part of the rese?'voir is suf?cient.
In Figures 5 and 6, the risers I. of the circula
tion units lie close together and form the wall of
the combustion chamber |5, the circulation units
being connected in series as already described
10 with reference to Figure 3, in the case of a circu
tion group comprising three units.
The groups of units are connected in a set to
form an annular coil closed upon itself, water be
ing fed into each third downcomer, or one of each
16 group, in the direction of the ?ow of ?uid therein.
The feed water is fed into a ring !6, from which
feed pipes IT lead to the proper downcomers.
The steam generated in the risers is separated at
the upper .part of each circulation unit and led
20 off through ducts IS to the collector ring ia.
From this ring I& steam passcs through a pipe
20 to a superheater 2! which is arranged in a
fiue 22 connected to the combustion chamber,
while in the ?ue 22 above the superheater 2i a
feed-water heater 23 is provided, from which a
pipe 24 leads to the feed-water ring IE.
By thus connecting the new circulation units
in series in such a way that the water content of
the riser of a circulation unit, after separation of
the steam, always fiows into the downcomer of
the next unit and the downcomer of the last unit
is connected with the riser, oi the ?rst unit, the
sets of unit groups form a coil with horizontal
nxis which can be closed upon itself. In th?s way.
a, tube boiler is obtained which units the char
acteristics of the coil boiler with vertical rising
axis and of the tube boiler with a number of
comparatively short riser tubes at a considerable
In Figure '7, the feed-water heater is indicated
at 25 and is formed as a pre-evaporator.
tubes leading the steam-water mixture from the
› preheater 25 are indicated at 26, the steam be
ing .separated in these tubes and led through
steam pipes 21 to the risers i of the circulating
Beyond _the points where the steam pipes
branch off, the tubes 28. connected to the tubes
25, contain water free from steam which is led
into the downcomers 29 of the circulation units
in the direction of the ?ow therein.
The circulation units can, by way of example,
be arranged in an annulus as in Figures 5 and 6
or they can be arranged in any other suitable
The steam generated in each circulation unit is
led off from its upper part to a steam collector 30.
In F'igure 8, the wall surrounding the combus
tion chamber is formed of steam generating tubes
arranged in a helieal coil having the form of a
six-threaded screw, the individual coils or tubes
of the wall being indicated by the numerals 3l
to 36. Each of the six coils, according to the in
vention, is connected by an unheated downcomer
to a circulation unit, ior example, the coil 3! is
connected with the downco?ner 21. The upper
most part of the coil passes without any sudden
change of direction into the downcomer 31, which
is so bent down at its lower end that it leads with
70 out sudden change of direction to the lower end
of the coil 31 forming its inlet.
In this way each coil forms the riser OT a cir
culation unit, the steam generated in this riser
being led off at the upper end of the unit from
the zone ot transition between the riser part and
the downcomer part. The steam lead-off pipe of
the unit to which the riser 3l corresponds is in
dicated at 38.
To the steam lead-off pipes of the six circulation
units, tubes are connected in which the super
heating is en'ected. The superheater tube con~
nected to the pipe 38 is indicated at 39. The
superheater 40 formed of convolutions of these
connecting tubes, lies, in the example illustrated,
in a ?ue 4l connected to the combustion chambe?'. v
The steam led off from the circulation units of
the steam-generating system ?ows therciore di
rect to the superheater.
In this form of the new boiler, notwithstanding
the fact that the steam-generating tubes lie close
together so as to form a wall, the boiler as com
pared with the single threaded coil has the ad
vantage that it comprises only comparatively
short tubes at a eonsiderable anglc with only a
small resistance to ?ow. Also, in such a coil sys ??U
tem, the water ?ows in parallel through the short
circulating paths.
Only the steam generated is led off and as
much water is fed into the system as is with
drawn in the form of steam. The circulating .
system remains the same, with the exception that
the steam-generating tubes are substantially
longer than the downcomers.
In Figures 9 and 10, circulation units highly
heated to different degrees are connected in ;
In Figure 9 coiled tubes serve as risers, these
tubes being wound, as in Figure 8. in the form of
a six-threaded helix. The most highly heatcd
coils 44 form the wall of the combustion chamber _
43. Beyond the set of circulation units ?'ompris
ing these highly-heated risers, two other sets of
circulation units are arranged whose risers 45, 45
are concentric with the tubes 44 and at a certain
distance therefrom. The risers 44 of the ?rst 40
circulation units are connected to downcomers
41 which lead to the risers 45 of the second circu
lation units. These in turn are connected with
downcomers 48 which lead to the risers 46 of the
third circulation units; and these again are con- _ I
nected to the downcomers 49 which are led back
to the risers 44 of the ?rst circulation units.
For the sake of clearness in the drawings, the
downcomers 41, 48 and 49 are shown only by
single lines, although actually six risers and six
downcomers would be provided. The device then
consists of a set of six groups of units, each group
comprising oneunit in each coil.
The steam generated in the individual circula
tion units is led off at the upper part of each unit ;
as indicated by the arrows 50, 5I, 52. Feed
water is introduced only into the most highly
heated circulation units, and preferably into the
downcomers 49 which lead back to the, risers 44,
whereby the eflicient cooling explained in the (SO
introduction to this speci?cation is Secured with
respect to the most highly heated tubes. The
point of introduction of feed water to the circula
tion units is indicated at 53.
The hot gases at the upper end of the combus
tion chamber 43 pass under a cover 54, and thence
in a downward direction through a ?ue 55 to the
lower end of a ?ue 56 which at its upper end is
connected with the uptake 51.
It will be seen that the risers 44 of the ?rst set
of circulation units, which form the wall of the
combustion chamber, are heated to the greatest
extent and that the risers 45 of the second set
of units, which form a wall separating the ?ues
55 56 are heated to a less extent; and that.
?nally, the outermost risers 45 of the third set ot
length a. in the tube 69 pass through openings 13
circulation units are_ heated to a still less extent
in the upper tube wall to a lead-'off pipe-IL `
by the already largely cooled combustion gases.
`~ The individual openings through which y the
In the form oi the invention shown in Figures
10 and 11,- three groups of risers heated to dii
ferent degrees are provided as before, these risers
being connected with their corresponding down
steam separated from the moving_ waterpasses
from the mixture tube into the lead-off pipe could
be replaced „by any other suitable arrangement
comers to form circulation units. Therisers are
arranged round a combustion chamber so that
at points spaced along the length of the tube.
In certain circumstances, a lengthwise section
10 the hot gases, therein rising rrom below, ?ow
ever series of tubes formed hy the risers.` The
risers ti lying nearest to the axis of the combus
tion chamber; are the most highly heated; the
risers 62, next in order being heated less highly;
15 and the risers '63, lying iurthest from the axis,
i are heated to the least extent. The correspond
ing downcomers connected at their 'lowest ends
with the rlsers `_GL M* W are indicated at tnt, Et,
which would provide open space in the tube wall
of the tube may be provided with an enlarged 10
cross-section, in such a way that the steam may
íreely separate from the stream of i water over a
sumciently long Stretch to a space inside the tube
section, from which it passes to the lead-off tube.
such a form of Construction is shown in Figura 15
13. 'The section of tube whose cross-section is
greater than the cross-section of 'the inlet tube 'iii
and of the water-receiving tube 'it is indicated
at li.
All the risers and downcomers are connected in
series, in a manner that will he cbvicus ironi Fig
ure 11, so as to form sets of unit groups which in
effect comprise one continuous cell. Feed-water ›
Along the length a, steam from the stream of 20
miitture can freely separate to` the space provided
in the upper part of the tube _section 'li and from
this space can iiow into the lead-off pine lE.
v 'in Figure 14, the separation of the steam from
is_ ied into the downcorners ti& which lead to the
the mixture is completed along the length a, of a 25
25 most highly-heated risers ti', so that these, as
above explained, contain the largest quantity oi _ section of tube 'H of gradually increasing cross
section connected to the inlet tube lt.
At the end of the length in which separation is
, From each circulation unit iormed ci a rise?'
`and' downcomer, stea'm is led off at the upper part eitected, the tube il forks into a tube “lt and a
tuhe W. The water, without any change in its 30
30 and separated' from the stream of water. such a
steam lead-off pipe is indicated in Flgure lil at ti, direction of ?ow, passes into the tube “it, and the
and thefeed pipe connected to adowncomer tt at separated volatile constituerits are led o? through
tt. The circulation units ti and tel are arranged
at a somewhat higher level than the units ta, BE
the pipe lt.
and these again somew?hat higher than the units
of the steam from the mixture is likewise eiiected 35
along the length a 'of a tube section ll' of increas
ta, tt. The apex of the circulating path of the
most highly-heated_ unit thus lies at a somewhat
higher level than that of the succeeding less
highiy-heated unit in which the steam-water mix 40 ture 'is raised to a somewhat less extent.
in this
way, consideration is taken of the fact that the
circuiating force is strongest in the riser which is›
heated to the greatest extent.
With individual circulating units thua con
45 nected in series to form a group, an advantageous
form of the invention is obtained, inasmuch as the
circulation units are heated less and less strongly
according to their successive positions in series.
the feed_ water being introduced into the unit
50 heated to the highest extent. The largest quan
tity of ?uid ?ows through the mest' highly heated
riser so that an especially e?lcient'cooling of the
tube heated to the greatest extent, and conse
quentiy mostexposed to damage, is Secured.
While one form of Separator suitable'Ior use
with water-tube boiiers in accordance with the
present invention has been described with refer
ence to Figure 2, it will be understood that many
other constructional forms embodying the_ sanie
60 principle of' maintaining the velocitycf ?ow of
in the form shown in Flgure 15, the separation
ing cross-section connecting to the inlet tube 16.
The tube. section ll" passes, at the end of the
length in which separation is ei'fected, into the
tuhe 'lt in which the water continues to flow with
cut change of direction.
The volatile constituents separated in the sec
tion 'il' of the tube 'it are on the other hand led\`
of! through the pipe lt' bra'nching off in a reverse
direction from the section ll'.
While in the constructional forms of the ex
ample described, it is assumed that the voiatile
constituents pass ireelyupwards from the moving
inixture and the water continues to ?ow in the
lower part of the tube, Flgure 16 shows another
term of construction in which the separation of
the volatile constituents of the mixture flowing'in
a curved tube takes place on the inner side thereoi'.
The 'tube bent into a circular are, for example,
one convolution of a coil evaporator, is indicated 55
by the numeral 80.
Under the action of centrifugal force, the iiquid
is compelled to move to the outer side of the
tube while the steam collects along the inner wall,
separation being e?écted along the length a.
At this point, a lead-off pipe Bi is connected to
Thus, in the form shown in Figura 12, the the tube 80 on its inner side, into which issue
length of tube 89 in which the separation of the t holes 82 provided in the innerwali of the bent
the water are possible.
` steam is completed from the moving mixtu?'e, is
arranged horizontaliy.
tube co.
Figures 17 and 18 show a constructional form 65
In orderto faciliate the separation ci' the steam, in which steam is separated from the water ?ow
the cross-section of the tube G@ is enlarged as' ing through a tube and passed into a connected
compared with 'the cross-section ci' the tuhes lt
and 12.
container, two mixture tubes connected to a com
mon container 83 being shown in the example ii
The mixture, for example; any heated llc?uid \ iustrated.
As the regions of separation are similarly ar
ranged, it will be su?icient to describe one of
them. The riser tube 84 passes at it's upperend
into e. straight length of tube 85, which, is con
for further use or treatment.
The volatile constituents separated ;along the nected through a bend 86 to a downcomer 81.
which contains volatile particies, ?ows through
the tube 10, while the liquid !read from such
particles ?ows through the tube 12 to any point,
4 „sa
The upper wall of the length of tube 85 enters
a slot provided in the wall of the container 83,
upper header, means connecting said lower
header to a plurality of said units, and means
to feed water to said lower header.
5. A water tube steam generator, which, in
addition to the quantity of water continuously 5
?ed in and evaporated during one passage through
the boiler, contains a small additional quantity of
the connection being made water-tight by _a
welded seam 88.‹
In the upper wall of the length of tube 85, holes
or slits 89 are provided which open into the
container 83.
The steam separated from the ?owing mixture
along the length a can pass freely through the
slits 85 into the container 83, While the water
outside the container continues its course through
the tube 85 and the bend 85 to the downcomer 81.'
water, comprising steam-generating tubes, and
downcomer tubes, means connecting said steam
generating tubes and said downcomer tubes to 10
form circulating units, in which the circulating
water content of the steam generator is divided
into a plurality of circulating units, means in
said connecting means to separate the steam
irom the water-steam mixture produced in said
While I have described herein certain forms of
my invention, I wish it to be understood that I
do not intendito limit myself thereby except with
in the scope of the appended claims.
steam-generating tubes, whereby the water in
I claim:
downcomer tubes, means connecting said _steam
eenerating tubes and said downcomer tubes the
steam-generating tubes of each circulating unit
being continuously connected with the down
said mixture after the separation of steam there
from may continue to flow through said down
comer tubes, said units being disposed around an
axis, upper and lower annular headers, means 20
connecting the steam separating means of a plu
rality of said circulating units to said upper
header, means connecting said lower header to
a plurality of said units, and means to feed water
to said lower header.
6. A water tube steam generator comprising a
comers of the next unit, to form a group of units
circulatory system of steam generating tubes,
having a substantially closed circulating path,
downcomer tubes, connecting means for said
generator tubes and downcomer tubes. feed water
tubes for said downcomer tubes, steam and water 30
sepa?'ating means in said connecting means, and
means to conduct separated water to said down
l. A water-tube steam generator, which in ad
dition to the quantity of water continuously fed
in and evaporated during one passage through
the boiler, contains an additional mass of water,
units comprising steam-generating tubes and
and means in said connecting means to separate
30 the steam from the water-steam ?nixture pro
duced in said steam-generating tubes, whereby
the water in said mixture after separation of
steam thereirom may continue to ?ow through
said downcomer tubes.
comer tubes, said feedtubes being connected
to the lower portions only of said downcomer
2. In a steam generator as claimed in claim 1,
means to introduce feed water into a piurality of
said units,
3. A water tube steam generator, which, in
addition to the quantity of water continuously
i ed in and evaporated during one passage through
the boiler, contains a small additional quantity
in said downcomer tubes and the velocity of'
separated water past said separating means is
substantially retained in said circulatory system.
7. A water tube-steam generator comprising a
of water, comprising steam-generating tubes, and
furnace, steam generating tubes in said iurnace, 40
downcomer tubes outside of said furnace, tubes
connecting said generator tubes and said down
downcomer tubes, means connecting said steam
generating tubes and said downcomer tubes to
iorm circulating units, means in said connecting
ing tubes to separate water from a steam-water
mixture, steam collecting means connected to
means to separate the steam from the Water
stcam mixturevproduced in said steam-generating
tubes, whereby the water in said mixture after
the separation of steam therefrom may continue
to flow through said downcomer tubes, means to
collect the steam separated by said separating
means, and means independent of said collecting
means to introduce feed water into the lower por
tion of at least some of said' circulating units.
4. A water tube steam generator, which, in
addition to the quantity of water continuously
through the boiler, contains a small additional
quantity of water, comprising steam-generating
tubes whereby low water columns are maintained
tubes, and downcomer tubes, means connecting
said steam-generating tubes and said downcomer
'tubes to form circulating units, in which the cir
culating water content of the steam generator is
divided into a plurality of circulating units,
means in said connecting means to separate the
(35 steam from the water-steam mixture produced
in said steam-generating tubes, whereby the
comer tubes, separating means in said connect
said separating means, means to conduct the 45
separated water into said downcomer tubes, and
means to introduce feed water into said down
comer tubes.
8. A water tube steam generator as in claim
7, wherein the feed water tubes are separate from 50
said steam collecting means and are connected
to the' lower portions of said downcomer tubes.
9. A water tube steam generator, which, in ad
dition to the quantity of water continuously fed
in and evaporated during one passage through 55
the boiler, contains a small additional quantity
of water, comprising steam-generating tubes
wound in the form of a multi-threaded coil, and
downcomer tubes, means connecting said steam
generator ,tubes and said downcomer tubes, means 00
in said connecting means to separate the steam
from the water-steam mixture produced in said
steam-generator tubes, whereby the water in said
mixture after the separation of steam there
from may continue to ?ow through said down 65
comer tubes, means to conduct off the steam
water in said mixture afterthe separation of separated by said separating means, and means
steam therefrom maycontinue `to ?ow through unconnected with said conducting means to in
said downcomer tubes, upper and lower headers, troduce water into at least some of said tubes.
means connecting the steam separating means
oi a plurality of said circulating units to said`
MARTIN som/mar.
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