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Патент USA US2127825

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Aug. 23, 1938.
. 2,127,825
Filed April 15, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
> In venfpn'
Aug- 23, 1938.
Filed April 15,. 1935
‘ ‘I ,
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
' Patented Aug. 23, 1938’
‘Otto Mailer, Dessa‘u-Ziebigk, Germany, aasignor
to Junkers Flugzeug-und-Motorenwcrke Ak-a
tiengcsellschait, Dessau, Germany .
Application April 15, 1935, Serial No. 18,415
a »
In Germany‘ April 23,1931;L
v'1 Claims. (Ci. 123-173)
My invention relates to internal combustion
ing in a direction transversely toithe cylinder axis,
engines and more especially to the construction ‘ without presenting any local accumulation of ma
of the cylinders of suchengines. It is particu
larly concerned .with improvements of the per
tl formance, per volume 01’ stroke, of such engines,
more especially such as used for aviation pur
poses-and which are distinguished by their low
weight per unit of performance.
- »
,As is well known to those skilled in the art the
to performance of internal combustion engines of
terial. In this zone of highest pressures and tem
peratures the new liners thus form simple thin- ‘
wall tubular rotation bodies and they are further 6
mounted in’ the cooling jackets in such manner
that at least this zone oi’ highest heat stresses is
outwardly in contact with cooling water practi-.
cally everywhere. Preferably the points, at which
the members (such as screw bolts or the like) W
increase of the medium pressure in the combus
hold the liner in place in the cylinder and con
nected with the liners, are located outside of this
tion chamber, or by an increase of the number
of revolutions.
Of all forces acting on it from without, the
liner is merely required to ,take up the pressure m
necessary to tightly fit the liner to the cylinder
body and the sliding pressure of the piston direct
given dimensions can be increased either by an
Both means act towards increas- '
ing the heat flow in the engine and the control
of this increased heat ?ow is therefore decisive
for the possibility of obtaining an increase of
performance. ‘This is particularly true of the ed transversely to the axis. These forces are
cylinder wall, on which the piston slides, since however small as‘ compared to. the gas pressure
20 this wall is relied upon to abduct towards the - forces acting in the radial direction, so that they 20
outside not only the heat directly transierred. need scarcely be considered in selecting the wall
onto it by the combustion gases, but also a con- -
thickness of the liner.
siderable part of the heat taken up by the piston
and since in spite of this heavy load of heat ab
‘Preferably the liner is allowed some play in
radial direction relative to the cylinder body in
order to enable these two parts to shift somewhat 25,
in radial direction relative to each other.
As compared with the design of cylinders hith-
im duction this wall must form a reliable sliding sur
face for the piston.
a .
Hitherto great di?iculties were encountered
whenever it was tried to increase the performance erto used in connection with vinternal combustion
of liquid-cooled engines, the cylinders oi" which engines, the new’ cylinder construction according
m were equipped with liners, for, the ?anges or to, the present invention involves quite a number ‘9
threaded parts which'serve to connect. the end ‘of important advantages, more especially as re
adjoining the combustion chamber of such liner, gards the possibility of increasing the perform
to the other ‘parts (water jacket, cover etc.) ance of the engine.
of the cylinder in a gas- and liquidi-tight man
35 her, form local accumulations of material which
present longer paths for the abduction of heat,
and thus form the cause of accumulations of heat
and irregular distribution of temperature, which
are likely to cause a distortion of the liner and
The possibility of forming the liner in the area
of the highest heat stresses with a thickness of 35
wall, which is solely determined by the gas pres
sure acting in radial directionand which may
therefore be very low, enables the paths of heat
to become very short and the dii’ferences'of tem
perature arising in the liner body to remain com-
paratively small. A liner of this kind having a
particularly thin wall ree from local accumu
ing in axial direction are taken up and trans
mitted by the liner, since in such a case the liner, < lations oi material presents a certain ?exibility
in order-to be strong enough, must be formed in radial directlon,,which isimportant in several
4-5 with, a thicker wall than if it ‘is not required to respects. Owing to this ?exibility for instance
‘local accumulations of stresses in ‘the liner, such
transmit axial forces.
I obviate these di?lculties by forming the liners as are brought about by the transverse forces
created by the piston or by nous-uniform changes
of internal combustion engines, in which the lin
ers are separated from the cylinder block or of form of the cylinder head, will arise, if at all,
50 cooling jacket and are water-cooled and do not only to a' small extent. Furthermore this ?exi- 5°
billty favors considerably the tight ?t between the
participate in the transmission of the gas pres
sures in axial direction, throughout the area of - liner and the piston, since the thin liner is'also
capable of adapting itself to a certain extent to
the highest combustion pressures and tempera
40 jamming of the piston. This is true more par
‘ticularly in the case, where the gas pressures act
tures with walls, the thickness of which merely
> 66 sufilces to reliably take’up the gas pressures act
the far more rigid piston. Hitherto merely‘ the
packing members associated with the piston (the ‘55'
piston rings) were capable of such an adaptation,
while in contradistinction thereto the piston and
-liner‘ had to be considered as relatively rigid
bodies which were therefore required to cooper
ate with so much play, that also-in the case of
irregular changes of form of the liner no jam
ming of the piston would occur.
In view of the very low width of the surface of
contact between the liner and the cylinder head
10 the cylinders can be arranged in very close juxta
position without the cooling liquid being thereby
tract similarly as the cylinder, so that the tight
ening pressure is practically not influenced by
the varying thermic condition of the engine.
In the drawings a?ixed to this specification and
forming part thereof several embodiments of my
invention are illustrated diagrammatically by way
of example.
In the drawings
Fig. 1 is an axial section on the line I—I of
Fig. 2, and
Fig. 2 is a cross section on the line II-II of
Fig. 1, of part of a cylinder block of an internal
prevented from passing through between two ad
joining cylinders. This arrangement involves a combustion engine embodying my invention.
Fig. 3 is an axial section illustrating another
very small overall length in the direction of the
ll crank shaft and correspondingly low weight of modification.
the engine without involving irregularities of
5 and
cooling and wearing out-of-true of the liner.
Fig. 5 is a cross section on the line V-V in
The new cylinder-construction is therefore par
Fig. 4, of the cylinder of a twin‘ piston engine em
ticularly suitable for use in connection with so
bodying my invention.
called cylinder blocks in which a plurality of lin
Referring first. to Figs. 1 and 2, i is the water
ers is accommodated within a common water jacket of a block of cylinders, 2 is the-cylinder
jacket, the particular advantage o?ered by such
head, which covers a plurality of cylinders and
is formed with cavities 3 for the passage of cool
ual liner‘ is free to expand independently of the ing liquid. 4 are the liners, each of which-ex
other liners and of the water jackets, so that the tends over the entire path of the piston. The
dif?culties which frequently arise in cylinder inner wall 5 of the cylinder head does not come‘
blocks provided with individual liners are avoided. - in contact with the piston and the material, of
In engines formed with a cylinder head sep
which the cylinder head is made, may therefore be
arated from and disengageably connected with selected without paying regard to sliding re 30
the water jacket (this cylinder head extending sistance. The part of the liner adjoining the
either over one or a plurality of cylinders) it is combustion chamber, 1. e. the area of highest
advantageous to, press the liner or liners directly pressures and temperatures, is formed as simply
against the cylinder head, since in this case an and uniformly as possible, presenting no vproject
unfavorable accumulation of material at the walls ing ?anges nor other local accumulations of ma
of the combustion chamber, which are exposed terial. The wall thickness of this part of the 35
to the highest temperatures, can be easily avoid
liner is determined substantially only by the con
_ ed and a far more uniform cooling of these walls sideration that the liner must be capable of tak
attained, and since the packing of the parts he
ing up the gas pressures acting in radial direction.
comes far more simple and reliable by being Consequently, more especially if the liner is made
subdivided into two separate and independent of steel, only a comparatively low wall thickness 40
packings (one between the inner wall of the ‘is required. I have found that this low wall
cylinder head and the liner and another one be
thickness also suiilces for effecting a tight fit at
tween the outer wall of the cylinder head and the 6 between the cylinder head and the liner so that
water jacket) than the usual ?ange packing be
tween the cylinder block and the cylinder head, I am enabled to avoid the usual broad ?anges 45
which create a considerable accumulation of heat
which is relied upon to simultaneously pack the and
easily lead to warping, i. e. to a wearing out
combustion chamber relative to the cooling of-true of the liner and to jamming of the piston.
chambers and the ambient air.
I may pack the joint between the end face .01’ the
The new liners render the engine particularly liner
and its seat in the cylinder head by means
suitable for hot cooling, 1. e. for cooling with of a ring
6 of elastic material (copper or the like).
liquids of higher boiling point than water, since The
cooling chamber 1 surrounding the liner 4
in spite of a higher temperature of the cooling
agent, no local superheating and consequent may be packed relative to the crank case in the
usual manner, for instance by means of a rubber
warping of the liner need be feared.
The liner is pressed against its seat on the packing I embedded between annular ?anges 0
cylinder head by means of elastically yielding formed on the liner and resting against an annu
lar surface ill formed on the inner wall of the
members in such manner that at all heat condi
an arrangement consisting in that each individ
~ tlons of the engine a sunlcient packing pressure
is provided. The liner may for instance be
pressed onto its seat by axially acting springs
inserted between the liner and the cooling jacket.
The liner may howeveralso be held down on its
seat by screw bolts which extend from a point
on the liner remote from the seat to a point
of the cylinder head. The screw bolts thus be
come comparatively long and since they are only
required to exert a low packing pressure, they
may be very thin and consequently very elastic.
"I. I have found it particularly useful to employ
cooling jacket. The liner 4 is pressed onto its
seat in the cylinder head by means of long thin
rods with threaded ends forming screw bolts i2,
one end of which is fixed in projections is formed
on the liner remote from the seat 8, while their
other ends are fixed in the outer wall of the cover
2. The bolts I! extend through the cooling cham
bers ‘I and I of the jacket and cover and are ther'e
fore subjected to the same in?uences of tem
perature as the other parts of the cylinder. All
heat expansions of these parts therefore occur
always in the same sense and I thereby obtain a
screw bolts extending across the cooling space
since in this case these bolts assume substan
particularly reliable tight fit at 6, since the long
tially the same temperature as the adjoining
parts of~ the cylinder and, on the temperature of
the cooling agent changing, will expand and con
siderable longitudinal elasticity resulting in a
yielding pressure and since variations of tempera
thin screw bolts possess a comparatively con
ture cannot materially influence their elasticity.
The circumstance that the projections 13, to which
the bolts I2 are ?xed, are arranged at a com
paratively great distance from the-seat i of the
liner, renders it possible to form the wall of the
5 liner in the proximity of the seat in an altogether
uniform manner tree from any variations in
thickness which might lead to accumulations of
heat and might impair the ?exibility of the liner.
The liner is evenly cooled over the entire length
of the .cooling jacket, also at the point between
two adjoining liners. This is particularly im
portant since the heat transferred in the com
bustion chamber to the liner is enabled to ?ow
towards the outside here also on the shortest
15 radial path, while in the cylinders hitherto used
the path to be traversed by the heat in circum
ferential direction before reaching the cooling
water, was longer, resulting in accumulations of
heat, warping of the liner and other di?lculties.
In the modi?cation illustrated in Fig. 3, the
liner 4 is resiliently pressed against its seat in the
cylinder head by a coil spring i5 inserted be
tween an annular ?ange IS in the jacket and the
annular ?ange 9 of the liner adjoining the rubber
packing v8.
Fig. 4 illustrates a cylinder of a twin piston
is not in?uenced by changes in the operative con
dition of the liners.
I wish it to be understood that I do not desire
to be limited to the exact details of construction
shown and-described for obvious modi?cations ,
will occur to a person 'skilledin the art.
I claim:
1. In a liquid cooled internal combustion en
gine in combination, a cooling jacket, a cylinder
cover associated with said jacket, a separate cyl 10
inder barrel or liner mounted in said jacket and
a piston movable in said liner, said liner having
the form of a thin-walled tube throughout that
‘part which extends over the area of the higher
temperatures and pressures, a seat on said cover
for the end of said liner adjoining the combustion
chamber, elastic means arranged to act on a
point of said liner outside of said area, for press
ing said end of the liner onto said seat, and
means for relieving said liner from the gas pres
sures acting on said cover and piston.
2. The engine of claim 1 in which means are
provided on the part of the liner outside of the
area of the higher temperatures and pressures
for centering and packing said liner in said
3. The engine of claim 1, in which the liner
enginein which 2| is the cooling jacket formed
with an inwardly projecting ?ange 22, the cylin ' is mounted in the jacket with a. clearance and
the means for pressing the end of the liner onto
seat extend in this clearance.
30 combustion chamber. situated in the middle part
4. The engine of claim 1 in which the means
of the cylinder. 23, 24 are two liners designed
to guide the two oppositely reciprocating pistons for pressing the liner onto its seat is a spring.
5. The engine’of claim 1 inwhich the means
(not shown). The adjoining end faces of these
pressing the liner onto its seat are rods form
liners are forced against their seats in the ?ange
22 by means of long thin screw bolts 25, the ing screw bolts which extend through the cylin 35
heads 26 of vwhich rest against a ?ange 21 near der cover.
6. In a liquid cooled internal combustion en
the outer end of liner 23, while the nuts 28 abut
against the ?ange 29 near the outer end of liner gine in combination, a cooling jacket, two sepa
24. 40 and 4| are the ,cylinder and the jacket rate liners mounted in said jacket in axial align
M‘Covers, respectively, and 42 are screw bolts ?xing ment, said liners having the form or thin-walled 40
these parts on the liners and jacket, respectively. tubes throughout that part which extends over the
area of the higher temperatures and pressures,
Here also the parts of the liners which are. in
annular flange projecting inwardly from said
fluenced by the high pressures and temperatures an
jacket between the adjoining ends of said liners,
are thin and free from any accumulations of ma
seats for the said liner ends formed on said 45
45 terial. Only in the middle portion of the liners, ?ange, elastic means arranged to act on points
near and to the rear end of the scavenging and of said liners outside of ‘said area, for pressing
exhaust ports 3! and 32, the liners are formed said liner ends onto said seats and means for re»
with ?anges 33, 34, which are traversed radially lieving said liners from the gas pressures acting
drical .surface of which also forms part of the‘
by the scavenging and exhaust ports and axially
on said pistons.
50 by the cooling water chanels 35, 38, through
7. The engine of claim 6, in which the elastic
which extend also the screw bolts 25. The great
pressing means are vformed as long thin screw
length of these bolts, which extend through the ‘bolts extending throughout the length of said
cooling medium, causes the liners to be'pressed
55 against their seats in an elastic manner, which
jacket and between said jacket and said liners.
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