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Патент USA US2127937

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Aug. 23, 1938'.
R, D, P|KE
Filed April 1'7, 1935
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Patented Aug. 23, 1938"
Robert D. Pike, Piedmont,
Kali! Corporation, Eme
Calif., assignor toCalif., a corpo
ration of Delaware
Application April 17, 1935, Serial No. 16,818
(Cl. 22e-203)
In certain former applications, for example,
my application s Serial No. 554,785, filed August
3, 1931, for/“Compound article and method of
making the same”, Serial No. 709,713, ñled Feb
5 ruary 5, 1934, for “Making bearings",
No. 754,757, filed November 26, 1934, for “Making
bearings”, Il have described processes of welding
plastic bronzes dire ctly, autogenously, ñrmly,
uniformly and integrally to iron or steel back
ing members, the resulting product being
tacts it. Welding being practically instantane
ous, there is no harm in this being followed by 5
practically immediate cooling. ‘
The flux, as stated in my prior applications, is
of the boraxutype and may consist of--- 1
Anhydrous borax ___________ _‘____' ________ __ 80
Cryolite _________________________________ __.
bronze bearing facing welded to an iron or steel
Boric acid-"
supporting backing m
lAs is well known, plastic bronzes present a
this having a melting point around 1100° F., so
that at 2550“ F. to 2750“ F. it is not only very
ñuid, but chemically very
After casting and at suitable points in the cool
ing interval thereafter, the set-ups are cooled
characteristics.' and the essential const
thereof are, as a rule, co pper or an alloy high
in copper, together with lead, the lead content
running in practice anywhere from 15% to 20%,
or 45%, or higher.
,20 or less, up to 40%
in addition to copper and le ad are frequently
4 present, genera lly for the purpose of forming a
copper alloy an d, as a matter of practice, these
are generally presen t
in amounts running from
perhaps up to 5% more or less,
25 a fraction of 1%
the additional metals usually being tin or nickel,
although others may be used.
In the applications above referred to
which this application is a continuation in part as
of which-the surface of
in the manufacture of bearings having a plastic
y desirable bearing
15 bearing facing which has ver
temperatures, as a res ult
the steel is made very hot by the flux for only` a
short period of time, that is. until the bronze con
to common subject matter, the plastic bronze
molten condition against the solid back
ing member. To obtain the above described type
of weld, it is necessary that the interface be
tween the ste el and bronze be not below a
rapidly as by quenching
An object of the present invention is to mini
mize the amount of flux and/or m'olt
Another object of the invention is to make it
possible to begin quenching while
the core is still
in casting position.
Another object of the invention is to increase
the rapidity of quenching.
Another object of the inventiqn is to decrease
or eliminate the interval between-casting and
Other objects of the invention will be appar
ent from the following disclosure.
Referring to the drawings which i
of this specification
iew illustrating one step 35
A Fig. 1 is a sectional v
and it is also desirable that the steel
with the set
3 C31
in ,my invention,
be not too hot`an d that the plastic bronze be mix bath and the aux amwn up into contact
ding to the above mentioned
not too hot.
with> the backing member;
applications the desired working conditions can
Fig. 2 is a similar view, illustrating a later step 40
be attained by superheating
a set-up in the metal
F., say about 2650"
40 2550*? F. to 2750°
Fig. 3 is a similar view, with the set-up :l
Ibacking is generally heated to somewhere be- „
tween 1450“ F. and 1750° F., say about 1700*’ F.; metal bath and metal drawn up
the plastic bronze is maintained at about
4 is a similar view, illustrating the set-up
2000° F. t'o 2200° F., say about 2100°
ve its ‘melting point to in chilling position;
Fig. 5 is a similar view, illustrating the chilled,
prevent freezing there of during the cas
cast-welded, bimetallic unit;o Fig. 1, illustrating
and the backing is at,
view similar t
be even a little above the melting point of the
the -welding of plastic bronze to both the inside
The superheated iiux is contacted with the
een it but to im
backing member not o
thereof and prepare it to
part heat to the f
receive the bronze so that when the bronze con
tacts the backing, welding is almost instantane
e above ,stated preferred
55 ous,- particularly at th
and the outside of a steel sleeve;
Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig.
later step than Fig. 6;
3, illustrating a
Fig. 8 illustrates the cbilled bimetallic unit
comprising the steel sleeve having plastic bronze
welded to both the inside and outside faces there
The set-ups in a group are moved to insert the
tube II into afurnace (not shown) where they
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration of a merry
go-round-type of device useful in carrying out
my process;
Fig. 10 is a development of Fig. 9, showing the
relationship of the successive steps.'` andv
Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic illustration of a de
I provide a tube I0 made up of any type of
metal which is heateresistant and which is also
resistant to plastic bronze, that is, to which the
plastic bronze will preferably not adhere.
II is the steel tube to thev inside face of which
15 the plastic bronze is to be welded and which thus
will form the bearing back. The two tubes I0
andv II are welded together at _their meeting edges
The bottom of the tube II is closed except ïi'or a
small opening I3, and this may be accomplished
by rolling in the bottom of the tube as at I4, or
by an alternative method to be described vlater
with respect to Figs.- 6, 7 and 8.
I provide a core I5 which is heat-resistant and
resistant to the molten bronze; that is, which
will not bewet by the plastic 'bronze and to which
it will not adhere, and it may be made of the same
material as the tube I0, or of any other suitable
material. The core is carried by a piston rod I6
30 which, in turn, is attached to a piston I1 -mounted
within a cylinder I 8, the piston being adapted to
travel back and forth within the cylinder I8 as it
is urged _by iiuid pressure from either above or
A pipe I9 from a source of compressed air (not
shown) leads to the `four-way valve 20, from
' which the pipes 2I and 22 connect one to each end
`o1’ the cylinder, the fourth way of the valve being
an exhaust vent 23. The adjustment of the valve
40 is such that when the compressed air pipe is con
are heated to the'temperature of theA backing'
above referred to. preferably within the range of
1450" F. to 1750° F., 1700" F. being a suitable tem'
perature; and the first set-up Si is then moved over
the pot 34 containing the supermolten flux _35 l(as
shown on Fig. 1),'the set-ups thus being moved
one step to the right from their positions shown
on Fig. 10,- whereupon the valve 3| is operated to
withdraw air from the chamber 24 and _create a
partial vacuum within the tube comprised of the
tubes I0 and II, this drawing ñux up into the
space between the core lI5 and the tube II, to
»about the top of the tube II. The iiux in the
pot 34 is superheated as above described, that is, 1.5
to a temperature of about the range of 2550° F. to
2750° F., 2650° F. being a suitable temperature.
This superheated -ñux prepares the surface of
the vtube II of the ñrst set-up S1 almost im 20
mediately for welding.
f ~
This set-up S1 is then lifted and moved and
oriented in a similar manner over a pot 36 which
contains molten plastic bronze 31, (as shown on
Fig. 2), the series oi.’ set-ups now having been 25
moved two steps to‘the right from the positions
shown on Fig. 10. 'I'he- plastic bronze 31 is at
the temperature above referred to, namely, prefer
ably within the range of 2000° F. to 2200° F., 2100°
F. being a suitable temperature. Withvthe ilrst 30
set-up S1 over the pot 36 of metal, the second
set-up Sz is over the pot 34 of ñux. These set
ups are then lowered into the respective pots in
which they stand, the position of the second set
-up S2 being now shown in Fig. 1, While the posi-tion of the first-set-up S1 isvshow‘n on Fig. 2,
some metal entering the tube I I and slightly rais
'ing the column of fiux 35 thereover. Vacuum is
p then applied to both set-ups, ywhereupon 'Ilux
nected to either end of the cylinder, the. other >enters the set-up S2, as previously described with
end of the cylinder is connected to thè -exhaust respect to the flrst set-up S1, while metal is drawn
vent. The core I5 may thus be moved up or down into the first set-up S1 to about the top of the
tube II, raising up the column of flux thereover
and held in position by proper manipulation of
as shown on Fig. 3.. Welding of the plastic bronze
to the tube II ltakes place practically [instanI provide a hollow chamber 24 below the cylin - taneously.`
~ der, this being provided with a collapsible hollow
copper gasket 25 into which fluid pressure may be
admitted or released by a three-way valve 26, one quenching means, the vsecond set-up Si over the
metal pot 36, and a third set-up S3 over the
50 way 21 of which connects, with a source of com
pressed air( not shown), another way 28 of which ñux pot 34, whereupon the second and third set 50
ups S2 and S3 undergo the treatment above de-'
connectsjvith the gaske
, and the third way‘
scribed, while the first set-up S1 is subjected t0
aust vent, the valve quenching in the position shown at C1 on Figs.
l` e gasket is connected
either with a source off.- _ompressed air or with 9 and 10._
The quenching means comprises a set or series
the exhaust; or the'con?ection to the gasket is
of coils 38 having perforations 39 to direct iluid 55
A pipe 30 connects the chamber 24 to a three-^ centrally of the coils. A suitable cooling medium,
Way valve 3I, one way l32 of which is connected such as water, steam, air, or atomized water in
60 to a source of vacuum (not shown), and the . air is used to direct the cooling iiuid upon the
tube II within the coils, as shown on Fig.` 4.
third way 33 of which comprises an exhaust to at
mosphere so that any degree of vacuum ranging Cooling is started as soon as, or almost as soon as,
from atmospheric pressure to that caused by the thetube II is positioned within the coil, as shown
source of vacuum may be maintainedvyvithin the on..Fig. 4. »When the cooling starts, solidii'lca
tion of the bronze begins and progresses in
65 chamber 24.
'I‘he tube Il, -after being shaped, is welded at I2 wardly very rapidly toward the core. As soon as
to the tube 10, and the tube I0` is then inserted or slightly before solidification reaches the core
iwithin the gasket 25 whereupon the gasket is in-4 I5, such core is rapidly raised by an upward
flated and maintained inñated by manipulation of movement of thè piston I1, and cooling is.continued after removal of the core, preferably until
the valve 26 to make a tight joint.
In performing the various -welding steps, I may , the set-up is cool enough to handle. Onl Fig. 4 70
I have illustrated the progression of solidiñca
treatea'ch set-up> singly or in groups of any de
sired number, groups of six being what I prefer tio'n toward-the core, 40 designating the solidified
the valve 20.
as a rule; and I will describe my process withV re
‘lation to groups of six.
plastic bronze thereon, wlïile the plastic bronze
31 is still molten; while on Fig. -5 all the plastic»
bronze 40 is cold and solid.
> 75
At the same time that the core is started on
a critical value depending on various circum
stances. It must be sufñciently small to hold the
liquids within the tube and with this in view I
may provide an added feature, as shown on Fig.
11; namely, a tapered plug I_la on the bottom .of
the core- l! which partly closes the opening i3
(or 46), the degree of closure depending on the
its upward movement, I release the vacuum by
actuation' of the valve 3|, this permitting the
molten flux and whatever bronze stili remains
molten 'within the set-.up to iiòw out through the
opening I3 into a suitable receptacle, from which
relative height of the core and plug with respect
it may be gathered _up and re-used.
The step of quenching requires a longer interval to the opening.
summarizing, I- first prepare a .group of, say, 10
of time than the- preceding ysteps do, and it is
10 therefore expedient to provide more than one six set ups and mount them on merry-go-round
quenching station »in order to extend the duration supports. I then move the entire group into va
of the quenching step. I ñnd 'it expedient to pro
furnace and when the requisite temperature has
vide one quenching station for each set-up in the been reached, advance one set-up at a time pro
group, that is, six quenching stations Ci, Cn, C3, . gressively through the steps of `filling quenchi
with ñux, 15
filling with metal by vacuum lift,
15 C4, Cs, Ca, for a group of six set-ups.
I prefer to have the stations 34, 36, C1, Cz, Cs. f . breaking vacuum, removing core upwardly, drain
C4, Cs, Ce arranged along an arc of a circle so ing out surplus flux and bronze, removing set
that the set-ups S1, Sn, S3, S4, Ss, Se may be . up and cutting' oiI the bearing stock.
After completion of cast-welding and cooling,
progressively moved to each succeeding station.
After the flux and remaining molten metal « the lower end of the set-up may be cut off and
20 have been allowed to drain out of the set-up, the the bearing surface or surfaces machined smooth
to the size desired, the outer tube 4| being like
pressure on the gasket 25' is released by opera
tion ofthe valve 26, the tubes Ill and Il are wise machined away.
Bymy above described-process, I reduce to a 25
withdrawn as a unit, and then cut apart at the
weld i2. The tube li is then machined into bear ' very swift and rapid proceeding the manufac
ings; and I prefer that this tube be long enough ture of steel-backed, plastic bronze bearings,
to cut a multiple number of bearings therefrom; 1 thus reducing their cost to a point where they
for example, I have it from twelve to eighteen may enter into general use in all automotive
inches long when making bearings of usual auto- ,
motive size so that a large number of such bear
ings may be cut therefrom. `
On4 Figs. 6, 'l and 8, I illustrate the process of
welding both inner and outer facings of plastic
bronze to an iron or steel annulus.
spirit of the inven- defined in the ap- `
I use the
35 same set-ups previously described with the addi
tion of a skirt 4i of thin sheet metal, which may
be steel, welded to the `lower part of the tube lll
at 42, this skirt forming a tube around the tube
pended claims.
Having described my invention, what I claim
and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the
United vQtates is-
l. The method of making bearings by cast 40
welding plastic bronze _onto an iron ,or steel tube
by heating said tube then treating the surface
thereof to be welded with a molten flux and then
replacing said flux with said bronze in molten
condition, the temperatures of said tube and said 45
bronze being insumcient to cause the maximum
firmness of weld, the flux being superheated to
a temperature at which heat is imparted to the
surface 'of the tube tc be welded to produce the
maximum firmness of weld; said method being 50
characterized by forming a casting space between
said tube and a movable object at about the same
temperature as said tube, removing said object
after solidiiication of the bronze in said casting
space and before said solidiiication occurs at said 55
object and draining out any remaining molten
2. The
of making bearings by cast
il. A disc 43 of similar metal is welded to the
outer tube at 44 and to the inner tube ll at 45,
40. openings 46, 41 being provided to permit ingress
of the flux and molten metal within the tube il
. and within the space between such tube and the
outer tube 4l. Openings» 48 are provided in the
45 tube l0 below the joint 42 to permit the vacuum
to be effective within the space between the two
tubes. On Fig. 6 the flux 35 is shown as filling
the space between the two tubes as well as the,
space between the tube il and the core l5, the
same having been drawn up by the vacuum in the
I have referred` to various details by way of
illustrating the invention and not as`a limita
tion thereof; and various features may be changed
manner previously described. After the set-up
is removed from the flux pot to the metal pot,
the metal is drawn up; whereupon the ilux 35
assumes the position shown in Fig. '7, while the
55 metal fills the spaces previously occupied by -the
flux. The removal of the core I5 is illustrated
on Fig. 8 after solidiflcation of the plastic bronze
l welding plastic bronze onto an iron or steel tube
40.rI‘he steps of procedure are essentially the same by heating said tube then treating the surface
50 in coating both the inner and outer faces of the thereof to 'be welded with a molten flux andA then
replacing said ,ñux with said bronze in molten
condition, the temperatures of said tube.and
annulus as previously described with respect to
the inner face. Omission of the opening 46 on the
devices of Figs. 6, 'l and 8 will result in coating i saidbronze being insufficient to cause the maxi
mum firmness of weld, the flux being superheated 65
.only the outer face of the annulus.
heat is imparted to
I may weld a plate similar to the plate 43 to the
be welded to pro
bottom of the tube il, as shown on Figs. 1 to 5,
instead of shaping the bottom of the tube as duce the maximum firmness of'weld; said method
shown on those figures; and, if desired, the tube being characterized by forming a casting space
il as used in the modification of Figs. 6, 'l and 8 between said tube and a movable object at about 70
imayîbe shaped as shown on Figs. 1 to 5 instead of the same temperature as said tube, _chilling the
using *the plate 43. In this event an annular plastic bronze in said casting space at said tube
the annular space '
said bronze occurs pro
4band may be need to cover
vso lthat solidiiication of
_ between the tubes Il and 4I if this space is too
-wide to maintain »the fluids therein properly.
gressively toward said object, then removing said ' '
The width of the openings i3 and 46 will have
lobject before solidiiication occurs
thereat and 75
draining out any remaining moltenmetal and
3. The method of» making bearings by cast
welding plastic bronze onto an iron or steel tube
by heating said tube then treating the surface
ing molten metal and
occurs thereat.
flux before solidiñcation
5. In the method of cast-welding plastic bronze
to an iron or steel tube in which welding tem
thereof to be welded with a molten flux and then
perature is imparted by a -superheated iìlux, the
replacing said flux with said bronze in molten
steps of insertingy said tube with a core therein '
and a, spaced skirt therearound into said super
condition,_. the temperatures of said vtube and
s_aid bronze being insuñìcient to" cause the maxi
mum firmness yof weld, the Iiux being superheated
toa temperature at which heat is imparted to
heated flux, drawing said super-heated flux into
said tube and around said core and into the
space between said tube and said skirt, remov
of weld; said method be
ing‘ characterized by forming a casting space be
ing said assembly from »said tlux4 and 4inserting
it’into molten plastic bronze, drawing up bronze
to replace saidñux, removing said assembly from
said bronze, rapidly chilling the outside of said
and at about the same temperature as said tube.
removing said core after solidiñcation of said
bronze in said casting space and before said
solidification occurs -immediately at said core
assemblyl and'removing said core from said tube
and draining out any remaining molten metal
and flux before solidi?lcation occurs thereat.
6. The method of making bearings by cast
5 tween said tube and a core resistant tosaid bronze
and draining out any remaining moltenmetal
and ñux.
4.. In the method of cast-welding plastic bronze>
to an iron or steel tube in which welding tem
perature is imparted by a superheated ñux, the
steps of inserting said tube 'with a core therein
into said- superheated ñux, drawing said super
. heated ñux into said tube and around said core,
removing said-assembly from said flux 'and in
serting it into molten plastic bronze, drawing
up bronze toA replace said ñux, removing said as
lsembly from said bronze, rapidly chilling the out
side of said assembly-and Íremoving said -core
from said tube and‘ draining out_any remain
welding a bearing metal onto a tubular metal
backing member which comprises casting molten 20
bearing metal into the tube around a movable
core, chilling the- cast metal from 'the exterior,
and then removing the core just prior to solidi
iìcation of the metal at its* surface.
’ 7. 'I'he method otmaking bearings by cast
Vwelding a bearing metai onto a tubular metal
-backing member which comprises drawing iiux
into the tube from the lower end thereof, draw
ing molten bearing metal into the tube in. the
same manner to displace the'ñux and’ surround
a movable core, andf removing the core prior
to the solidiñcation of the cast metal adjacent
its surface..
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