Патент USA US2127937код для вставки
Aug. 23, 1938'. A R, D, P|KE 2,127,937 MAKING BEARINGS ' ' 17555531.. Filed April 1'7, 1935 \ `\\ 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 _1&522. \\ ' ‘ Vl/v` V 2l 2l \. 36 ` I 2o | ?îàäll? ,'8' . ~ _ ~ 27 Ü l, .ï 12 as äu - , 2z _ "7 32 . // J» _ ' 27 2z - f a» J2 33 y lo /Á Mk"nunt 37 INVENTOR. MM «8. 79M». BY a... ¿www A_TTORNEY - ' Aug. 23, 1938. ' ` R. D. PIKE - 2,127,937 MAKING BEARING S ` , ` Filed April 17, 1935 .lf-'ieg'. J- ' s sheets-sheet 2 _Iá‘?îî 5. 26 1N ENTOR. mém l BY n ¿gaaA TTORNEY Aug. 23, 193s. I' R. D. PIKE ` 2,127,937 MAKING BEARINGS Filed April 17,- 1935 F’ £6. .j I F' $17. ¿f5 I6 )i l 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 _ _F‘ sie. .j _ ,„ ¿gaa ¿C0/¿maná ATTORNEY 2,127,937 Patented Aug. 23, 1938" UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MAKING BEARINGS Robert D. Pike, Piedmont, Kali! Corporation, Eme Calif., assignor toCalif., a corpo ration of Delaware Application April 17, 1935, Serial No. 16,818 (Cl. 22e-203) In certain former applications, for example, my application s Serial No. 554,785, filed August 3, 1931, for/“Compound article and method of making the same”, Serial No. 709,713, ñled Feb 5 ruary 5, 1934, for “Making bearings", No. 754,757, filed November 26, 1934, for “Making bearings”, Il have described processes of welding plastic bronzes dire ctly, autogenously, ñrmly, uniformly and integrally to iron or steel back ing members, the resulting product being 10 tacts it. Welding being practically instantane ous, there is no harm in this being followed by 5 practically immediate cooling. ‘ The flux, as stated in my prior applications, is of the boraxutype and may consist of--- 1 Anhydrous borax ___________ _‘____' ________ __ 80 Cryolite _________________________________ __. bronze bearing facing welded to an iron or steel Boric acid-" supporting backing m lAs is well known, plastic bronzes present a this having a melting point around 1100° F., so that at 2550“ F. to 2750“ F. it is not only very ñuid, but chemically very After casting and at suitable points in the cool ing interval thereafter, the set-ups are cooled characteristics.' and the essential const thereof are, as a rule, co pper or an alloy high in copper, together with lead, the lead content running in practice anywhere from 15% to 20%, or 45%, or higher. ,20 or less, up to 40% in addition to copper and le ad are frequently 4 present, genera lly for the purpose of forming a copper alloy an d, as a matter of practice, these are generally presen t in amounts running from perhaps up to 5% more or less, 25 a fraction of 1% the additional metals usually being tin or nickel, although others may be used. In the applications above referred to which this application is a continuation in part as ab of which-the surface of in the manufacture of bearings having a plastic y desirable bearing 15 bearing facing which has ver ' temperatures, as a res ult the steel is made very hot by the flux for only` a short period of time, that is. until the bronze con to common subject matter, the plastic bronze molten condition against the solid back ing member. To obtain the above described type of weld, it is necessary that the interface be tween the ste el and bronze be not below a rapidly as by quenching 10 ' An object of the present invention is to mini mize the amount of flux and/or m'olt Another object of the invention is to make it possible to begin quenching while the core is still 25 in casting position. Another object of the invention is to increase the rapidity of quenching. Another object of the inventiqn is to decrease or eliminate the interval between-casting and 30 Other objects of the invention will be appar ent from the following disclosure. Referring to the drawings which i of this specification iew illustrating one step 35 A Fig. 1 is a sectional v and it is also desirable that the steel temperature ; that is, with the set 3 C31 in ,my invention, be not too hot`an d that the plastic bronze be mix bath and the aux amwn up into contact ding to the above mentioned not too hot. y with> the backing member; applications the desired working conditions can Fig. 2 is a similar view, illustrating a later step 40 the flux to about be attained by superheating with a set-up in the metal F. The steel F., say about 2650" , 40 2550*? F. to 2750° Fig. 3 is a similar view, with the set-up :l Ibacking is generally heated to somewhere be- „ to replace the tween 1450“ F. and 1750° F., say about 1700*’ F.; metal bath and metal drawn up the plastic bronze is maintained at about 4 is a similar view, illustrating the set-up 2000° F. t'o 2200° F., say about 2100° ve its ‘melting point to in chilling position; bronze is somewhat abo 45 Fig. 5 is a similar view, illustrating the chilled, prevent freezing there of during the cas or a. little below, _or it may cast-welded, bimetallic unit;o Fig. 1, illustrating and the backing is at, view similar t be even a little above the melting point of the the -welding of plastic bronze to both the inside The superheated iiux is contacted with the een it but to im backing member not o thereof and prepare it to part heat to the f receive the bronze so that when the bronze con tacts the backing, welding is almost instantane e above ,stated preferred 55 ous,- particularly at th , and the outside of a steel sleeve; Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. later step than Fig. 6; ' ' 3, illustrating a Fig. 8 illustrates the cbilled bimetallic unit comprising the steel sleeve having plastic bronze 2 , 2,127,937 welded to both the inside and outside faces there of; - The set-ups in a group are moved to insert the tube II into afurnace (not shown) where they . Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration of a merry go-round-type of device useful in carrying out my process; « Fig. 10 is a development of Fig. 9, showing the relationship of the successive steps.'` andv Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic illustration of a de tail. I provide a tube I0 made up of any type of metal which is heateresistant and which is also resistant to plastic bronze, that is, to which the plastic bronze will preferably not adhere. II is the steel tube to thev inside face of which 15 the plastic bronze is to be welded and which thus will form the bearing back. The two tubes I0 andv II are welded together at _their meeting edges I2. . . ‘ The bottom of the tube II is closed except ïi'or a small opening I3, and this may be accomplished by rolling in the bottom of the tube as at I4, or by an alternative method to be described vlater with respect to Figs.- 6, 7 and 8. _ I provide a core I5 which is heat-resistant and 25 resistant to the molten bronze; that is, which will not bewet by the plastic 'bronze and to which it will not adhere, and it may be made of the same material as the tube I0, or of any other suitable material. The core is carried by a piston rod I6 30 which, in turn, is attached to a piston I1 -mounted within a cylinder I 8, the piston being adapted to travel back and forth within the cylinder I8 as it is urged _by iiuid pressure from either above or below. 35 1 A pipe I9 from a source of compressed air (not shown) leads to the `four-way valve 20, from ' which the pipes 2I and 22 connect one to each end `o1’ the cylinder, the fourth way of the valve being an exhaust vent 23. The adjustment of the valve 40 is such that when the compressed air pipe is con l are heated to the'temperature of theA backing' above referred to. preferably within the range of 1450" F. to 1750° F., 1700" F. being a suitable tem' perature; and the first set-up Si is then moved over the pot 34 containing the supermolten flux _35 l(as shown on Fig. 1),'the set-ups thus being moved one step to the right from their positions shown on Fig. 10,- whereupon the valve 3| is operated to withdraw air from the chamber 24 and _create a partial vacuum within the tube comprised of the tubes I0 and II, this drawing ñux up into the space between the core lI5 and the tube II, to »about the top of the tube II. The iiux in the pot 34 is superheated as above described, that is, 1.5 to a temperature of about the range of 2550° F. to 2750° F., 2650° F. being a suitable temperature. This superheated -ñux prepares the surface of the vtube II of the ñrst set-up S1 almost im 20 mediately for welding. . f ~ This set-up S1 is then lifted and moved and oriented in a similar manner over a pot 36 which contains molten plastic bronze 31, (as shown on Fig. 2), the series oi.’ set-ups now having been 25 moved two steps to‘the right from the positions shown on Fig. 10. 'I'he- plastic bronze 31 is at the temperature above referred to, namely, prefer ably within the range of 2000° F. to 2200° F., 2100° F. being a suitable temperature. Withvthe ilrst 30 set-up S1 over the pot 36 of metal, the second set-up Sz is over the pot 34 of ñux. These set ups are then lowered into the respective pots in which they stand, the position of the second set -up S2 being now shown in Fig. 1, While the posi-tion of the first-set-up S1 isvshow‘n on Fig. 2, some metal entering the tube I I and slightly rais 'ing the column of fiux 35 thereover. Vacuum is p then applied to both set-ups, ywhereupon 'Ilux nected to either end of the cylinder, the. other >enters the set-up S2, as previously described with end of the cylinder is connected to thè -exhaust respect to the flrst set-up S1, while metal is drawn vent. The core I5 may thus be moved up or down into the first set-up S1 to about the top of the tube II, raising up the column of flux thereover and held in position by proper manipulation of as shown on Fig. 3.. Welding of the plastic bronze to the tube II ltakes place practically [instanI provide a hollow chamber 24 below the cylin - taneously.` 45 ~ der, this being provided with a collapsible hollow The ñrst set-up S1 is then oriented over a copper gasket 25 into which fluid pressure may be admitted or released by a three-way valve 26, one quenching means, the vsecond set-up Si over the metal pot 36, and a third set-up S3 over the 50 way 21 of which connects, with a source of com pressed air( not shown), another way 28 of which ñux pot 34, whereupon the second and third set 50 ups S2 and S3 undergo the treatment above de-' connectsjvith the gaske , and the third way‘ scribed, while the first set-up S1 is subjected t0 ` aust vent, the valve quenching in the position shown at C1 on Figs. , l` e gasket is connected ~ either with a source off.- _ompressed air or with 9 and 10._ The quenching means comprises a set or series the exhaust; or the'con?ection to the gasket is of coils 38 having perforations 39 to direct iluid 55 closed. » ' A pipe 30 connects the chamber 24 to a three-^ centrally of the coils. A suitable cooling medium, Way valve 3I, one way l32 of which is connected such as water, steam, air, or atomized water in 60 to a source of vacuum (not shown), and the . air is used to direct the cooling iiuid upon the tube II within the coils, as shown on Fig.` 4. third way 33 of which comprises an exhaust to at 60 mosphere so that any degree of vacuum ranging Cooling is started as soon as, or almost as soon as, from atmospheric pressure to that caused by the thetube II is positioned within the coil, as shown source of vacuum may be maintainedvyvithin the on..Fig. 4. »When the cooling starts, solidii'lca tion of the bronze begins and progresses in ' 65 chamber 24. 'I‘he tube Il, -after being shaped, is welded at I2 wardly very rapidly toward the core. As soon as to the tube 10, and the tube I0` is then inserted or slightly before solidification reaches the core iwithin the gasket 25 whereupon the gasket is in-4 I5, such core is rapidly raised by an upward flated and maintained inñated by manipulation of movement of thè piston I1, and cooling is.continued after removal of the core, preferably until the valve 26 to make a tight joint. In performing the various -welding steps, I may , the set-up is cool enough to handle. Onl Fig. 4 70 I have illustrated the progression of solidiñca treatea'ch set-up> singly or in groups of any de sired number, groups of six being what I prefer tio'n toward-the core, 40 designating the solidified the valve 20. _ as a rule; and I will describe my process withV re ‘lation to groups of six. plastic bronze thereon, wlïile the plastic bronze 31 is still molten; while on Fig. -5 all the plastic» bronze 40 is cold and solid. > 75 ~3 At the same time that the core is started on a critical value depending on various circum stances. It must be sufñciently small to hold the liquids within the tube and with this in view I may provide an added feature, as shown on Fig. 11; namely, a tapered plug I_la on the bottom .of the core- l! which partly closes the opening i3 (or 46), the degree of closure depending on the its upward movement, I release the vacuum by actuation' of the valve 3|, this permitting the molten flux and whatever bronze stili remains molten 'within the set-.up to iiòw out through the opening I3 into a suitable receptacle, from which relative height of the core and plug with respect it may be gathered _up and re-used. The step of quenching requires a longer interval to the opening. f summarizing, I- first prepare a .group of, say, 10 of time than the- preceding ysteps do, and it is 10 therefore expedient to provide more than one six set ups and mount them on merry-go-round quenching station »in order to extend the duration supports. I then move the entire group into va of the quenching step. I ñnd 'it expedient to pro furnace and when the requisite temperature has vide one quenching station for each set-up in the been reached, advance one set-up at a time pro group, that is, six quenching stations Ci, Cn, C3, . gressively through the steps of `filling quenchi with ñux, 15 filling with metal by vacuum lift, ng; 15 C4, Cs, Ca, for a group of six set-ups. I prefer to have the stations 34, 36, C1, Cz, Cs. f . breaking vacuum, removing core upwardly, drain C4, Cs, Ce arranged along an arc of a circle so ing out surplus flux and bronze, removing set that the set-ups S1, Sn, S3, S4, Ss, Se may be . up and cutting' oiI the bearing stock. 20 After completion of cast-welding and cooling, progressively moved to each succeeding station. After the flux and remaining molten metal « the lower end of the set-up may be cut off and 20 have been allowed to drain out of the set-up, the the bearing surface or surfaces machined smooth to the size desired, the outer tube 4| being like pressure on the gasket 25' is released by opera tion ofthe valve 26, the tubes Ill and Il are wise machined away. , Bymy above described-process, I reduce to a 25 withdrawn as a unit, and then cut apart at the weld i2. The tube li is then machined into bear ' very swift and rapid proceeding the manufac ings; and I prefer that this tube be long enough ture of steel-backed, plastic bronze bearings, to cut a multiple number of bearings therefrom; 1 thus reducing their cost to a point where they for example, I have it from twelve to eighteen may enter into general use in all automotive inches long when making bearings of usual auto- , motive size so that a large number of such bear ings may be cut therefrom. ` On4 Figs. 6, 'l and 8, I illustrate the process of welding both inner and outer facings of plastic bronze to an iron or steel annulus. engines. spirit of the inven- defined in the ap- ` I use the 35 same set-ups previously described with the addi tion of a skirt 4i of thin sheet metal, which may be steel, welded to the `lower part of the tube lll at 42, this skirt forming a tube around the tube pended claims. . Having described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United vQtates is- - l. The method of making bearings by cast 40 welding plastic bronze _onto an iron ,or steel tube by heating said tube then treating the surface thereof to be welded with a molten flux and then replacing said flux with said bronze in molten condition, the temperatures of said tube and said 45 bronze being insumcient to cause the maximum firmness of weld, the flux being superheated to a temperature at which heat is imparted to the surface 'of the tube tc be welded to produce the maximum firmness of weld; said method being 50 characterized by forming a casting space between said tube and a movable object at about the same temperature as said tube, removing said object after solidiiication of the bronze in said casting space and before said solidiiication occurs at said 55 object and draining out any remaining molten metal andmethod flux. 2. The of making bearings by cast il. A disc 43 of similar metal is welded to the outer tube at 44 and to the inner tube ll at 45, 40. openings 46, 41 being provided to permit ingress of the flux and molten metal within the tube il . and within the space between such tube and the outer tube 4l. Openings» 48 are provided in the 45 tube l0 below the joint 42 to permit the vacuum to be effective within the space between the two tubes. On Fig. 6 the flux 35 is shown as filling the space between the two tubes as well as the, space between the tube il and the core l5, the same having been drawn up by the vacuum in the 50 30I , I have referred` to various details by way of illustrating the invention and not as`a limita tion thereof; and various features may be changed manner previously described. After the set-up is removed from the flux pot to the metal pot, the metal is drawn up; whereupon the ilux 35 assumes the position shown in Fig. '7, while the 55 metal fills the spaces previously occupied by -the flux. The removal of the core I5 is illustrated on Fig. 8 after solidiflcation of the plastic bronze l welding plastic bronze onto an iron or steel tube 40.rI‘he steps of procedure are essentially the same by heating said tube then treating the surface 50 in coating both the inner and outer faces of the thereof to 'be welded with a molten flux andA then 60" replacing said ,ñux with said bronze in molten condition, the temperatures of said tube.and annulus as previously described with respect to the inner face. Omission of the opening 46 on the devices of Figs. 6, 'l and 8 will result in coating i saidbronze being insufficient to cause the maxi mum firmness of weld, the flux being superheated 65 .only the outer face of the annulus. heat is imparted to 65 I may weld a plate similar to the plate 43 to the to be welded to pro bottom of the tube il, as shown on Figs. 1 to 5, instead of shaping the bottom of the tube as duce the maximum firmness of'weld; said method shown on those figures; and, if desired, the tube being characterized by forming a casting space il as used in the modification of Figs. 6, 'l and 8 between said tube and a movable object at about 70 imayîbe shaped as shown on Figs. 1 to 5 instead of the same temperature as said tube, _chilling the using *the plate 43. In this event an annular plastic bronze in said casting space at said tube the annular space ' said bronze occurs pro 4band may be need to cover vso lthat solidiiication of _ between the tubes Il and 4I if this space is too -wide to maintain »the fluids therein properly. t gressively toward said object, then removing said ' ' ' The width of the openings i3 and 46 will have lobject before solidiiication occurs thereat and 75 4 2,127,937 draining out any remaining moltenmetal and 3. The method of» making bearings by cast flux. - . welding plastic bronze onto an iron or steel tube by heating said tube then treating the surface ’ ing molten metal and occurs thereat. _ flux before solidiñcation 5. In the method of cast-welding plastic bronze to an iron or steel tube in which welding tem thereof to be welded with a molten flux and then perature is imparted by a -superheated iìlux, the replacing said flux with said bronze in molten steps of insertingy said tube with a core therein ' and a, spaced skirt therearound into said super condition,_. the temperatures of said vtube and s_aid bronze being insuñìcient to" cause the maxi mum firmness yof weld, the Iiux being superheated toa temperature at which heat is imparted to heated flux, drawing said super-heated flux into said tube and around said core and into the space between said tube and said skirt, remov of weld; said method be ing‘ characterized by forming a casting space be ing said assembly from »said tlux4 and 4inserting it’into molten plastic bronze, drawing up bronze to replace saidñux, removing said assembly from said bronze, rapidly chilling the outside of said and at about the same temperature as said tube. removing said core after solidiñcation of said bronze in said casting space and before said solidification occurs -immediately at said core assemblyl and'removing said core from said tube and draining out any remaining molten metal and flux before solidi?lcation occurs thereat. 6. The method of making bearings by cast 5 tween said tube and a core resistant tosaid bronze and draining out any remaining moltenmetal and ñux. ' ' 4.. In the method of cast-welding plastic bronze> to an iron or steel tube in which welding tem perature is imparted by a superheated ñux, the steps of inserting said tube 'with a core therein into said- superheated ñux, drawing said super . heated ñux into said tube and around said core, removing said-assembly from said flux 'and in serting it into molten plastic bronze, drawing up bronze toA replace said ñux, removing said as lsembly from said bronze, rapidly chilling the out side of said assembly-and Íremoving said -core from said tube and‘ draining out_any remain lil welding a bearing metal onto a tubular metal backing member which comprises casting molten 20 bearing metal into the tube around a movable core, chilling the- cast metal from 'the exterior, and then removing the core just prior to solidi iìcation of the metal at its* surface. ’ 7. 'I'he method otmaking bearings by cast Vwelding a bearing metai onto a tubular metal -backing member which comprises drawing iiux into the tube from the lower end thereof, draw ing molten bearing metal into the tube in. the same manner to displace the'ñux and’ surround a movable core, andf removing the core prior to the solidiñcation of the cast metal adjacent its surface.. ' - .ROBERT D. PIKE.