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Патент USA US2127951

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Aug. V23, 1‘938. .
2,127,951
y E.v H. BLATTNER.
DRAFT RIGGING
Filed Dec. '7, .1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
24“
a AEffe“
.
__
@a
Patented Aug. 23, 1938
2,127,951
yU NÍITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,127,951
DRAFT RIGGING
Emil H. Blattner, Rochester, N. Y., assignor to
The Symington-Gould Corporation, Rochester,
N. Y., a corporation of Maryland
Application December 7, 1934, Serial No. 756,531
11 Claims.
This invention relates to draft rigging for rail
way vehicles and, more particularly, to a swivel
butt coupler or one in which the stem has a mem
ber pivotally connected to the rear'portion there
of.
view on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3,-looking in the
direction of the arrows.
Fig. Gris a fragmentary plan of the swivel block
shown in Fig. 4.
Figs. '7 and 8 are‘views correspondingrespec- `
The principal object of my invention, generally
considered, is the provision of an‘improved form
of swiveling coupler in which unintentional im
proper assembly of the swivel block or pivotally
connected member and coupler stem is prevented,
while at the same time avoidingany substantial
loss in bearing area between said stem and-swivel
block or member.
(Cl. 213-72)
.
Another object of my invention is4 the provision
of
a swivel butt coupler in which the swivel» block
fio
f or pivotally connected member has` bevelled por
tions on the upper intermediate loop only at the
extremities of the operating arc, the intermediate
portion being rectangular and furnishing full
20 bearing at the point where it is most-effective.
A further object of `my invention is the provi
sion of a swivel butt coupler comprisinga stem
tively, to Figs..3 and 4, but showing" another em
bodiment of my invention.
Referring to the drawings in detail, like parts
being designated by like reference characters, and
first considering the embodiment of my. invention .10
illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, there is illus
trated a swiveling coupler Ifconnected to a .yoke
2 by means of a horizontal draft .key-3. lAlthough
a horizontal yoke is illustrated, »I do not wish to be
limited to this type. Said key serves-to hold the 15
coupler and. yoke in alignment as well as con
nect the same, and is supported in the usual man
ner between the draft or center sills (not shown).
The swivel butt coupler I may be considered as
formed of a main coupler portion or `stem 4. and 20
a swivel‘block or auxiliary portion .5 pivotally
connected thereto by means of a normally verti
and swivel block or member pivotally connected > cal pin or pivotal meanstô.
by means extending through the intercalated
flanges of said parts, all of `said flanges having
edge surfaces coaxial `with the pivotal means,
but one of said flanges being on a radium differ
ent from that of the companion flange, and the
Ibearing surfaces »cooperating with the edge sur
30 faces of the flanges being on corresponding'radii
sothat assembly between the stem and swivel
block o1' member to a position permittinginser
.tion of the pivot-al means is only possible when
The swivel block 5
isv operatively connectedto the yoke ..2 for the
transmission of draft forces therebetween by the 5
«key -3, before mentioned. On .account .of .the
swivel block or auxiliary member 5 beingpivotal
ly connected to the stem 4, a two-.part or articu
lated coupler is provided.
The coupler stern 4, in the present embodiment, ` 30
is provided with rearwardly extending normally
.horizontal flanges or web portions 'I and.8, vsaid
portions having their edge surfaces 9 and I0
curved coaxially with the aperturesII .and I2
the stem’and swivel `block or member are in
.which receive the pivot pin 6. The swivelblock 5
35 . proper relative position.
Other yobjects and advantages of the invention 15 likewise is provided with forwardly extending
flange or web portions I3, I4 Yand I5, which
relating to thev particular arrangement and con
Aclosely interengage the web portions ‘I and 8 of
struction of the various parts will become ap
the coupler and formpockets I6 and I'I there
parent as'the description proceeds.
between
for operatively receiving the flanges 1
Referring
to
the
drawings
illustrating
my
in
40
and
»8
of
the
coupler stem. 'I‘hese pockets I6. and
vention, the scope whereof is defined by the ap
II'I are defined by forwardly facing bearing sur
pended claims:
faces I8 and I9 coaxial »with the apertures 20,
Figure 1 is a plan view, partly in section, illus
2|, 22 and V23 through thai-lange means I3, I4
trating a coupler and yoke connected by a hor
45 izontal key and embodying my invention.
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal vertical central sec
tional view of the arrangement illustrated in Fig
ure 1.
50
Fig. .3 is a fragmentaryV view of the coupler
`-stem as shown in Fig. 2, but detached from the
„swivel block.
Fig. 4 is aside elevation ofthe swivel b-lock
detached from the coupler stem.
Fig. »5 >isa ,fragmentary horizontal sectional
and~|5, so -that they serve »as bearings for the 4
edge surfaces 9 andIIl on the flanges -I and 8 of
the coupler stem.
The flanges I3 and. I5 ofthe swivel block »are
likewise provided withcoaxial edge portions co
operating with correspondingly curved ñanges 24 50
and 25 on-the coupler stem. .The central flange
portion I4 on the swivel block is intersected by -a
way or slot .26 for the key member `3 forming, in
eñect, two flanges 21 and‘2‘8, each of which is
likewise formed with coaxiallfy Curved edge faces ,.55
2
2,127,951
the apertures 20a, 2l'fl, 22a and 23a, through the
29 and 38 for cooperating with the corresponding
ly curved pocket bearing surfaces 3| and 32 on
the coupler stem.
flange means I3a, I4a and I5a, and formed about
radii corresponding with the radii of the flanges
The pivot pin 6 is normally supported on a ledge
33 which prevents it from dropping out of place.
that they serve as bearings for the edge surfaces
Upward movement of the pin is desirably prevent
9JZL and IIIa on said flanges.
ed by a cotter or other retaining means 34 extend
The lianges I3a and I5a of the swivel block are
provided with edge surfaces formed on equal radii
and coaxial with the pivot pin apertures, as in
the preceding embodiment, said surfaces nor 10
ing through lugs 35 upstanding from the upper
surface of the swivel block 5 and disposed on op
10 posite sides of the aperture 20.
It is highly de
sirable that the swivel block or connected member
be assembled with the stem in normal position,
with the supporting ledge 33 for the pivot pin at
the bottom, so that loss of said pin is prevented.
15 If all of the curved flanges and cooperating pock
25a on the coupler stem. The central flange
portion Illa is intersected by a way or slot 2‘Iìa for
a key member corresponding with that designated 15
by the reference character 3 in the preceding em
less workman might apply the swivel block or
other member to the stem upside down, with the
bodiment, forming, in effect, two flanges 21à and
28a, each of which is likewise formed with coax
ial curved edge faces 29a and 3|]a for cooperating
with the correspondingly curved pocket bearing 20
pin supported only by the cotter 34 therebeneath.
while maintaining substantially full bearing area
between all the flanges and corresponding bear
ing surfaces on the associated part, I, in the
present embodiment, bevel the flange 21 at the
25 extremities only of the operating arc, as indicated
at 38, thereby maintaining full bearing area for
substantial distances on each side of the longi
tudinal vertical central plane where the bearing
area is most effective, and making the flange 21
30 appreciably smaller than the flange 28. The
pocket between the flanges 1 and 8 on the coupler
stem is formed with lugs 31 at each end of the
operating arc, said lugs having diagonal surfaces
corresponding with the bevel 36, and being short
35 enough circumferentially to allow the desired
clearance with respect to the central portion 38
surfaces 3|ab and 32a on the coupler stem.
As in the preceding embodiment, the pivot pin
(ia is normally supported on a ledge 33a which pre
vents it from dropping out of place, upward move
ment being prevented by a cotter or other retain 25
ing means 3l!a extending through lugs 35a up
standing from the upper surface of the swivelblock
and disposed on opposite sides of the aperture 28a.
It is thus highly desirable that the swivel block
be assembled with the stem in normal position 30
with the supporting ledge 33a at the bottom, as
in the preceding embodiment.
In order to avoid the possibility of incorrect
assembly While maintaining full bearing area be
of the ilange 21 so as not to interfere with the
tween all the flanges and corresponding bearing 35
surfaces on the associated part, the flanges 21a
and 28a have their edge surfaces coaxial but
desired angling between the swivel block and
formed about different radii, so that the flange
stem.
means Illa has its upper surface formed of sub
`
On account of the provision of the bevelled por
tions 36 on the swivel block or connected mem
ber and the lugs 31 on the couple stem, it is im
possible to apply the swivel block in intercalated
relation with respect to the stem to a position
where the pivot pin apertures register sufficiently
to allow application of said pin, except when the
swivel block is in the desired normal relative po
sition with respect to the stem, because the lugs
31 do not permit the unbevelled flange 28 to be
stantially different area from its lower surface;
for example, the ñange 21a is formed longer or
the edge surface 29a thereof is formed about a
radius so much greater than that of the edge
surface 3|]a of the flange 28a that under no cir
cumstances can the swivel block 5ab be assembled 45
with the coupler stem 4a to an extent sufficient to
permit the application of the pivot pin 6a, even
pin, assuming the flanges 21 and 28 to have the
allowing for normal tolerances. I have found that
a difference in radius of >approximately one
quarter inch is sufficient for the purpose, although DI)
I do not wish to be limited to this dimension.
The bearing surfaces 3|a and 32a on the coupler
stem are likewise formed about dilïerent radii,
same maximum radii.
Referring now to the embodiment of my in
surfaces 298L and 30a, so that when the swivel block
50 positioned when above the bevelled ñange 21, but
would prevent the mating of the parts to a degree
suíiîcient to permit the application of the pivot
55
mally cooperating with corresponding bearing sur
faces on correspondingly curved flanges 24a and
ets on the connected parts are the same, a care
20 In order `to avoid this undesirable possibility,
40
1a and 8a, as in the preceding embodiment, so
vention illustrated in Figures 7 and 8, there is
shown a coupler stem 4a provided with rear
wardly extending normally horizontal flanges or
web portions 1a and 8a, said portions having their
edge surfaces 9a and II)a curved coaxially with the
apertures I Ia and I2a which receive the pivot pin
Iìa for connection with the associated swivel block
or auxiliary member 5a, as in the preceding em
bodiment. The edge surfaces 9a and |0a are not
' only coaxial with the apertures IIa and |221, but
are also desirably formed about equal radii, as in
the preceding embodiment.
The swivel block 5a is provided with forwardly
extending flange or web portions I3a, Illa and |511,
70 which closely interengage the web portions 1a and
8a of the coupler stem and form pockets IIìa and
I1a therebetween for operatively receiving the
flanges 'la and 8a of the coupler stem. These
pockets I6a and I1a are deñned by forwardly
75 facing bearing surfaces I8@ and ISE coaxial with
corresponding, respectively, with the radii of the
5a is properly mated with the coupler stem 4a,
all of the edge surfaces of the flanges on both
members fully engage the corresponding bearing
surfaces, providing the maximum bearing area
for the transmission of buffing forces to the as
sociated cushioning mechanism, such as is dia
60
grammatically indicated by the reference char
acter 39 in Figure l. At the same time, improper
assembly of the swivel block 5a with the coupler
stem ¿IEL is prevented because of the difference be
tween the radius of the flange 29a and that of
the flange 30a. If such improper assembly were
attempted as represented by dot-dash lines in
Figure 7, the relatively long flange 21a would only
partially engage the relatively close bearing sur
face 32a and prevent registry of the apertures
20a, Zla, 22a and 23a, with the apertures IIa and
I2a, thereby making the pin 6a, if attempted to
be inserted from below, engage the flange 8a
rather than pass through the aperture I2a therein. 75
2,127,951A
From the foregoing, it will be seen that I have
provided preferred forms of swivel butt couplers
in which incorrect assembly of the parts is pre
vented, While at the same time provision is made
Cil
for maximum bearing area between all of the
flange edge areas and the corresponding pocket
areas of the associated parts, and the avoidance
of any bevelling or departure from vertical bear
ing surfaces for substantial distances on each
side of the longitudinal central vertical plane of
the coupler. Although I have only illustrated my
improvements applied to a ycoupler and hori
Zontal yoke arrangement as illustrated, for ex
ample, in the Barrows Patent No. 1,431,717, it
15 will, of course, be understood that I am not lim~
ited to this showing.
Although preferred embodiments> have been
illustrated, it will be understood that modiñca
tions may be made within the spirit and scope
of the appended claims.
I claim:
l. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem with
a pair of rearwardly extending apertured flanges
at the rear end thereof, a member with flange
25 means received between said stem flanges and
formed with an aperture normally registering
with the stem flange apertures, and pivotal
means extending through said apertures for
connecting said member to said stem, the end
surfaces of said flanges and flange means
being coaxial with the apertures, said stem hav
ing surfaces disposed between the flanges coaxial
with the flange apertures and normally engaged
by the end surfaces’of' said member flange means,
said member having surfaces coaxial with the
flange apertures and normally engaged by end
surfaces of said stem flanges, said pivotal means
engaging a portion of said member to hold it
3
ing a portion of the member to hold it in posi
tion, said portion preventing the assembly of
said pivotal means except in one direction rela
tive to said member, wherefore it is desired that
the member be prevented from accidental as
sembly with the stem when upside down, one
of said member flanges being appreciably larger
than the other, and the engaged surfaces on
the stem between the stem flanges being formed
to correspond with the sizes of said member 10
flanges Without interfering with normal angling
between said coupler and member, and main
taining full bearing area between said stem sur~
faces and the corresponding edge surfaces of
the flanges for the full flange thickness and 15
for substantial distances on either side of the
longitudinal center line of the coupler, while
preventing assembly of the pivotal means with
the coupler and member when the latter are
in other than normal relative positions.
20
3. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem with
a pair of rearwardly extending apertured flanges
at the rear end thereof, a member with a pair
o-f flanges received between said stem flanges
and formed with apertures normally registering 25
with the stem flange apertures, and pivotal
means extending through said apertures for con
necting said member to said stem, the end surfaces
of all of said flanges being coaxial with said aper
tures, said stem having a pocket between said 30
flanges with bearing surfaces coaxial with the
stem flange apertures and normally engaged by
the end surfaces of the member flanges, said mem
ber having surfaces normally engaged by end sur
faces of said stem flanges, said pivotalmeans en 35
gaging a portion of the member to hold it in posi
tion, said portion preventing the assembly of
said pivotal means except in one direction rela
in position, said portion preventing the assembly ' tive to said member, wherefore it is desired that
40 of said pivotal means except in one direction
relative te said member, Wherefore it is desired
that said member be prevented from accidental
assembly with the normally-positioned stem when
upside down, said flange means having the upper
surface formed of substantially different area
from the lower surface and the engaged surfaces
on the stem between the stem flanges being
formed to correspond with the upper and lower
surfaces of said member flange means, without
interfering with normal angling between said
coupler and member, and maintaining full nor
mally vertical bearing area between said stem
surfaces and the corresponding edge surfaces of
the flange means, for the full vertical extent
of said flange means, and for substantial dis
tances on either side of the longitudinal center
line of the coupler, while preventing assembly of
the pivotal means with the coupler and member
when the latter are in other than normal relative
Ul)
positions.
»
2. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem with
a pair of rearwardly extending apertured flanges
at the rear end thereof, a member withv a pair
of flanges received between said stem flanges
65 and formed with apertures normally registering
with the stem flange apertures, and pivotal
means extending through said apertures for con
necting said member to said stem, the end ’sur
faces of all of said flanges being coaxial with
the apertures, said stem having surfaces disposed between the flanges coaxial with its flange
apertures and normally engaged by the end sur
faces of the member flanges, said member hav
ing surfaces normally engaged by end surfaces
v of said stem flanges, said pivotal means engag
the member be prevented from accidental as
40
sembly with the normally-positioned stem when
upside down, one of said member flanges being
bevelled along side portions only, spaced sub
stantial distances from the vertical longitudinal
central plane, and said pocketed portion of the 45
stem having lugs adjacent the ends of the bear
ing surfaces and with diagonal surfaces formed
to correspond with the bevelling of the member
flange so that said flange is receivable in full
bearing position only when the member is right 50
side up as compared with the stem, the circum
ferential length of said lugs being small enough
so as not to interfere with normal angling of the
swivel block with respect to said stem, wherefore
full bearing area between the pocket surfaces 55
and the corresponding edge surfaces of the mem
ber flanges is maintained for the full flange
thickness and for substantial distances on either
side of' the longitudinal center line of the coupler,
while assembly of the pivotal means with the 60
coupler and member is prevented when the latter
are in other than normal relative position.
4. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem with
a pair of rearwardly exten-ding apertured flanges
at the rear end thereof, a member with a pair 65
of flanges received between said stem flanges and
formed with apertures normally registering with
the stem flange apertures, and pivotal means extending through said apertures for connecting
said member to said stem, the end surfaces of
all of said flanges being coaxial with said aper
tures, said stem and member having bearing
surfaces coaxial with the corresponding flange
apertures and normally engaged by the end sur
faces of the flanges on the associated member,
4
Si
2,127,951
said pivotal means being adapted to engage a
portion of the member to hold it in position, said
ilange apertures and normally engaged by the
engagement preventing assembly of said pivotal
member, said pivotal means being adapted to
means except in one direction relative to said
member, whereby it is desired that the member
be prevented from accidental assembly with the
>engage a portion of the lower flange of the
swivel block` to hold it in position, said engage
end surfaces of the flanges on the associated
ment preventing assembly of the pivotal means
stem when upside down, one of said flanges
except in one direction relative to said swivel
being substantially larger in radius than the other
flange of its pair, and the bearing surfaces hav
ing corresponding radii of curvature, whereby
block, whereby it is desired that the swivel block
be prevented from accidental assembly with the
full bearing area between all the flanges and
the bearing surfaces for the full flange thick
ness is maintained, while assembly of the pivotal
means with the coupler and member, when the
latter are in other than normal relative posi
tions, 1s prevented.
5. A swivel butt coupler comprising a stem
with a pair of rearwardly extending apertured
flanges at the rear end thereof, a swivel block
20 with a pair of flanges intermediate, and a pair
of flanges embracing, said stem flanges and
of said intermediate swivel block flanges being
substantially longer than the other of said inter
mediate llanges and the bearing surfaces on the
coupler stem having corresponding radii of cur
il)
formed with apertures normally registering with
the stem apertures, and pivotal means extending
through said apertures for connecting said swivel
25 block to said stem, the end surfaces of all of
said flanges being coaxial with said apertures,
said stem having a pocket between said flanges
with bearing surfaces coaxial with the stem.
flange apertures and normally engaged by the
30 end surfaces of the intermediate swivel block
flanges, said swivel block having surfaces be
tween said intermediate and embracing flanges
coaxial with the flange apertures and in normal
engagement with end surfaces of said stem
flanges, said pivotal means engaging a portion
of the swivel block lower flange to hold it in
position, said portion preventing assembly of said
pivotal means except in one direction relative
to said swivel block, wherefore it is desired that
the swivel block be prevented from accidental
assembly with the stem when in an abnormal po
sition, one of said swivel block intermediate
ll5
flanges being bevelled along side portions only
spaced substantial distances from the vertical
longitudinal central plane, and said pocketed
portion of the stem having lugs adjacent the
ends of the bearing surfaces and with diagonal
surfaces formed to correspond with the bevelling
of the swivel block flange so that said flange is
receivable in full bearing position only when the
swivel block is properly assembled with the stem,
the circumferential length of said lugs being
small enough so as not to interfere with normal
angling of the swivel block with respect to said
stem, wherefore full bearing area between the
pocket surfaces and the corresponding edge sur
faces of the swivel block flanges is maintained
for the full flange thickness and for substantial
distances on either side of the longitudinal center
60 line of the coupler, while assembly of the pivotal
means with the coupler and swivel block is pre
vented when the latter are in other than normal
relative position.
6. A swivel butt coupler comprising a stem
65 with a pair of rearwardly extending apertured
flanges at the rear end thereof, a swivel block
with a pair of flanges received between and an
other pair of flanges embracing said stem flanges
and formed with apertures normally registering
70 with the stem flange apertures, and pivotal
means extending through said apertures for con
necting said swivel block to said stem, the end
surfaces of all of said ilanges being coaxial with
said apertures, said stem and swivel block having
75 bearing surfaces coaxial with the corresponding
stem when inverted from normal position, one
vature so that full bearing area between all the
flanges and the bearing surfaces for the full
flange thickness is maintained, while assembly
of the pivotal means with the coupler and swivel
block, when the latter are in other than normal
relative position, is prevented.
20
7, A swiveling coupler comprising a stem with
a pair of apertured flanges at the rear end there
of, a member with flange means received between
said stem flanges and formed with an aperture
normally registering with the stem flange aper 25
tures, and pivotal means extending through all
of said apertures for connecting said member to
said stem and transmitting draft forces from
the coupler to the member, the end surface of
said stem flanges and flange means being co
axial with the apertures, said stem having sur
faces disposed between the flanges and coaxial
with and engaged by end surfaces of said mem
ber ñange means, said member having surfaces
disposed outwardly of said flange means coaxial 35
with and engaged by the end surfaces of said
stem flanges, one of said member flanges being
larger than the other of »said member flanges
while maintaining a full bearing area between
said stem surfaces and the corresponding end 40
surface of the flange means for the full flange
thickness thereof and for a substantial distance
on either side of the longitudinal center line of
the coupler, thereby preventing assembly of the
coupler and member when in other than normal
relative positions.
8. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem with
a pair of rearwardly extending apertured flanges
at one end thereof, a draft gear engaging mem
ber with flange means received between said 50
stem flanges and formed with an aperture nor
mally registering with the stem flange apertures,
and pivotal means extending through all of said
apertures for connecting said member to said
stem and transmitting draft forces from the 55
coupler to the member, the end surface of said
stem ñanges and flange means being coaxial with
the apertures, said stem and member having
surfaces coaxial with and normally engaged by
said flange means and flange end surfaces, one 60
of said flanges being larger radially than the
other of said flanges while maintaining a full
bearingv area between the edge surface thereof
and the corresponding engaging surface for the
full flange thickness and for a substantial dis
tance on either side of the longitudinal center
line of the coupler, thereby preventing assembly
of the coupler and member when in other than
normal relative positions, and means on said
member for supporting said pivot means and 70
preventing assembly of said pivot means with said
stem and member, except in one direction, rela
tive to said member.
9. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem hav
ing a pair of apertured flanges at one end there 75
5
2,127,951
of, a member having a pair of ñanges received
between said stem flanges and formed With aper
tures normally registering with the stem flange
apertures, pivot means extending through all of
said apertures for connecting said member and
stem, the end surfaces of all of said flanges
adjacent the longitudinal central plane thereof
being equal to the full flange thickness and co
axial With said apertures, said stem and member
having bearing surfaces coaxial with the corre
sponding ñange apertures and normally engaged
by the end surfaces of the flanges on the asso
ciated member, one of said flanges being larger
in radius than the other flange of its pair, there
by preventing assembly of the pivotal means With
the coupler and member when the latter are in
other than normal relative positions.
10. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem _hav
ing a pair of apertured fianges at one end there
20 of, a member with a pair of apertured flanges
received between said stem ñanges, pivot means
extending through all of said flange apertures
for connecting said member and stem, the end
surfaces of all of said fianges being coaxial With
25 said apertures, said stem and member having
bearing surfaces coaxial with the corresponding
flange apertures and normally engaged by the
end flange surfaces on the associated member,
one of said member flanges being bevelled along
30 side portions thereof, said bevels being spaced on
either side of the vertical longitudinal central
plane of the member, lugs on said stem adjacent
the ends of one of the bearing surfaces and pro
vided With diagonal surfaces formed to corre
spond with the bevels of the member flange so
that said member flanges are in full stem bear
ing surface engagement only When said member
is in normal position with said stem.
11. A swiveling coupler comprising a stem hav
ing a pair of apertured flanges at one- end there
of, a draft gear engaging member having a pair
of apertured flanges received between said stem
flanges, pivot means extending through said
flange apertures for connecting said member and
stem, the end surfaces of all of said ñanges
being coaxial with said apertures, said stem and .15
member having bearing surfaces coaxial with the
corresponding ñange apertures and normally en
gaged by the end surface of the flanges on the
associated member, one of said member flanges
being bevelled along side portions thereof, said 20
bevels being spaced on either side of the verti
cal longitudinal central plane of the member,
spaced lugs on said stem adjacent the ends of
one of the bearing surfaces, each lug being pro
vided with an inclined surface formed to cor
respond With the bevels of the member flange,
the circumferential length of each of said lugs
being of such dimensions so as to permit an un
restricted swiveling movement of the coupler
stem With respect to the member.
EMIL H. BLATTNER.
25
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