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Патент USA US2127955

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Patented Aug. 23, I938
UNITED
FATE N
2127.955
‘Ii/METHOD OF PRHNTHNG
Philip A. Frazier, Oak Park, Ill.
No lDrawing. Application .luly 17, 1936,
Serial No. 91,095
9 Claims. (or. wit-42s)
. The present invention relates to letterpress or defects which make such wetting impracticable ‘
relief printing generally and applies to printing
from metallic plates, whether performed by
presses with ?at, horizontal or vertical beds or
5
rotary presses.
_
This invention also relates to an improved
method of printing and more particularly to a
method which makes the ink and the paper so
unite as to secure results hitherto not obtained.
in
This invention further resides in the method
of printing whereby proper and su?icient mois
ture is produced either by breaking up water with
air or in the form of steam.
,
Among the objects of my invention are the pro
15 duction of a method of printing whereby clearer,
commercially, particularly where high speed work
is essential. Among the various di?iculties caused
by wetting of the paper are the uneven stretching
of the wet paper which not only produces an s
unsightly result but throws out the alignment of
the pages and the register of the job. In short, no
precision work can be attained or maintained;
the inability to secure the proper tension on
_
paper passing through the press because of- the no
weakening of the paper by the wetting, thus in
creasing to a serious extent, and in most cases
to a non-commercial degree, the danger of break
ing and tearing in the press. ‘ Further, if sunl
cient wetting could be obtained, then the printed it
sharper printing is produced, even though the ' material would have to be dried arti?cially, in
hourly rate of the run is speeded up from 30 to r creasing the cost of equipment and handling enor
50% more than is now commercially practicable;
mously.
a method of printing where the ink lies on the
20 surface of‘ the paper, producing an even color
distribution; a method of printing which elimi
‘ hates the ?lling up of the middle tones or semi
solids, which produces an unevenness of tone and
makes the printing appear spotty and smudgy;
25 an improved method of printing whereby no
heavy impression pressure is required even where
runs are made at high speeds and so eliminates
the practice of increasing pressure as the rate of
the run increases which inevitably results in the
3D offsetting of the printing if sufficient printing
pressure is obtained; an improved method of
‘printing whereby a lustrous ?nish ‘and sheen is
produced instead of the dead lifeless color or tone
of the present printing; an improved method of
35 printing which will give from 15% to 30%
greater ’ ink coverage, or, stated another way,
which will require from 15% to 30% less ink per
job, thus eilecting substantial savings, together
with such other and further objects as will appear
40 as the description of this invention proceeds.
' It is Well known that in the making of paper
it is necessary to evaporate as rapidly as possible
the moisture from the web which ultimately
forms the continuous sheet of paper. Usually
45 this requires arti?cial driers operated at high
temperatures. Also, if the paper is subjected to
calendering, further high temperature drying is
required. This forced evaporation of moisture
from the paper has directly caused a printing
5o problem which has long been recognized, i, e.,
securing enough moisture in the paper to produce
a creditable and commercial printing result.
Various efforts have been made to apply water to
the paper just prior to the printing, following the
55 analogy of engraving. This has many serious
'
-
.
Recently it has been demonstrated that a fair
degree of success can be attained by so-called 20
humidification of the paper itself. By this means
‘ moisture is supplied to the paper as it is unrolled
and passes through the press in a ?nely divided
spray, the paper ?bres absorbing this moisture
prior to the printing. There is some lapse of 25
time before the ink is applied over the printing
surface and before the inked printing surface is
applied to the paper and if the spray is not oper
ating perfectly and evenly for the particular kind
of paper or subject being run, many dii?culties so
are ‘encountered. If too little moisture is being
applied, the lapse of time and the rapid move; ‘
ment causes the paper to \lose some} of this mois~
ture and thereby ‘the paper is delivered to the
inked printed surface too dry to obtain the re- g5;
sults claimed for this method. Or, if too much
moisture is being applied even in one spot, then
the dangers already enumerated for wetting of the‘ paper are present. ‘The application of mois
ture to the paper directly puts the moisture into M
the paper ?bres so that it may penetrate and‘ be
absorbed deeply and inwardly, expanding the
?bres thereof to allow for quick and ready pene
tration of the ink when the inked printing sur
face comes in contact with the paper or subject. M
The method of printing which I have developed
and invented recognizes the problem of securing
moisture in printing, the solution of which has ‘
long been sought and the problems engendered in
the attempts of securing such moisture directly so
to the paper to humidify it. I have found that
the objects‘heretofore stated for my invention
may be accomplished by applying moisture in a
?nely divided form to the ink in the press im
mediately prior to the time the ink is applied
2,127,955
2
to the printing surface. It has formerly been
high and low spots. To compensate for this ir
thought quite impracticable, if not impossible,
to secure a su?icient amount of water in the form
of moisture in the inks and to a su?icient extent
to supply the de?ciency of moisture requisite for
quality and efficient printing. It is a well known
regularity of printed surface, the conventional
method is to use a great deal of pressure and
more ink. By employing my method, such light
spots are eliminated and the color held without
increasing the amount of ink or the pressure in
fact that there is a great variation in the kinds
of ink used in prining and a great variance of
opinion as to the proper consistency of inks even
volved. The moisture with the ink as a vehicle
causes a slight expanding of the ?bres of the
paper or subject material, but not to an extent
for employment in the same kind of job, but this
much may be said, that sufficient ink must be
applied to the printing surface to make it print
properly. No matter the kind of paper or subject
being used, and no matter the type or consistency
15 of the ink being used, I have found that fine
su?icientto expand the fibres to a point where 10
the ink will penetrate upon printing, so that the
low spots are brought up and leveled off under
the pressure of the impression cylinder.
Another remarkable advantage obtained by
lustrous printing of a quality never before at
tained can be speedily and economically accom
plished in the method of my invention which
comprises the step of supplying moisture in the
20 form of water in ?nely divided form to the ink
using my method of printing is the prevention '
of the filling up of the .middle tones. One of the
immediately prior to its application to the print
ing plate or surface. It will ‘be understood by
those skilled in the printing art that, since in my
improved method the primary function of the
most di?icult things in printing is to print solid
colors evenly and have them remain even, after
the printing is accomplished. By printing from
plates whose surfaces are composed of small dots
or from a surface which is solid, the ink with its
moisture is so applied that all of the tiny dots
print evenly without the present tendency of
smudging Where the interstices between the dots
25 ink is to serve as a vehicle to transfer the moisture
in ?nely divided form to the material to be printed
upon, the method will be preferably employed
with water-immiscible printing inks. By thus
applying moisture to the ink, many things are
39 accomplished, which will take it wholly out of
the realm of anything in printing which has
heretofore been commercially accomplished.
, Only the proper amount of moisture for fine
printing is delivered to the paper, which entirely
35 eliminates the dangers of too little moisture or
of wetting. The paper itself, not being the ve
hicle for the moisture, is wholly unaffected until
the time of the actual printing, thus eliminating
the lessening of tension or the speed of operation‘,
40 and, on the contrary, increasing the speed of
operation as is described below. The moisture
in the form of water carried by the ink to the
subject or paper to be printed is absorbed first
and is not in sumcient amount to open up the
fibres through excessive swelling.
Thus, the ink
lies on the surface and does not penetrate to any
appreciable degree the inner ?bres of the paper
or subject. It is the oil or varnish in ink which
gives luster or sheen to the finish and, since these
are not‘ absorbed by the subject or paper but are
laid on the surface thereof with the pigment,
the result is brilliant live printing. In this con
nection it should also be said that the color
tones as a consequence thereof remain true, and
there is no fading or loss of value because of the
penetration experienced in the ordinary method
of printing.
Since the ink itself lies nicely on
the surface of the paper, not as much ink is re
fill up or light spots where the dots barely print
at all and the solid surfaces print evenly and
smoothly on the foundation of proper moisture.
Much time and effort is directed, to cooling
the rollers carrying the ink during the printing
process.
I have found that there has been re
3O
markable cooling effect by following the method
of my invention. it will readily be seen that evap
oration and the time of evaporation play an im
portant part in this process. By supplying mois~
ture in accordance with the disclosure made 35
herein, 1 am able to eliminate to a large degree
the idle time on a press by using my method, in
that, by properly supplying moisture to the ink
when the press is idle, the water will be evapo
rated. In the conventional printing inks, when
40
the press is idle as frequently occurs in prepara
tion for a run, the driers and oils in the inks
evaporate, with the result that dried ink accumu
lates on the rollers and plates and has to be
cleaned off before the press or run is started
again. The time in which this phenomena occurs
is materially increased due to the presence of
moisture in the ink,’ allowing much more leeway
in press manipulation without the frequent en
forced idleness required to clean dried ink from
the plates and the rollers.
rI‘he described method of my invention of sup
plying moisture to the printing ink in ?nely divid
ed form just prior to the time the printing ink is
applied to the printing surface may be readily
carried out by means of any suitable vaporizing
or humidifying device which may be attached at
any suitable point on the press such as the ink
fountain, the ductor rollers, distributor rollers, 60
and experience that from 15% to 30% greater ink ‘ or the ink bed, but preferably i.‘ prefer to humidify
the ink at the form rollers. While I have set
coverage is obtained by using my method of
printing. This also means that less pressure is . forth certain portions of a press as exemplifica
_required to print, which combined, leads to. tions, it is understood that these are given for
greater speed of printing with practiaclly no the purpose of illustration of the application of
quired to print, and I have found by actual tests
(35 offset. - The reduction of ink required and the
reduction of pressure required speeds up the
hourly rate of the run to as high as 50% in
excess in actual commercial runs.
‘Where heavy inking is required in order to make
70 the color hold and wherever heavier pressure is
applied, there is always present a tendency in the
?nished product of showing light spots. This is
due not solely to inaccuracies in the printing
surface itself but to the well recognized fact that
75 the paper itself, or the subject being printed, has
my invention in its aspects but are not to be
taken in any sense as a limitation upon the scope
of this method and invention.
.
Having thus described my invention and illus
trated the method, what I claim as new and de 70
sire to secure by Letters Patent is:
i. In relief or letterpress printing the method
of supplying moisture to material to be printed,
comprising spraying the printing ink of an oil or
grease base with water in ?nely divided form
2,127,955
just prior ‘to the time said printing ink is applied
to a printing face.
'
2. In the relief or letterpress printing art em
ploying inks non-miscible with water, the meth
od of supplying moisture to material to be
printed comprising continuously spraying one or
more of the rollers of the inking mechanism with
water in ?nely divided form during the printing
operation.
10
3. In the relief or letterpress printing art em
ploying inks non-miscible with water, the meth
od of applying moisture to material to be print
ed comprising continuously spraying the form
rollers of the inking mechanism with water in
15 ?nely divided form during the printing opera
tion.
4. In the relief or letterpress printing art em
ploying inks non-miscible with water, the meth
od 01' applyingmoisture to material to be print
20 ed comprising continuously spraying the dis
tributor rollers of the inking mechanism with wa—
ter in ?nely divided form during the printing
operation.
“
5. In the relief for letterpress printing art em
25 ploying inks non-miscible with water, the meth
od of applying moisture to material to be printed
comprising continuously spraying the bed of the
6. In letterpress or relief printing employing
inks of an oil or varnish base, the method of‘
printing whereby moisture is supplied to the
printing ink in ?nely divided form Just prior to
the time said printing ink is applied to the print
ing surface.
'7. In letterpress or relief printing employing
inks non-miscible with water, the method of
facilitating the transfer of ink to paper, which
comprises coating the ink-covered printing sur
faces with water in ?nely divided form by spray
ing one or more members of theinking train
with water and impressing said water-coated ink
directly upon the paper to be printed upon.
8, In letterpress printing using inks non-mis
cible with water, the method of preventing ab
sorption of ink by the paper to be printed upon.
which comprises spraying one or more members
of the inking train with minute particles of wa
ter to coat the ink-covered printing surfaces with
water in ?nely divided form, and impressing said
water-coated ink directly upon said paper.
9. The method of letterpress printing which
comprises coating the printing ink with a layer
of water non-miscible with said ink, in ?nely
divided ‘form, Just prior to the time said printing
inking mechanism with water in ?nely divided “' ink is applied to the printing surface,
form during the printing operation.
‘
20
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