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Патент USA US2127990

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Aug. 23, 1938.
I
2,1229%
R. R. CANDOR
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed April 16, 193.4
“71
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Patented Aug. 23,. 1938
2,127,990
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE '
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS 7
Robert R. Candor, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to Gen
eral Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a cor
poration of Delaware
Application April 16, 1934, Serial No. 720,731
11 Claims. (C1. 62-115)
This invention relates to refrigeration.
An object of this invention is to provide an im
proved method and apparatus for conditioning
air-or the like in which a portion of the heat
5 is removed from the air by a refrigerant evapo
rating at a relatively high temperature and in
which another portion of the heat is removed
a relatively high evaporating pressure with re
spect to the evaporator I2, is connected through
the suction line 23 with the inlet 24 of the com
pressor 2| in such a manner that the vaporized re
frigerant from the evaporator‘ II is utilized to aid 5
in compressing and reliqueiy'ing the vaporized '
refrigerant from evaporator l2. The refrigerant
from the air by a_refrigerant evaporating at a ~ from evaporators H and I2 is co-mingled and
compressed in the compressor 2| and is. dis
relatively lower temperature in a manner to en
10 hance very materially the ef?ciency and economy
charged into the condenser 26 where it is relique~ 10
?ed or stored in the liquid refrigerant receiver
It is another object of this invention to pro- ' 26 from whence it ?ows through the liquid re
vide a method and apparatus for conditioning) Irigerant line 21 to the evaporators II and I2,
air or the like by thermal exchange with two or ?owing through the automatic expansion valves
28 and 29~respectively. The automatic expan- 15
15 more evaporators maintained at different refrig
erant pressures and utilizing the refrigerant from sion valve 28 preferably is of the type which auto
the higher pressure evaporator or evaporators to matically opens and admits liquid refrigerant into
aid in reliquefying the vaporized refrigerant from the evaporator II when the pressure therein is
the lower pressure evaporator or evaporators.
reduced below a predetermined pressure limit. _
Further objects and advantages of the present However, the suction line 23 near the outlet of 20
invention will be apparent from the following de
the evaporator II is in thermal contact with a
'
scription, reference being had to the accompany
thermostatic bulb 30 which is connected with the
ing drawing, wherein a preferred form of the control or diaphragm of valve 2| in such a man
present invention is clearly shown.
’
ner that when the liquid refrigerant tends to
In the drawing:
I
"spill over" from the evaporator H the valve 28 25'
of operation. -
v
. 30
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of an v is throttled notwithstanding the fact that the
apparatus embodying features of my invention; pressure therein may be below the predetermined
and
limit heretofore described.
Fig. 2 is a view, partly in elevation and partly ‘ The valve 28 is an automatic valve preferably
in cross-section, of a compressor for use in the similar to the valve 28 and is provided with a 30
apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
.
thermostatic bulb 3| in thermal contact with the
I 1 practicing my invention, air or the like for
the enclosure Ill is thermally contacted with two
or more evaporators II and I2 preferably causing
35 the air to ?ow in series relationship in thermal
' contact with the evaporators.
The air to be con
ditioned may enter through an inlet l3 either
from the enclosure III, or from outside of the en
closure, or both, and. is caused to ?ow in thermal
40 contact with the evaporators H and I2 under the
suction line I! near the outlet 'of the evaporator
l2. The calibration of the valve 29 is such that it
opens at a vpredetermined lower pressure limit
than the valve 28, and the thermostatic bulb 3| 35
tends to throttle the valve 29 if the evaporator |2
tends to “spill over".
The compressor 2| is constructed so that the
vapors from the evaporator || are-utilized to aid
in compressing the vapors from evaporator I2. 40
impulse of the fan I4 driven by a motor IS, the , Thus, if compressor is of the reciprocating piston
air being discharged into enclosure Ill through the
outlet l6 of casing I‘! which contains the evap
orator and the fan.
45
1
t .
The evaporators.“ and I2 are connected with
a refrigerant liquefying unit I 8 in such a man
ner that
relatively
ture and
60 relatively
the evaporator II is maintained at a
high evaporator pressure or tempera
the evaporator I2 is maintained at a
low evaporating pressure or tempera
ture. To this end the evaporator I2 is con‘nected through a suction line It with a low pres
sure portion or crank case 20 of the compressor
v2| through the compressor low pressure inlet 22.
so The evaporator ;| I, which is to be maintained at
type, the piston I2 is provided with an intake or
check valve 33 such that, on the down stroke,
vapors from the ‘low pressure portion of the
crankcase 20 enter the compression chamber “- 45 '~
in the cylinder “a. When the piston 32 reaches
the lower limit of the stroke or is near the lower
limit, it uncovers a port 25 which connects the
compression chamber 84 with the oil separating‘
chamber 30, which is connected with the suction so
line 22 through the inlet 2| to the evaporator I I.
When this occurs, the relatively high pressure
vapor from the evaporator H flows through the
port 3' into the compression chamber 34 and,
because ofits higher Pressure, partially com- is
2,127,990
2
presses the vapors from the evaporator l2.
Thereafter the piston 32 completes the compres
sion of co-mingled vapors to a condensing pres
' sure by the upward stroke, and the vapors are dis
charged through the check valve 31 through the
compressor outlet 38 into the condenser 25.
In the type of compressor shown in Fig. 2,1ubrl- '
cant forhthe compressor is generally maintained
in the lower part or sump of the crankcase 20
10 from which it is splashed to the moving parts of
the compressor. It is desirable to return to the
crankcase any lubricant which is carried into the
evaporators. The lubricant which goes to the
evaporator l2 and‘is returned through the suction
15 line is, naturally separates and falls into the
lower part or sump of the crankcase. The lubri
cant which flows to the evaporator I l and returns
through the line 23 is separated from the refrig
erant vapor in' the separator chamber 36. Here
20 the lubricant is permitted to ?ow through the
. passage Ill into the crankcase 20 through the
medium of an automatic oil pressure reducing
valve such as ?oat valve 4| which opens asv the
lubricant level in the chamber 38 rises above a
25
predetermined point.
Means are provided for controlling the com
pressor M or its compressing action in accordance
with conditions produced by either or both the
evaporators I I and I2. .Thus thermostatic switch
30 42, responsive to either, or both, the dry bulb or
wet bulb temperature of the~ air in compartment
Ill starts and stops the motor 43 which drives the
compressor 2!, and maintains the desired condi
tions in the compartment Ill.
35
'
_
From the above it will be seen that a portion of
the heat from the air is removed in the evaporator
II at a relatively high temperature, and thus a
substantial portion of the refrigerating load is
performed under a relatively short evaporator
condenser temperature gradient. The ?nal low
nected to said crankcase, an oil separator con
nected to said ?rst evaporator and having an
automatic oil pressure reducing means connected
to said crankcase, an inlet port in said cylinder
covered and uncovered by said piston and .con
nected to said ?rst ‘evaporator, and condensing
means connected to said compressor and evap
orators.
,
3. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a ?rst
evaporator, a second evaporator, a compressor 10
having a crank case connected to said second
evaporator, said compressor having a cylinder
and reciprocating piston having an intake valve
connected to said crankcase, an oil separator con
nected to said ?rst evaporator and having a ?oat 15
controlled oil valve connected to said crankcase,
an inlet port in said cylinder covered and uncov
ered by said piston and connected to said ?rst
evaporator, and condensing means connected to
20
said compressor and evaporators.
4. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a ?rst '
evaporator, a second evaporator, a compressor
having a crank case connected to said second
evaporator, said compressor having a cylinder and
. reciprocating piston having an intake valve cori
nected to said crankcase, an oil separator con
nected to said ?rst evaporator and having an
automatic oil pressure reducing means connected
to said ‘crankcase, an inlet port in said cylinder
covered and uncovered by said piston and con 30
nected to said ?rst evaporator, condensing means
connected to said compressor and evaporators
and means automatically responsive to conditions
produced by at least one of said evaporators for
controlling the operation of said compressor.
5. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a ?rst
evaporator, a second evaporator, means for ther
mally contacting said evaporators in series with
an air stream to be conditioned, a compressor
having a crankcase connected to said second 40
evaporator, said compressor having a cylinder
and reciprocating piston having an intake valve
connected to said crankcase, an oil separator con
nected to said ?rst evaporator and having an
automatic oil pressure reducing means connected
to said crankcase, an inlet port in said cylinder
as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form, y covered and uncovered by said piston and vcon
it is to be understood that otherforms might be nected to said ?rst evaporator, and condensing
adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims means connected to said compressor and evap
orators.
50
which follow.
6. A refrigerating, apparatus comprising a
What is claimed is as follows:
relatively high pressure refrigerant evaporator, a
1. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a rela
tlvely high pressure evaporator, a relativelylow relatively low pressure refrigerant evaporator, a
pressure evaporator, a compressor having a low compressor withdrawing refrigerant vapor and
lubricant from said second named evaporator,
55 pressure portion connected to said relatively low said compressor having means for withdrawing
pressure evaporator and to a lubricant sump, said
compressor having a piston and compression refrigerant vapor and lubricant from said ?rst
named evaporator and 'partially compressing the
chamber and means for causing flow of refriger
vapor from said second named evaporator with
ant vapor from said relatively low pressure'evap
orator into said compression chamber during the the vapor from said ?rst named evaporator, said 60
suction cycle of said piston, a lubricant separator compressor having means for completely com
pressing said vapors to a condensing pressure,
connected to said relatively high pressure evap
means for separating the lubricant from the
orator and to said compressor and having a pres
sure reducing valve connected to said lubricant vapor from one of said evaporators and mixing it
sump, means causing ?ow of refrigerant vapor’ with lubricant from the other of said evaporators 65
“ from said relatively high pressure'evaporator to ‘before compression, and means for condensing
'said compression chamber near the end of the the compressed vapors and introducing the con
suction cycle of said piston, and condensing means densate thus formed into said evaporators.
7. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a rela
connected to said compressor and said evapo-y
tively high pressure refrigerant evaporator, a rel
rators.
70
2. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a ?rst atively low pressure refrigerant evaporator, a
:evaporator, a second evaporator, a compressor compressor withdrawing refrigerant vapor and
having a crank case connected to said second lubricant from said second named evaporator,
evaporator, said compressor having a cylinder and said compressor having means for withdrawing
refrigerant vapor and lubricant from said ?rst 75
75 reciprocating piston having an intake valve con
temperature of air‘only needs to be imparted by
the evaporator l2. This mode of operation
greatly increases the e?iciency and cost of opera
tion, and greatly increases the refrigerating or air
conditioning
capacity of the system.
45
While the form of ‘embodiment of the invention
3
2,127,990
named evaporator and partially compressing the
an intake connected to said low pressure evap
vapor from said second named evaporator‘ with
the vapor from said ?rst named evaporator, said
compressor having means for completely com
pressing said vapors to a condensing pressure,
orator, an oil separator for said high pressure
intake, means‘ automatically introducing sep
arated oil from said separator to said crankcase,
and condensing means connected to said com 5
means including a ?oat controlled valve for sep~
pressor and said evaporators.
arating the lubricant from the vapor from one
10. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a rela
tively low pressure evaporator, a relatively low
of said evaporators and mixing it with lubricant
from the other of said evaporators before com
pression, and means for condensing the com=
pressed vapors and introducing the condensate
thus formed into said evaporator-s.
8. A refrigerating apparatus comprising; a rel
atively high pressure refrigerant evaporator: a
relatively low pressure refrigerant evaporator; a
compressor having a crankcase, cylinder and pis
ton, said piston having a valved connection with
said crankcase, said cylinder having a relatively
high pressure intake connected to said high pres~
20 sure evaporator, said crankcase having a. rela~
pressure evaporator, a compressor having a
crankcase, cylinder and piston, said piston hav 10
ing a valved connection with said crankcase, said
cylinder having a high pressure intake connected
with said high pressure evaporator, said crank
case having a low pressure intake connected with
said low pressure evaporator, an oil separator for 15
said high pressure intake, a ?oat controlled valve
automatically introducing separated oil from
said separator to said crankcase, and condensing
means connected to said compressor and said
evaporators.
'
20
tively low pressure intake connected to said low
11. Refrigerating apparatus comprising evap
pressure evaporator, an oil separator tor said ' orator means, a compressor having a crankcase,
high pressure intake, and means automatically cylinder and piston, said piston having a valved
introducing separated oil from said separator to connection with said crankcase, said cylinder
25 said crankcase; and means for condensing the having a high pressure intake connected with said 25
compressed vapors and introducing the condene evaporator means, said crankcase having a low
sate thus formed into said evaporators.
pressure ‘intake connected with said evaporator
9. Refrigerating apparatus comprising a rela
means, an oil separator for said high pressure
tively high pressure evaporator, a relatively low intake, means automatically introducing sep
30 pressure evaporator, a compressor having a arated oil from said separator to said crankcase, 30
crankcase, cylinder and piston, said piston having
a valved connection with said crankcase; said
cylinder having an intake connected with said
high pressure evaporator, said crankcase having
and condensing means connected to said com
pressor and said evaporator means.
ROBERT R. CANDOR.
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