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Патент USA US2127991

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Aug. 23, 1938.
2,127,991
n. R. cANDoR
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed April 30, 1934
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
2
.IÉ
Aug. 23, 1938.
R. R. cANDoR
2,127,991
REFRIGEHATING APPARATUS
Filed April 30, 1934
-//
74
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
_ 7g
2,127,991
Patented Aug. 23, 1938
UNITED ¿STATES2,127,991PATENT OFFICE
‘ REFRJGERATING APrAaATUs «
Robert R. Candor, Dayton, Ohio, assigner to Gen
eral Motors Corporation, Dayton,` Ollio, a cor
poration of Delaware
Application April 30,1934, serial 110,123,113
_1v claims. t (ol. «s2-115)
This invention relates to refrigeration and more
particularly to'the conditioning of air.
.
It is -an object of this invention to provide a
method and apparatus for conditioning air by
5 which efllciency is increased, and power consump
tion decreased,_with but slight and inexpensive
changes in apparatus which _has heretofore been
used.
"
v
'
Further objects and advantages of the present
v 10 invention will be apparent from the following
sure or temperature in evaporator Il. The evap
orated refrigerant from these evaporators is in
tro‘duced> into the compressing'and condensing
means at the _proper stages of compression to
- obtain full advantage of my invention. Thus a
compressor i4 is provided having a plurality of
compressing chambers Il and ,i6 which may be
of substantially the same volumetric displace
ment. These chambers are provided with pistons
I1 and Il of substantially the same diameter and 10
description reference being had to the accom ' which are reciprocated by eccentrics on the shaft
panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of the I9- having substantially the same throw. ' The
check valves 20 and 2I are constructed to cause
present invention is clearly shown.
‘the
flow of refrigerant vapor into the crankcase
In the drawings:
`
l
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of an
apparatus embodying- features of my invention;
Fig. 2 is a view somewhat similar to a portion of
the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, showing a slightly
modified form;
-` 20
f
'
Fig. 3 is a view, partly in cross section, and
partly diagrammatic of the application o_f my
»invention to a railway car or the like;
l
Fig. .4 is a> diagrammatic plan view of a carto
which my invention may be applied:
’
g5 i Fig. 5 is a plan view of the top of the air con
ditioner shown in Fig. 3; and
22 and the valves 2l and 24 are constructed to 15
cause'a flow of refrigerant vapor from the crank
case' 22. ' The suction outlet of the relatively cold
evaporator i2 is connected by means of the line
'25 with the intake 28 of the compressing chamber
Iii from which the partially compressed refriger
20
ant vapors are discharged into crankcase 22. The
suction outlet of thev evaporator I2 is connected
by the line 21 with the crankcase 22. Here the
-vapors from evaporator I2 are commingled with `
the partially compressed vapors from evaporator 25
I2 and enters the compression chamber I5. The
Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical cross-sectional- discharge from the compressing chamber i5 is
A view of the top of the air conditioner shown in
vai)
Fig 3.v
4`i'i'ccording to this invention, the efficiency of
the usual multiple vcylinder compressor used for
connected by the line 2l with the condenser 2l
which is provided with the liquid receiver It.
From this -receiver. liquefied refrigerant flows
through the line 2l through branches 32 and 33I
.air conditioning is greatly enhanced by a slight . to the evaporators I2 and I2 respectively for
»
and inexpensive change in the valves, and without reevaporation.
the necessity of changing the bore or volumetric v .The evaporator i2 is provided'withan auto
capacity of the various cylinders: By this inven
tion, air may be conditioned by evaporators which
gradually decrease in temperatureand the vari
matic expansion valve .2l which- tends to feed
liquid refrigerant into the evaporator when the
pressure is reduced below a predetermined limit.l '
ons cylinders may be coordinated -into the air con
However, this action is modified by a thermostatic
mere change in the valving structure of the com- ‘
pressor is sufficient to'accomplish this end.
f
the valve 24 when the liquid refrigerant .tends to
flow past the-evaporator outlet into the line 21..
A valve 2B, similarto the valve 24, is placed at the
inlet of the evaporator I2. A thermostatic bulb
31, similar to the bulb 2i, is placed near the out
let of the evaporator i3 and throttles the valve
bulb 25 placed near the refrigerant outlet of
ditioning scheme without the necessityof chang
ing the main parts of the compressor. Usually a i evaporator I2. This thermostatic bulb throttles
As shown in Fig. 1, air to be conditioned which
may come 4from the outside atmosphere, or from
an enclosure or both may be caused to flow in the
form of a stream through a casing Ill by any
suitable means as the motor driven fan Il and
the conditioned -air is discharged. into the en-y
26 in the same manner.
‘
As shown in Fig. 1. evaporated refrigerant from
the evaporator I3 flows into the intake 22` of the
closure. The stream of air first encounters the
relatively warm evaporator l2 and then the rela ' compressing chamber. it. It then flows past the
tively cold evaporator I2. Thus a certain portion - valve 2U and is forced on the upward stroke of the
of the heat from the air is removed therefrom at
a relatively‘high refrigerant pressure or tempera
piston Il into-` the crankcase 22.> _From thence it
flows through the valved intake 22 of the com
ture in evaporator I2 and the last traces of heat pressingI _chamber Il lon the -,downward stroke of
g5 are removed by a relativelyY low refrigerant pres- - the piston i1, and is forced through the valve 2l
i
2L..
2,127,991
into the outletl 38 on the up stroke of the piston
1 and 2, stage compression may be obtained'
I1. The refrigerant then ñows to the condenser
which may be coordinated with an air condition
29 where it is liquefied and is re-intrbduced into
the evaporators through the expansion valves 34
fWhile .I have described certain features of my
and 36. Evaporated refrigerant from the warm
evaporator I2 flows through the line 21 to th'e
invention as particularly> advantageous with com
pression chambers of substantially equal“ volu
crankcase 22 where it is mingled with the partly
compressed refrigerant from the evaporator I3
metric displacement these and other features
may also be used where the compression chambers
and enters therewith into the compression cham
are not thus equal.
The air condi ioning system shown in Figs. 1
10 ber I5', under the compressing action of the
piston I1, and ñows to the condenser 29 for reuse
in the evaporator.
Automatic controls
are
provided.
Thus
a
thermostat 39 may be placed in- the enclosure
15 which is supplied with air from the casing I9.
This thermostat may operate a snap switch 40
which starts and stops the motor 4I which drives
the compressor I4. The thermostat 39 may be
calibrated to start the motor at a predetermined
20 higher temperature limit and to stop the motor
at a predetermined lower temperature limit. The
flow of refrigerant through one of the evaporators
Y may be controlled in accordance with slightly dif
ferent air conditions.
Thus the line 21 may be
ing system- to great advantage as described.
and 2 may be ofge‘neral application and may be
used to condition a r or similar gas wherever de
sired.
One place where it is particularly ad
vantageous and where electrical energy is at a
premium is on railway cars, such as indicated in
Figs. 3 to 6 inclusive. Thus the car may have a
passenger enclosure 10. This enclosure may have
one or more rows ofl seats 1I and 12, one on each
side of the aisle 13. Between the seats on each
row air conditioners 14 may be placed in parallel.v
relationship with the long dimension of the seats.I
The air conditioners 'I4 may each take the form
of a vertically disposed casing 15 which is rela
tively _long in horizontal cross section and is
adapted to fill the spacebetween two seats, which
25 provided with throttling valve 42 which is actu
may be placed back to back as shown in Fig. 8.
A motor driven fan 16 may' be placed in the
casing together with a. relatively warm evaporator
43 may be calibrated at slightly higher tempera
ture limits. Thus when the temperature in the 11 and a relatively cold evaporator 18. These
30 enclosure drops to a predetermined higher limit, _ members correspond to the fan II and evapo 80
rators I2 and I3 respectively in Fig. 1. Air from
the valve 42 is throttled and thus a fiow of re
frigerant through the evaporator I2 is stopped. the enclosure 10 flows through inlet 19 past the
If the temperature in the enclosure drops to a relatively warm evaporator 11 under the impulse
still lower predetermined limit, the thermostat of fan 16 and then iiows through a relatively cold
evaporator`18 from which it is’diffused into en
35 39 stops the compressor I4. Thereafter, if the
ated by a thermostat 43 also placed in the en
closure with the thermostat 39. The thermostat
temperature risesto a predetermined limit, the f closure 10 in an upward direction through louvers
thermostat ~39 starts the compressor I4, and if 80 placed in the upper part of. the casing 15.
the temperature rises to a still higher limit, the These louvers 80 may conveniently be made par
thermostat 4’3 opens the valve 42. 'I'he thermo
stats 39 and 43 may both be dry bulb thermostats
or they maybe both wet bulb thermostats or
psychometers, or one may be a dry bulb and the
other a wet bulb thermostat or a psychometer.
At the present, it is preferable to have them both
dry bulb thermostats.
-
In the modification shown in Fig. 2 the valve
structure is slightly-modified. Thus the relatively
cold evaporator I3 may be connected by theline
50 with the compressing chamber 5I. 'I'he re
frigerant may enter past the check valve 52 on
the down stroke of the piston 53. Refrlgerant
may be discharged past the check valve 54 on the
-up stroke of the piston 53 and may flow through
the passage 55 into the crankcase 55 of the com
55 pressor. The relatively warm evaporator I2 may
be connected by the line 51 with the crankcase 56.
The‘ commingled evaporated refrigerant from
both evaporators may pass through the check
valve 58 into the compression chamber 59 on the
down stroke of the piston 60. These vapors'may
be discharged through the check valve 6I and 'the
yup stroke of the piston 60 and may flow through
the line 62 of a condenser corresponding `to the
condenser 29. The volumetric displacement of
65 the compressing chambers 5I and 59 may be sub
stantially equal, andthe remainder of the system
may be as shown in Fig. 1.
In constructing compressors as shown in Figs.
1 and 2, the usual single stage multiple cylinder
70 compressors may be used, which are generally
provided with check valves in the pistons and
at the cylinder heads in such a manner as to
cause the flow of refrigerant in parallel relation
._ship` through the compression chambers. By
changing the valve structures as shown in Figs.
allel with several of them slanting in one direc
tion 'and several of them slanting in the other
direction thus to spread the air upwardly and
outwardly over the seats but above the head room
of persons occupying the seats. A refrigerant
compression system substantially as shown in
Fig. 1 may be placed anywhere in the car. A
thermostat 8| may control the suction line 82 of
evaporator 11 in a manner similar to valve 42
and thermostat 43 in Fig. 1, while a thermostat
83 may control the starting and stopping of the
motor, not shown, in a manner similar to the oper-ation of thermostat 39 in Fig. 1. The motor may
be driven from the usual electric storage battery
system provided in railway cars or by any other
electric system- especially provided therefor, as
desired.
"
v
While the form of embodiment of the invention
as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form,
it is to be understood that other forms might be
adopted, all coming within the scope of the
claims which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
`
.
1. In combination a relatively warm evapora-tor, a relatively cold evaporator, compressing
means and condensing means connected to with
draw evaporated refrigerant from said evapora
tors, compress and condense the same and return _
condensed refrigerant to said evaporators, said
compressing means including compressing cham
bers of substantially the ysame volumetric dis
placement, the suction line from said cold evap
orator being connected to the intake of one of 70
said compressing chambers, the discharge from
said last named compressing chamber and the
suction line from said warm evaporator being
connected to the intake of another of said com
pressing chambers. .
.
3
2,127,991
evaporators, compress and condense the same . '
2. In combination, a relatively warm evapora
and return condensed ref
tor, a relatively cold- evaporator, compressing
erant to said evap
orators, said vcompressing means including a plu
means and condensing means connected to with
draw evaporated refrigerant from said evapora- . rality of compressing chambers, the suction line
tors, compress and condense the same and return from said cold evaporator being connected to the
intake of one of said compressing chambers, the
condensed refrigerant to said evaporators, said
discharge from said` last named compressing
compressing means forming a plurality of com"
pressing chambers and a crankcase, the suction
chambers and the suction line from said warm
evaporator being connected to the intake of an
line from said cold evaporator being connected to
the‘intake of one of said compressing chambers,
the discharge from said last named compressing
chamber and the suction from said warm evap
orator being connected to said crankcase, the in
take of another of said compressing chambers be
ing connected to said crankcase, and the dis
charge from said last named compressing cham
ber being connected to said condensing means.
3. An air conditioning apparatus vcomprising
10
other of said compressing chambers.
'7. An air conditioning apparatus comprising
means creating a stream of air‘to be conditioned,
a relatively warm evaporator and a relatively cold
evaporator in thermal exchange relationship with v
said stream of air, said evaporators being in 15
series relationship in said stream of air, com
pressing means and condensing means connected
to withdraw evaporated refrigerant from -said
evaporators, compress and condense the same
and return condensed refrigerant to said evap
orators, said compressing méans including ai plu
means creating a stream of air to be conditioned,
20 a relatively warm evaporator and a relatively cold
evaporator in thermal exchange relationship
rality of compressing chambers, the suction line
with said stream of air, compressing means and
condensing means connected to withdraw evap
from said cold evaporator being connected to the
intake of one of said compressing chambers, the
discharge from said last -named compressing
chamber and the suction line from said warm
evaporator being connected to the intake of an
orated refrigerant from said evaporators, com
25 press and condense the same and return con
densed refrigerant to said evaporators, said com
pressing means including a plurality of compress
ing chambers,-the suction vline from said _cold other of said compressing chambers means con
evaporator being connected to the intake of one trolling the operation of said compressing means~
in accordance with air conditions, and means 30
30 of‘said compressing chambers, the discharge from throttling the flowof refrigerant in one of said
said last named compressing chamber and the
suction line from said warm evaporator being evaporators in accordance with air conditions.
8. An air conditioning apparatus comprising
4»an enclosure, means creating a stream of' air to
connected to the intake of another of said com
pressing chambers.
/
35
be conditioned for said enclosure, a relatively
`4. An air conditioning apparatus comprising
-Warm evaporator and a relatively cold evapora
means creating a stream of air to be conditioned,
tor in thermal exchange relationship with said
_ a relatively warm evaporator and a >relatively cold
stream of air, compressing means and condensing
said stream of air, compressing means and con-,f` means connected to Withdraw evaporated refrig
erant from said evaporators, compress and con 40
40 densing means-connected to withdraw evaporat
dense the same and return condensed refrigerant
ed refrigerant from said evaporators, compress to
said evaporators, means controlling the opera
and condense the same and return condensed re
frigerant to said evaporators, said compressing tion of said compressing' means in accordance
with air conditions in said enclosure and means
means forming a plurality of compressing cham
throttling the flow of .refrigerant in one of said
bers
and
a
crankcase,
the
suction
line
from
said
45
evaporator in thermal exchange relationship with
evaporators in accordance with other air‘ condi
cold evaporator being connected to the intake of
tions .in said enclosure.
one of said compressing chambers, the discharge
a row of seats, an air conditioning apparatus
for said enclosure comprising means creating a 50
streamof air to be conditioned between two of
said seats,v a relatively warm evaporator- and a
relatively cold evaporator in thermal exchange
connected to said crankcase, the„intake of an
other of said compressing- chambers being con
nected to said crankcaseand the discharge from
said last named compressing chamber being con
necte'd to said condensing- means.
'
.
'
9. A car having a passenger enclosure having-
from said last named compressing chamber and
the suction from said warm evaporator being
‘ relationship with said lstreamof air, compressing '
5. An air conditioning` _apparatus vcomprising
means creating a stream of air to be conditioned,
a relatively warm evaporator and a relatively cold «,
evaporator in thermal exchange relationship
with said stream of~ air; compressing means and
60 condensing means connected towithdraw evapo
rated refrigerant from said evaporators, compress
' and condense the same and> return condensedv re
means and condensing means connected to with
55
'
draw evaporated refrigerant from said evapora
tors, compress and condense the same and return
condensed refrigerant to said evaporators; means
controlling the operation 'of said compressing
means in accordance with air conditions in said
enclosure.
y
l
`
10. A car having a passenger enclosure having
a. row of seats, an air~ conditioning apparatus
forA said venclosure comprising means creating a
frigerant to said evaporators, means controlling
the operation' of said compressing means in ac
stream of air.y to be conditioned between two of
cordance >with air‘conditions and means throt
said _seats evaporating means in thermal exchange» '
tling the flow of refrigerant in one of said evap
Arelationship
with said stream of air, compressing .
orators 'in accordance with other air conditions.
[6. An air conditioning apparatus comprising
means creating- a stream of air to be conditioned.
a relatively warmevaporator and a relatively cold
, evaporator in thermal exchange relationship with
said stream of air, said evaporators being in
series relationship in said stream of air, com
pressing means and condensing means connected
to withdraw evaporated refrigerant from said'
and condensing means connected to withdraw
e'vaporated refrigerant from saidI evaporating
means, compress 'and condense. the same and re
turn condensed ‘refrigerant to. said _evaporati'ng
means, and> means controlling vthe operation of
17o,”
said compressing means in accordance with con- y
ditions in said car.
_
-
1l. A car having a --passenger enclosure having 75,
4
2,121,991
l
a row of seats, an air conditioning apparatus for u commingled> vapors, condensing the vapors thus
said enclosure disposed between two seats com
` prising means creating -a stream of air and cooling
compressed, reevaporating them in said zones,
controlling the evaporation in one of said zones
means in thermal exchange relationship with said -independently of the other zone in accordance
with air conditions and starting and stopping the
‘
A
12. A car having two rows of seats, one on each _` compressionof refrigerant vapors in accordance
stream of air.
side of an aisle, an air cooler on one side of said' with air conditions.
16. In combination, a relatively warm evap
aisle between two seats and an air cooler on the
other side of said aisle arranged to cooperate with orator. a relatively cold evaporator, compressing
10 the first named- cooler to create a circulation of 'means and condensing means connected to with 10
conditioned air within the car.
-
13. A car having two rows of seats, one on each
side of an aisle, an air cooler on one side of said
, aisle between two seats and an air-cooler on the
15 other side of -said aisle said coolers discharging
cooled air upwardly and cooperating .to create a
current of conditioned air within the car.
414. The method of conditioning air which Acom->
prises ilowing air in a stream. thermally contact
20 ing said stream with a volatile refrigerant in a
ñrst zone maintained at a relatively warm evap
orating temperature, thermally contacting said
stream with a volatile refrigerant in a second zone
maintained at a relatively cold evaporating tem
draw evaporated refrigerant from said evapora
tors, compress and condense the same and return
condensed refrigerant to said evaporators, said
compressing means having substantially the same
volumetric displacement for each evaporator, the 15
suction line from said cold evaporator being con
nected to the intake of Aone of said compressing
means, the discharge from said last named com
pressing means and the suction line from said
warm evaporator being connected to the intake 20
of another of said compre
ing means.
_
17. In-a combination, relatively warm evap
orator, a relatively cold evaporator, compressing
means and condensing means connected to with
perature, compressing refrigerant vaporsl from
draw evaporated refrigerant from said evapora
said second zone in a first compressing stage, mix
tors, compress and condense the same and re
ing the vapors thus compressed with refrigerant
vapor from said first zone and compressing the
commingled vapors, condensing the vapors thus
30 compressed and re-evaporating- them in said
zones.
15. The method of conditioning air which com
prises flowing air in a stream, thermally contact
25
turn condensed refrigerant to said evaporators,
said compressing means having only two com
pressing chambers both of which have substan
tially the same volumetric displacement, and a 30
crankcase, the suction line from said cold evapora
>torqbeing connected to the intake of one of said
compressing chambers, the discharge from ‘said
ing*- said stream with a volatile refrigerant in' a ' last named compressing chamber and the suction
from said warm evaporator being connected to 35
Afirst zone maintained at a relatively warm evap
orating temperature, thermally contacting 4said’
stream with- a volatile refrigerant in a second zone
maintained at a relatively cold evaporating tem
' perature, compressing -refrigerant vapors> froïn
40 said second zone in a first compressing stage, mix
ing the vapors thus compressed with refrigerant
vapor from said first zone and compressing the
said crankcase, the intake of another of said com
pressing chambers being connected to said crank
case, and the discharge from said last named com
pressing chamber being connected to said con
densing means.
,
'
,ROBERT R. CANDOR.
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