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Патент USA US2128020

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Aug. 23', 1938.
J, sMlLACK
2,128,020
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
-
Filed Dec. 14, 1934
52
INVENTOR.
J'AcbB SM/MCK
J/AM,Mz/2
ATTORNEY.
BY
‘
Patented Aug. 23, 1938
2,128,020
UNITED STATES, PATENT OFFICE
2,128,020
BEFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Jacob Smilack, Dayton, Ohio, assignor to General
Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, at corpora
~ tion of Delaware
Application December 14, 1934, Serial No. 157,491
(Cl. 62-127)
be disposed in separate compartments 58 and 80
This invention relates to refrigerating appara
10 Claim.
tus, and more particularly to an apparatus for
maintaining a plurality of compartments at dif-.
respectively, in which it is desired to maintain
relatively different temperatures. The general
components of the refrigerating system thus de
ferent temperatures.
Heretofore, in the construction of refrigerators 1 scribed may be of any well known construction, .
5
of the compressor-condenser-expander type it being understood that the illustration of these
which have two or more evaporators maintained . components is merely diagrammatic and repre
at different suction pressures for maintaining a
sentative of but one form which the elements.
plurality of compartments at di?erent tempera
may conveniently take.
1.) tures, it has been customary to utilize individual
valves for controlling the ?ow of liquid refrig
erant to each of the evaporators. Refrigerating
systems having but a single evaporator have been
constructed heretofore in which the use of a valve
for controlling the refrigerant flow has been elim
inated by the provision of a ?xed restrictor. Be
fore the present invention, however, the use of a
?xed restrictor with its many obvious advantages
over a ?oat valve or expansion valve has been
20 limited to the so-called single temperature re
with a branch connection 42 intermediate its
ends. The cylindrical members 34 and 38 are
preferably assembled in a manner to provide a
?uid tight ?t between the adjacent surfaces of
the two members. This may be done by giving 20
frigerating systems.
the members 34 and 38 an interference ?t and
It is an object of the present invention, there
fore to provide a two-temperature or multiple
telescoping them together while they are at wide
ly different temperatures and permitting the tem
peratures of the members to equalize. After the
members 34 and 38 have been thus assembled, a 25
filter 44 is placed inside the hollow member 34
evaporator refrigerating apparatus in which the
2., advantages inherent in a ?xed restrictor are
made available and in which the use of individ
ual valves for controlling the rate of flow of
refrigerant to the evaporators is made unneces
sary.
so
The restrictor 22 is of special construction com- 10
prising an inner cylindrical member 34 having a
helical groove '36 formed upon its outer surface
and an outer member 38 having a smooth inner
surface. The outer member 38 is formed with
an outlet connection 48 at its closed end, and 15
A further object is to provide a novel restrictor
for use in multiple refrigerating systems.
Further objects and advantages of the present
invention will be apparent from the following
description, reference being had to the accom
35 panying drawing, wherein a preferred form of the
present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawing:
The ?gure is a diagrammatic view of a refrig
erating system embodying the present invention,
.10 portions of the mechanism being shown in cross
section and on a larger scale.
Referring now to the drawing, there is illus—
trated a two-temperature refrigerating system
comprising a compressor l0 driven by a motor
I2 for delivering compressed refrigerant through
a conduit i4 to a condenser Hi.
The compressed
refrigerant is liquefied in the condenser i8 and
collected in a receiver l8, whence it is delivered
by a conduit 20 to a fixed restrictor 22. Liquid
refrigerant is delivered from the restrictor 22 to
a high temperature evaporator 24 and to a low_
temperature evaporator 26. The refrigerant ex
panded in the two evaporators is delivered by
conduits 28, 38 and 32 to the compressor ill for
55 recompression. The evaporators 24 and 26 may
'
and a cap member 48 is secured to the open end
of the outer cylindrical member 38. An inlet
connection 48 is formed in the cap member 46.
By this construction, there is provided a ?xed 30
restrictor having an inlet 48 at one end thereof,
an outlet 40 at the opposite end, and a branch
connection 42 intermediate its end. The helical
groove 34 forms a conduit or passage of small
cross section and great length through which re- 35
frigerant must .?ow from inlet 48 to the outlets
40 and 42. It will be seen that the path of re
frigerant from inlet 48 to outlet 42 is shorter
than the path between inlet 48 and outlet 40,
and that a portion of the two paths to the two
outlets is coincident.
Between the outlet 42 and the high tempera
ture evaporator 24, there is interposed a suitable
valve for controlling the flow of refrigerant to
the high temperature evaporator 24. vThis may
take the form of an electro-magnetically operated
valve 50, of any suitable constructionby which
the admission of liquid refrigerant to the‘ high
temperature evaporator may be started or
stopped. In the form illustrated, the valve is
constructed so that when supplied with current,
the passage from the outlet 42 to the evaporator.
24 is maintained open and when the current sup
ply is interrupted, the passage for refrigerant is
maintained closed.v Preferably, this valve func-
40
45
so
55
2
9,198,090
tions solely as any on-o? control without varying
the pressure of the liquid refrigerant while it is
being delivered to the evaporator 24. Between
the low temperature evaporator 26 and the con
duit 2|, there is provided a suitable check valve 52
which acts to prevent the flow of expanded re
frigerant from conduit 28 to the evaporator 2'.
Suitable control means are'pi'bvided for the
motor l2 and for the valve 50 which may include
10 a thermostatic or other temperature responsive
switch 54 which is responsive to temperature con
ditions at the evaporator 24. Switch 54 is con
nected in circuit in series with the motor l2 and
also with the electro-magnetic valve 50 so that
15 whenever switch 54 is closed, the valve 50 will
be opened and the motor l2 will run. A second
thermostatic or other temperature responsive
switch 56, is provided which is responsive to tem
perature conditions at the evaporator 25. The
switch 56 is connected in parallel with that por
tion of the circuit including the switch 54 and
the valve 50. Thus, whenever the switch 56 is
closed, the motor l2 will be energized but the
valve 50‘ will not be energized.
.
ment of the invention utilizing two evaporators.
it will be understood that three or more evapo
rators may be maintained at different temperatures by similar apparatus utilizing a restrictor
with two or more branch connections at different
points along the length of the helical groove.
While the form of embodiment of the present
invention as herein disclosed constitutes a pre
ferred form, it is to be understood that other
forms might be adopted, all coming within the 10
scope of the claims which follow.
~Whatis claimed is as follows:
1. A refrigerating system comprising in com
bination, a refrigerant translating device, a con
denser, a pair of evaporators, a restrictor having 15
a passage of small cross-section and great length
and having an inlet connected to said condenser
at one end, a branch connection from said pas
sage intermediate its ends to one of said evapo
rators, and another connection beyond said 20
branch connection to the other of said evapo
rators.
‘
2. A two-temperature refrigerating system
comprising in combination a compressor, a con
denser,‘ a high temperature evaporator, a low 25
temperature evaporator, a restrictor having a
passage of small cross-section and great length
the restrictor 22 through the inlet 48 and is I'll
tered by the ?lter element 44 before entering the . therethrough for refrigerant, a branch connec
e
helical groove 36 at the left hand end thereof. tion communicating with said restrictor
In operation, the high pressure lique?ed_re
frigerant delivered throughv the conduit 2|! enters
Assuming that refrigeration isv needed only in
compartment 58, switch 54 will be closed and
switch 56 will be open. Under these conditions,
the motor I2 is running and the‘valve 50 is open.
Refrigerant passing through-the restrictor 22 will
branch connection for connecting said evapora
tors to said restrictor so that refrigerant ?owing
through the passage thereof from its one end
to its other end is fed to the low temperature
be delivered through the outlet 42. ‘ Inasmuch as
evaporator and refrigerant ?owing through the
the refrigerant passing to the outlet 42 trans
passage of said restrictor to said branch connec
tion is fed .to the high temperature evaporator.
verses a shorter path than the refrigerant pass
ing to the outlet 40, its pressure will be reduced
less than that of the refrigerant leaving the out
40 let 40. Accordingly, a higher pressure will be
maintained in the evaporator 24 than that main
tained in the evaporator 26. Due to this higher
pressure in evaporator 24, check valve 52 will be
maintained closed so long as the pressure within
45 the evaporator 28 is below that in evaporator 24.
As soon as the temperature within the compart
ment 58 has been reduced to the point at which
switch 54 opens, the valve 50 will close, thus cut
ting off the supply of liquid refrigerant to the
50 evaporator 24 and stopping compressor i 0. When
refrigeration is needed in compartment 60, switch
56 will close placing in operation the compressor
which will act to reduce the pressure in the
evaporator 24 and conduits 28, 30 and 32 until
55 the point is reached where the check valve 52
will open, thus providing for withdrawal of re
frigerant from evaporator 26. Inasmuch as the
liquid refrigerant passing through the restrictor
to the outlet 40 transverses a longer path, its
60 pressure will be reduced more than the reduction
obtained in passing from the inlet 48 to the out
let 42 and the evaporator 26 will, therefore, oper
ate at a lower suction pressure.
As soon as the
temperature within the compartment 80 has been
65 su?iciently reduced, the switch 56 will open, stop
ping operation of the compressor l0. Therefore,
whenever either of the switches 54 or 56 closes,
the compressor will be operated to withdraw re
frigerant from the evaporator associated with the
70 respective switch. It will be seen that when re
frigeration is demanded in both compartments,
the compartment 60 takes preference to the ex
tent that its temperature is reduced to the cut
off point before the valve 50 isipermitt‘ed'to open.
75
intermediate its ends, and means including said
While there has been illustrated'an embodi
3. A two-temperature refrigerating system
comprising in combination a compressor, a con
denser, a high temperature evaporator, a low
temperature evaporator, a restrictor having a
passage of small cross-section and great length
therethrough for refrigerant and having an inlet
at one end and an outlet at its other end, a branch
connection communicating with said restrictor 45
passage intermediate its ends and closer to the
outlet end than the inlet end thereof, and means
including‘ said branch connection for connecting
said evaporators to said restrictor so that refrig
erant flowing through the passage thereof from
its inlet end to its outlet end is fed to the low
temperature evaporator and refrigerant ?owing
through the passage of said restrictor to said
branch connection is fed to the high temperature
evaporator.
4. A two-temperature refrigerating system
comprising in combination a compressor, a con
denser, a high temperature evaporator, a low
temperature evaporator, a restrictor having a
passage of small cross-section and great length
therethrough for refrigerant, a branch connec
tion communicating with said restrictor passage
intermediate its ends, means including said
branch connection for connecting said evapora
tors to said restrictor so that refrigerant ?owing
through the passage thereof from its one end to
its other end is fed to the low temperature
evaporator and refrigerant ?owing through the
passage of said resistor to said branch connec
tion is fed to the high temperature evaporator, a 70
valve for preventing back ?ow of gaseous refrig
erant from the high temperature evaporator to
the low temperature evaporator, and means for
at times preventing the delivery of refrigerant 15
3
2,120,020
from the high temperature evaporator to the
compressor.
5. A refrigerating system comprising in combi
nation, a refrigerant translating device, a con
denser, a pair of evaporators, a resistor having a
passage of small cross-section and great length
and having an inlet at one end thereof connected
to said condenser, a branch connection from said
passage intermediate its ends to one of said evapo
10 rators, another connection beyond said branch
connection to the other of said evaporators, a
valve in one of said connections, and means for
actuating said valve in accordance with refrig
eration conditions.
6. A refrigerating system comprising in combi
nation, a refrigerant translating ‘device, a con
20
denser, a pair of evaporators, a restrictor having a
passage of small cross-section and great length
and having an inlet at one end thereof connected
to said condenser, a branch connection from said
passage intermediate its ends to one of said evapo
rators, another connection beyond said branch
connection to the other of said evaporators,-a
valve in one of said connections, compartments
cooled by said evaporators, and controls respon
sive to conditions in said compartments for 10
modifying the operation of said translating de
vice, one of said controls actuating said valve.
9. A refrigerating system comprising in combi
nation, a refrigerant translating device, a con
denser, a pair of evaporators, a restrictor having
denser, a pair of evaporators, a restrictor having 15
a passage of small cross-section and great length
and having an inlet at one end thereof connected
a passage of small cross-section and great. length
and having an inlet at one end thereof connected
to said condenser, a branch connection from
said passage intermediate its ends to one of said
to said condenser, a'branch connection from said
evaporators, another connection- beyond said
passage intermediate its ends to one of said evapo
branch connection to the other .of said evapora
rators, another connection beyond said branch
tors, a valve in one of said connections, compart
connection to the other of said evaporators, a
ments cooled by said evaporators, and thermo
valve in said branch connection for controlling the
flow of refrigerant to said other of said evapora
stats in said compartments; controlling the ?ow
of electricity to said translating device.
25
tors, and means for actuating said valve in ac
cordance with refrigeration conditions of said
other of said evaporators.
'
7. A refrigerating system comprising in combi
30 nation, a refrigerant translating device, a con
10. A refrigerating system comprising in com
bination, a refrigerant translating device, a con
denser, a pair of evaporators, a restrictor having
a passage of small cross-section and‘great length
and having an'inlet at one end thereof connected
denser, a pair of evaporators, a restrictor having
a passage of small-cross-section and great length
to said condenser, a branch connection from said ‘
passage intermediate its ends to one of said
and having an inlet at one end thereof connected
to said condenser, a branch connection from said
passage intermediate its ends to one of said
branch connection to the other of said evapo
evaporators, another connection beyond said
branch connection to the other of said evapora
tors, a valve in one of said connections, compart
ments cooled by said evaporators, and controls
40 responsive to conditions in said compartments for
modifying the operation of said translating device.
8. A refrigerating system comprising in combi
nation, a refrigerant translating device, a con.
evaporators, another connection beyond said
rators, a valve in one of said connections, com
partments cooled by said evaporators, thermo
stats in_said compartments ‘controlling the ?ow
of electricity to said translating device, a solenoid
35
connected to said valve, and one of said thermo
stats controlling the flow of electricity to said 40
solenoid.
.
JACOB SMILACK.
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