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Патент USA US2128028

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Aug. 23, 1938.
w. M; HAMPTON
2,128,028
APPARATUS FOR APPLYING LIQUID MATERIAL TO GLOBULAR ARTICLES
Filed July 5, 1936
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Patented Aug. 23, 1938
2,128,028 a ‘
UNITED STATES PATIENT OFFICE
APPARATUS For. APPLYING LIQUID MA
TEmAL 'ro GLoBULA'n ARTICLES
William Morgan Hampton, Winter Haven, Fla.,
' assignor to Brogdex Company, Pomona, Calif.,
_ a corporation of Florida
‘Application July s, 1936, Serial No. 88,849
7 Claims. (01. 91-46)
' 'ihis invention relates generally to apparatus
for applying liquid material to globular articles.
Although the invention is capable of wide ap
plication in treating‘ or applying liquid material
5 to many di?erent articles of generally globular
shape, it is particularly useful in the preparation
for market of fresh fruit and vegetables, such as
oranges, lemons, grapefruit, apples, tomatoes,
and the like, all of which may, for convenience,
1. be generically’ referred to as “fruit”.
,
The preparation for market of fresh fruit, es
pecially citrus fruit, usually involves applying
thereto a protective and preservative composi
tion or liquid comprising a waxy material, such as
1| paraffin, and a solvent or liquid vehicle, with’ or
without other ingredients. The composition is
distributed over the surface of the fruit to provide
a coating which protects and preserves it and in
general maintains its original appearance, sound
” ness, freshness and ?avor for- a long time.
The
apparatus of the present invention enables this
treatment to be carried out in a simple economi
cal and effective manner.
Accordingly, in ex
with the principles of the invention, by apparatus"
which comprises a relatively shallow container or
dip tank adapted to contain a relatively small
quantity of liquid material, means for conveying
or feeding articles into and through said tank,
and rotatable means over ‘which such articles
pass operable to engage and cause turning move
ment of said articles.
Most desirably, the appa- ‘
ratus also includes means cooperating with said
rotatablemeans for ensuring operative contact .'
of such articles therewith vas they pass through
the tank.
In order further to explain the underlying
principles of the invention, certalnpractical em
bodiments thereof are shown in the accompany- it!
ing drawing and described in detail hereinafter by
way of illustrative examples only and not as in
any way limiting the broad scope of the invention.
In this drawing:
, Fig. 1 is a vertical longitudinal sectional view 20
‘of onev form of apparatus embodying the inven-.
tion, and
‘
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a modi?ed form.
Referring first to the embodiment of the invené
tion illustrated in Fig. 1, the novel apparatus 25
,8‘ will be made for the sake of a concrete illustrative there shown comprises generally a relatively
example, to novel apparatus particularly useful 4
shallow container or .dip tank ill adapted to con
in treating or applying liquid‘ material to citrus tain
a relatively small quantity of liquid material
fruit, but it is to be understood, as previously ll, means indicated generally at H for convey
emphasized, that the invention is not limited to ' ing or feeding articles into and through said 30
80 this particular use.
tank, rotatable means It over which such articles
One of the objects of this invention is the pro
pass for engaging and causing turning movement
vision of means for applying liquid material to of said articles, and means It for maintaining a
fruit and other articles of generally globular depth of liquid material above said rotatable
shape in a comparatively small, compact, inex
means insuilicient to permit ‘ articles passing 35
Sl pensive structure which will operate to ‘quickly through said tank to ?oat over said rotatable
plaining the principles of theinvention, reference
and uniformly distribute the material over the
entire surface of each article with a. minimum
amount of handling.
'
Another object of the invention is'the provision
40 of means for applying liquid material to fruit and
other articles of generally globular shape in ‘such
manner as to require the use‘ of onlyv a relatively
' small quantity of liquid at any given time.
Other objects and novel features and advan
46 tages of the invention will become apparent from
the following description taken in connection with
the accompanying‘drawing which illustrates prac
tical forms of apparatus embodying the inven
tion, it being understood that the description of
50 these specific embodiments is merely illustrative
and not restrictive and that various changes in
arrangement and details can be made without de
parting from the spirit and ,scope of the inven
tion as set out in the appended claims..
These objects are accomplished, in accordance
' means out of contact therewith.
‘
One of the important features of this invention '
resides in the use of a tank of such form and ar
rangement, in combination with the article con- 40
veying or advancing means, that it is necessary to
use only a relatively very small body or volume of '
liquid material in operating the apparatus. Vari
ous cooperative arrangements of the tank and the
article conveying or advancing means can be 45_
made to attain this end. In the illustrative ex
ample, dip tank "I comprises a comparatively
shallow open-top pan or receptacle provided with
substantially upright sides IE, only one of which
is shown, and a concave substantially semi-cylin- 50
drical trough-shaped bottom portion I6 which ex
tends between the two end walls “, l 8 and curves
or slopes from the top edges downwardly toward
the middle or mid-portion of the tank so that'
the deepest part is substantially midway between 55
2
2,128,028 .
the ends. Extending laterally from the rounded
top edges of ends l1, l8 are inclined aprons or drip
drain into dip tank H) for reasons which will be
explained hereinafter.
roll.
pans, I9, 20, respectively, which slope toward and
“ ,
The article conveying or advancing means II,
which may be of any appropriate character, is
here illustrated as comprising an endless link
belt or woven wire web 2| which passes over a
10 roller 22 at the feed-in end of the dip tank l0,
' under a smaller idler roll i3 in the bottom of the
tank, then out of the opposite end of the tank and
over idler roll 23, passing over drain pan 20 and
around roll 24 at the discharge end of the unit,
15 thence around roll 25 and driven roll 26 back
to the roll 22 at the feed-in end of the dip tank.
The upper run of the belt 2| between the rolls 22
and 23 is thus constrained to travel downwardly
into the dip tank and the liquid material II con
20 tained therein by the idler roll IS, the belt then
passing upwardly out of the tank over the roll 23.
Rolls 22, i3 and 23 cause this part of the con
veyor belt to assume a trough or V-shape which
follows rather closely the concave trough-shaped
25 bottom portion ill of dip tank l0 so that it is pos
sible to use a comparatively shallow tank con
taining a relatively small body or volume of coat
ing material.
However, the principal feature which, in com
30 bination with the dip tank and conveyor, makes
it possible to use a relatively small body or volume
of liquid material, resides in the arrangement and
action of the rotatable means comprising the
idler roll l3 in the bottom of the dip tank l0, and
35 under which the conveyor belt passes, in coopera
tion with the means I4 for ensuring contact of
articles with said roll as they pass through the
tank. The conveyor belt 2| moving in the direc
tion of‘the arrows feeds the fruit or other articles,
40 such as oranges or the like, delivered to it by
feeding means such as a chute board, indicated
conventionally at 21, into the dip tank at one end
and advances it through the tank and the liquid
material contained therein, the fruit or other
45 articles passing out of the tank on the belt at the
opposite or discharge end of the tank. As the belt
travels downwardly into the tank, the fruit is
dipped into the liquid material which is thus
applied thereto. As the fruit moves through the
50 tank and the liquid material it strikes and is
momentarily stopped and turned over and over by
the reverse rotation of the upper surface of the
roll l3, induced by the travel of belt 2|, provided,
of course, that the depth of liquid material above
55 said roll is insufficient to permit the fruit or other
articles to ‘?oat over the roll out of contact there
with. The fruit is thus smeared and entirely and
60
65
’
70
liquid material thereabove is insu?icient to let the
fruit be ?oated upwardly out of contact with said
roll as it passes through the liquid ‘material, thus
ensuring operative contact of the fruit with said
'
'
The means for supplying liquid material to the
dip tank l0 may be of any suitable character.
In the desirable practical form here illustrated,
liquid material is supplied to the dip tank I 0 from
a supply tank 28 located under dip tank I0, the 10
arrangement being such that both tanks have the
same side walls l5, and end walls l1, l8. A motor
driven pump 29 removes liquid material from the
supply tank and delivers it through pipe 30 to the
valve-controlled spray pipe 3| which extends
transversely over dip tank l0 so as to spray liquid
material on the fruit as it passes through the dip
tank. The amount of liquid material supplied to
the dip tank is regulated so as to maintain vthere
in a body of liquid material whose surface level 20
is up to the over?ow outlets i4. ,Usually a slight
excess over the minimum amount required to
maintain this level is supplied, the excess coat
ing material passing through the over?ow out
lets “ into the supply tank.
25
Means indicated generally at 32 are provided
for heating and maintaining ?uent the liquid ma
terial in supply tank 28, and because of the com
pact arrangement of the clip tank immediately ad
jacent to and over the supply tank, the heating 30
means also heats the liquid material in, the dip
tank. In the example illustrated, heating means
32 comprises a valve controlled steam coil located
in the bottom of supply tank 28, but any suitable
heating means may be used.
In operating the apparatus to treat or coat fruit;
the fruit (e. g. oranges) or other articles are de
livered by a delivery board, elevator, belt con
veyor 'or other feeding means, indicated con
ventionally at 21, to the endless conveyor belt 2| 40
adjacent roll 22 at the feed-in end of dip tank ill.
Conveyor belt 2i feeds the fruit into the dip tank
and the liquid material therein, causing the fruit
to dip into said liquid material. The continuous
feed of fruit into the dip tank causes continuous 45
passage of fruit through said tank. The fruit
with the liquid material applied thereto passes out
of the tank at the opposite or discharge end there
of and is carried by the belt to a place of dis
charge. After the conveyor belt leaves _the dip
tank, it passes over the inclined drip pan or apron
20 arranged to catch liquid material which drops
from the conveyor belt and the coated fruit and
conduct it back to the dip tank. During passage
of the fruit through the liquid material it strikes
and is momentarily stopped and turned over by
the reverse rotation of the idler roll l3 in the
uniformly covered with liquid material, even bottom of the dip tank whereby a ?lm‘ of liquid
though there may be insu?icient liquid material material is uniformly applied over the entire sur
in the tank to submerge the fruit or other articles face of the fruit. The operation of the apparatus
being treated.
~
is a continuous one, the fruit to be treated or
In order to make it possible to treat articles, coated being fed into one end of the apparatus and
particularly ?oatable articles such as citrus fruit, ' the treated or coated fruitbeing continuously de
with a maximum degree of efficiency and at the livered at the other end.
same time permit the use of a relatively small
Any coating material or composition of a free
quantity of liquid, means are provided for en
ly ?uent or liquid consistency suitable for the
suri'ng contact of such articles with the roll l3 formation of the desired ?lm-like protecting and
as they pass through the dip tank l0 and the preservative coating upon the fruit may be em
liquid material II. In the illustrative example, ployed, including materials which require heat
this means takes the form of an over?ow outlet to make them freely ?uent. The invention also
comprising a plurality of holes l4 provided in the includes the use of coating materials or compo 70
bottom portion iii of dip tank ill for maintaining sitions which require rubbing or brushing of the
the proper predetermined level of liquid material
in the dip tank. These holes or over?ow outlets H
75 are so located relative to roll i3 that the depth of
fruit to form the protective coating from the
material applied thereto, but the invention is
particularlyv useful in forming a protective and 75
2,128,028
preservative coating upon fruit from coating ma
-
3'
can be made without departing from the spirit
terials in emulsion form applied thereto without - and scope of the invention as defined in the
any rubbing or brushing of the fruit. The novel
apparatus is particularly adapted to such use be
cause the coating material or emulsion is unl
formly applied in a thin?lm to the entire sur
face of the fruit, thus making rubbing or brush
ing of the fruit to obtain a thin, uniform, ?lm
like coating unnecessary.
' In the form of apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2,
the dip tank 33 is provided adjacent the bottom
vwith a series of parallel rolls 34 joumaled at their
‘ ends in arcuate metal frames 35 mounted at the
sides of the dip tank and driven by a chain 36
passed over and under sprockets 31 at one end
of the set of rolls, the arrangement causing the'
. successive rolls of the set to revolve in opposite
angular directions. Chain 36 is driven by an
electric motor 33 which also serves to drive the
pump 39 for supplying liquid material through
pipe 39BL and spray pipes 33'' to the dip tank from
the supply tank 40. The over?ow outlets 338
provided in the bottom portion 33b of the dip
tank 33 maintain the proper predetermined level
of liquid material in said tank relative to the
rolls 34 so that at least the lower rolls are im
mersed in said liquid material. The arrange
ment is such that the depth of liquid material
maintained above at least some of the rolls is in
suilicient to permit articles passing through the
dip tank to ?oat over said rolls out of contact
therewith. The action of rolls 34 is to give turn
ing movement to the fruit as it is passed through
the dip tank and the liquid materialvcontained
therein, similar to theraction of the roll l3 in
i Fig. 1, but obviously the turning movement ex
erted by the rolls in Fig. 2 is much more exten
sive than in the simpler form illustrated in Fig. 1,
the fruit being turned ?rst in one direction and
claims.
'
-
What is claimed is: '
1. Apparatus for applying liquid material to
globular articles comprising, a relatively shallow
dip tank adapted to contain a relatively small
body of liquid material, means for conveying or
feeding such articles into and through said tank,
rotatable means over which such articles pass 10
for engaging and causing turning movement of
said articles, and means for maintaining a ‘pre
determined level of liquid material insaid tank
relative to said rotatable means whereby said
rotatable means is at least partially immersed in 15
said liquid material,- said rotatable means being
so mounted relative to said liquid level and con
tiguous to said conveying or feeding means and
of such diameter relative to the diameter of said
articles that said articles are ‘temporarily. sup- 20 '
ported by and caused to pass over‘ said rotatable
means.
~
,-
'
'
2. Apparatus for applying liquid material to
globular articles comprising, a tank adapted to
contain liquid material, a roll rotatably mounted 25
in said tank adjacent the bottom thereof, con
veyor means for passing sucharticles through
said tank and over said roll, said roll being
operableto engage and cause turning movement
of such articles, and an over?ow outlet for main- 30
taining a depth of liquid. material above said roll
insu?icient to permit articlespassing through said
tank to ?oat, over said roll out of contact there
with, said roll being mounted‘ contiguous said
conveyor means to prevent passage of articles 38
between said roll and said conveyor means.
3. Apparatus for applying liquid material to
?oatable globular articles comprising, a relatively -
shallow dip tank adapted to contain liquid ma
'then in the opposite direction, as' indicated by ' terial in which said articles are adapted to ?oat, 40
the arrows in Fig. 2. In this form of the inven
tion, rolls 34 are brush-surfaced to give added ef
fect to the action thereof, but obviously rolls of
any suitable type may be employed within the
scope of the broad invention.
In Fig. 2 the fruit is fed. to the dip tank 33
a :roll rotatably mounted in said' tank adjacent
the bottom thereof, an endless conveyor con-.
strained to travel downwardly into said tank,
under ‘said roll, and upwardly out of said tank for
passing such articles through said tank and over 45
said roll, said roll being operable to engage and
over a brushing or washing machine indicated cause turning movement of such articles ‘and
conventionally at 4| and comprising a pluralityv said roll being mounted contiguous said conveyor
of parallel brush rolls cooperating in pairs to to prevent passage of articles between'said roll
provide therebetween' elongated runways along
and conveyor, and means for maintaining a 50
which the frut travels, the fruit then passing
depth of liquid material above said roll insu?i
transverselyover the series of driven metal rolls Y cient to permit articles passing through said
to ?oat over said roll out of contact there
42 which feed the fruit to the dip tank. In go
ing through the dip tank and the liquid material
contained therein, the fruit passes over and is en
w1
.
’
‘
4. Apparatus for applying liquid material to 55
gaged by the rolls 34 which cause the-fruit to _ globular articles comprising, a relatively shallow
dip tank having a troughéshaped bottom which
turn ?rst in one direction and then in the oppo
site direction whereby liquid material is applied ' slopes downwardly from the ends toward a posi
tron intermediate the ends, a roll rotatably
to and evenly distributed over the entire sur
face of each fruit. After the fruit passes mounted in said tank adjacent the bottom there- 60
of, conveyor means arranged closely adjacent to
through the dip tank, it is delivered to the end
less woven wire belt _(“link belt”) conveyor‘ 43 and conforming with said bottom for passing
such articles through said tank and over said
which delivers the fruit to a drier or other suit
able place of discharge (not shown), the drain roll, said roll being operable to engage and cause
pan >44 catching and returning to the dip tank turning movement of such articles, and means 65
for maintaining a depth‘of liquid material above
said roll insu?lcient to permit articles passing
through said tank to float over said roll out of
is identical with that illustrated in Fig. 1 and . contact therewith, said roll being mounted con
any liquid material which drops from the con
veyor. Except as noted, ‘the construction and
operation of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2
previously described in connection‘ therewith. '
In both forms of the invention, the means for
feeding the fruit to and carrying it away from
the dip tank may obviously diiTer widely from
the ‘means illustrated by way of example and
75 it is to be understood that various modi?cations
tiguous said conveyor means and of such di- 70
ameter relative to the diameter of said articles so
as to' prevent, passage of articles between said
roll and said conveyor means.
5. Apparatus for applying liquid material'to
globular articles comprising a'relatively shallow '
‘4
2,128,028
dip tank having a trough-shaped bottom which
slopes downwardly from the ends toward a por
tion intermediate the ends, a roll rotatably
dip tank adjacent the bottom thereof, conveyor
means for passing such articles through said dip
tank and over said roll,'said roll being operable
mounted in said tank adjacent the bottom there
to engage and cause turning movement of such
of, an endless conveyor having a portion con
articles, means for supplying liquid material
strained to travel downwardly into said tank,
from said supply tank to said dip tank, and an
under said roll, and upwardly out of said tank
over?ow outlet in said dip tank discharging into
and closely adjacent to and conforming with
said supply tank for maintaining a depth of liquid
said bottom for passing such articles through
material in said dip tank above said roll insu?il
cicnt to permit articles passing through said dip 10
said tank and over said roll, said roll being op
erable to engage and cause turning movement of
such articles, said conveyor engaging said roll to
prevent passage of articles betweensaid roll and
tank to ?oat over said roll out of contact there
with.
7. Apparatus for applying liquid material to
conveyor and to cause said roll to rotate so that
globular articles comprising, a relatively shallow
the article-engaging portion of its surface moves
dip tank adapted to contain liquid material,
in a direction opposite to the direction of move
means for feeding such articles into and through
said tank, a series of parallel rolls arranged to
provide a substantially arcuate path over which
15
ment of articles through the tank, and means for
maintaining a depth of ‘liquid material above
said roll insu?icient to permit articles passing ' such articles pass, said rolls being operable to
- through said tank to ?oat over said roll out of
engage and cause turning movementof such
contact therewith.
articles, means for rotating successive, rolls in
6. Apparatus for applying liquid material to opposite directions, and means for maintaining
globular articles comprising, a container adapted ‘a depth of liquid material above at least some
to contain liquid material and divided into com
of said rolls insu?icient to permit articles pass
partments to provide a supply tank and a rela
ing through said tank to float over said rolls out 25
tively shallow open-top dip tank arranged over of contact therewith.
said supply tank, a roll rotatably mounted in said
WILLIAM MORGAN HAMPTON.
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