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Патент USA US2128157

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Aug. 23, 1938.
2,128,157
J. A. MONNIER ET AL
PNEUMATIC TOOL
Filed Jan. 28, 1937
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ATTORNEY
2,128,157
Patented Aug. 23, 1938
UNITED STATYEZS
PATENT, OFFICE
2,128,157
PNEUMATIC TOOL
James A. Monnier and Corning S. Brush,
Algonac, Mich.
Application January 28, 1937, Serial No. 122,703
4. Claims.
Our invention relates to a new and useful im
provement in a pneumatic tool of the rotary
type, whereby a driven shaft to which a suitable
tool such as a grinding wheel or the like may be
ca:
attached is rotated. While the invention is re
ferred to as a pneumatic tool and is primarily
intended for being driven by air, it will appear
obvious from the description of the invention that
it might also be driven by steam or other suit
'~ able ‘gaseous ?uid under pressure.
It is an ob—
ject of the present invention to provide a tool
of this class so constructed and arranged that
the maximum. speed of the tool is automatically
governed so that when the tool is lifted from the
lwork piece upon which an operation is being
performed a “racing” of the tool will be pre
vented.
' Another object of the invention is the provi
sion of a tool of this class so arranged and con
20 structed that by simple and easy adjustment the
volume of driving fluid delivered to the tool may
be regulated.
Another object of the invention is the provi—
sion of a rotor slidably mounted on a rotatable
25 shaft‘ which it serves to rotate, and so arranged
(01. 25a_2)
,
Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on line~5-5 of
Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a side elevational view, slightly re
duced, of the jet ring.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
on line 7-5! of Fig. 1.
As shown in the drawing, the invention com
prises a housing having an elongated neck l5
which serves as a hand hold and which termi
nates in the enlarged cup-shaped portion I6. Ex 10
tending axially of the housing is the driven shaft
ll, on the enlarged portion 18 of which is mount
ed a bearing l9 held in position by the nut 20
and clamped against the nut 20 by the collar
25 which is threaded on the end of the neck I5.
On the end of the shaft is a suitable collet head
22 whereby a suitable tool such as a grinder, cut
ting tool or the like may be mounted.
The shaft ii is also journaled in the bearing
23 and mounted on the rear end of the shaft I1
is a bushing 24 having at one end the head 25
whichv is provided with the tapered surface 26
and in which are formed spaced openings 21 in
each of which is positioned a ball 28 adapted to
engage the inclined surface 29 formed at one end
and constructed that, when in operation, the slid
ing of the rotor on- the shaft will be controlled by
the speed of rotation.
Another object of the invention is the provi
of the collar 30. This collar is slidably mounted
on the bushing 24 but is non-rotatable thereon.
The collar 3|] and the bushing 24 are keyed by
the key 32 and the bushing 24 is mounted on the
30, sion in a tool of this class of a circular'rotor
shaft IT. as a press ?t so that the collar and the
mounted on the shaft which it drives and cooper
ating with a jet ring or. ?uid distributor so-that
the ‘?uid will be delivered to the rotor around
its periphery.
35
Another object of the invention is'the provision
in a tool of this class of a rotor having a plurality
bushing 2-45 both rotate in unison with the shaft
ii. A cup-shaped ?tting 33 is threaded on the
inner end of the shaft I‘! and overlies the end of
the collar 39. A spring 34 is positioned about
the bushing 24 in embracing relation and en 35
gages at one of its ends with the end of the collar
and at its other end with, the inner face of the
of inwardly directed passages opening outwardly
at its periphery and communicating at their in
?tting 33. Consequently the sliding of the collar
ner ends with laterally directed inclined passages
40 through which the driving fluid may be delivered.
Other objects ‘will appear hereinafter.
The invention consists of the combination and
drawing would be against the compression of the
spring 36, so that the spring 34 would normally
retain the parts in the position shown in Fig. 1
arrangement of parts hereinafter described and
claimed.
45
50,
The invention will be best understood by a
36 on the bushing 24 toward the right of the
Fixedly mounted on the collar 30 is a rotor 35
which is caused to rotate by a ?uid under pres
sure delivered thereto. As the rotor rotates and 45
reference to the accompanying drawing which
carries with it the shaft H, the centrifugal force
forms a part of this specification and in which,
Fig. l is a longitudinal central sectional view
operating on the balls 28 would have a tendency
to force them outwardly. When this force be
of ‘theinvention.
comes su?iciently strong resulting from the in
Fig.2 is a fragmentary sectional View taken on
lined-2 ‘of Fig. l.
_
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on
line 3——3 of'Fig. 1.
Fig.4 is a sectional view taken ‘on line 4-4 of
Fig. l'with parts broken away.
creased speed of rotation the balls will move out
wardly and force the collar 30‘ to move toward
the right of the drawing against the compression
of the spring 34, thus diminishing the quantity
of fluid delivered to the rotor and therefore re
ducing the speed of the rotor.
2 .
2,128,157
Positioned ?xedly within the housing [6 so as
to embrace the rotor 35 is a cylindrical member
which may be termed a jet ring 36. Formed in
mitted to the rotor the plate 50 may be turned
to bring the slot 59 into registration with one
the jet ring at spaced intervals are the axially
of the passages 37 while, at the same time, the
slots 60 and iii would remain in registration with
extended passages 31. Each of these passages 37
communicates with an arcuate groove 39 formed
their respective passages 31 and thus the driving
fluid would be transmitted to the rotor through
in the periphery of the jet ring 36. Each of
these grooves 39 terminates centrally of the jet
ring 36 and communicates with the chordally
10 directed passage All which opens through the in
ner surface of the ring 36.
Formed in the periphery of the rotor 35 is a
plurality of spaced recesses M, each of which
communicates with a pair of oppositely directed
15 passages 42 and 53, which are directed at an in
cline to the faces of the rotor 35 and outwardly
toward the periphery. Thus air delivered
through the passages 3i will be projected out
wardly through the passages iii‘ and 43 and effect
a rotation of the rotor 35. In order to permit
the exhausting of the air passing outwardly
through the passages at, we have cut openings
44 as spaced parts on the ring 36, leaving a body
45 of the material spanning the cut away por
25 tion and this body I35 is the portion of the ring
36 which registers with the rotor
Threaded on the housing it and serving as an
end wall or a closure therefor is the cap 55 in
which are formed the pockets 4'5. Positioned in
30 the pockets fl? is a spring 48 and a ball 4% adapt
ed to bear against the inner face of the adjusting
plate 56 which is held in position by the spring
band 5% snapped on the hub 52 of the cap iil'z‘.
This adjusting plate 56 carries the inwardly pro
35 jecting stud 53 which projects through the arou
ate slot 54 formed in the cap 46. This stud pro
jects into a pocket 55 formed in the control valve
56. This control valve is circular and ?ts fairly
snugly within the housing 56. Formed centrally
of the control valve 53 in one face thereof is a
recess 5'? which communicates by passages 58
with the slots 5%}, 68 and 5!, which open through
one face thereof. Projecting outwardly from one
face of the valve 5% is a circular ?ange
engag
45 ing in a circular groove 63 formed on the inner
face of the cap 45. The construction is such that
upon rotating the plate 5f] the valve 56 may be
rotated.
Formed in the hub 52 is a threaded opening 64‘.
to
which may be attached the end of the pres
50
sure line through which the driving
is con
ducted. This driving fluid will pass through the
pipe 65 mounted in the cap it, this pipe 65 trav
ersing the recess 6% formed in the hub 52. A
55 filling passage 6‘! closed by the plug 68 is pro
vided for delivery of oil into the passage or recess
66. This oil may be drawn through the openings
69 and '50 into the passage 5? so that the air
delivered to the jet ring 36 will be lubricated.
When the plate 5:’? is rotated to a certain posi-~
60
tion, the slot 6i will be in registration with one
of the passages 3i and the slots 59 and 80 will
not be in registration with any of the passages
31, so that the driving fluid will be delivered to
65 the rotor through only one of the passages 3?.
three of the passages 31. In this way, there is
provided a ‘simple and easily operated means for
adjusting the amount of ?uid under pressure de
10
livered to the rotor.
When the tool is operating, the power required
to drive the tool at the required speed would, of
course, depend upon the nature of the tool
mounted on the head 22 and the nature of the
work being done. On some types of work greater 15
power would be required than on others and the
adjusting feature referred to affords a meansv of
regulating this power. The ball t9 would at each
position of adjustment snap into a shallow recess
20
‘it formed in the inner face of the plate 50.
When the tool is operating and it is lifted from
the work the shaft I’! would be, of course, be
relieved of the strain or resistance which the
operation would exert and the shaft ['1 would
naturally have a tendency to race. When the in 25
creased speed reaches a predetermined amount.
the balls 23 moving outwardly would shift the
collar
to the right carrying with it the rotor
35, thus moving the recess 41 gradually out of
alignment with the jet passages 40 and there 30
fore reducing the amount of ?uid under pressure
delivered to. the rotor. Consequently, when the
tool is lifted from the Work piece, its speed of
rotation cannot pass a predetermined speed as
the control automatically functions.
35
With a tool constructed and arranged in this
manner, it is believed that a very efficient easily
operated tool of this class is provided, in which
a maximum of control and regulation is obtained
while, at the same time, the device is compact 40
and yet durable.
While we have illustrated and described the
preferred form of construction, we do not wish
to limit ourselves to the precise details of struc
ture shown, but desire to avail ourselves of such
variations and modi?cations as may come within
the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described our invention, what We
claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat
ent is:
1. In a machine of the class described a hous
ing; a rotor mounted on and rotatable in unison
with said shaft; a fluid delivery member embrac
ing said rotor and having a plurality of passages
formed therethrough centrally thereof in regis
tration with said rotor and communicating with
passages opening through one of its end faces;
means for delivering fluid to said passages open
ing through said end faces, a portion of said fluid 60
delivery member being cut away at opposite sides
of said rotor and provided with a cut away portion
spanning said rotor for permitting escape of
fluids from one side of said rotor.
2. A tool of the class described, comprising:
Should it be desired that more power be trans
mitted to the rotor the plate 5E3 may be rotated
a housing; a rotatable shaft projected into said
housing; a rotor mounted on and rotatable in
until the slot 60 is also brought into registration
unison with said shaft and having a plurality
of spaced recesses formed in its periphery, each
of said recesses communicating at its base with
with one of the passages 37!, the slot ti being of
70 sufficient length to permit this rotation without
disturbing the delivery of fluid through the slot
iii. In such a position of control or adjustment,
the ?uid will be delivered to the rotor through a
pair of passages 31. Should additional fluid be
75 desired so that additional power would be trans
50:
ing; a rotatable shaft projected into said hous
a passage opening at one of the side faces of said
rotor and directed at an incline to said shaft and
inclined outwardly toward the periphery of said
rotor; an annular member snugly embracing said
rotor and having an axially directed passage
3
2,128,157
10
opening through one of its end faces and com
municating at‘ its inner end successively with the
for conducting fluid under pressure to the pas
sages in said valve, said valve and said annular
recesses in the periphery of said rotor upon rota
tion of said rotor; a valve positioned in said hous
ing and having a plurality of passages formed
member being rotatably, relatively movable for
therein adapted for communicating with the ends
of said passages in said annular member; means
cessible exterior of said housing for effecting rela
tive movement of said valve and said annular
for conducting fluid under pressure to the pas
sages in said valve, said valve and said annular
member.
4. In a. tool of the class described, a housing:
a rotatable shaft projected into said housing; a 10
rotor mounted on and rotatable in unison with
and axially movable of said shaft; a spring for
normally resisting movement of said rotor on said
shaft in one direction; a stationary delivery mem
ber having a plurality of passages formed there 15
in for delivering ?uid to said rotor, said rotorv
having a plurality of spaced recesses formed in
member being rotatably, relatively movable for
regulating the volume of ?uid delivered to the
passages in said annular member.
3. A tool of the class described, comprising: a
housing; a rotatable shaft projected into said
15 housing; a rotor mounted on and rotatable in
unison with said shaft and having a plurality
of spaced recesses formed in its periphery, each
of said recesses communicating at its base with a
passage opening at one of the side faces of said.
20 rotor and directed at an incline to said shaft and
inclined outwardly toward the periphery of said
rotor; an annular member snugly embracing said
rotor and having an axially directed passage
opening through one of its end faces and com
municating at its inner end successively with the
recesses in the periphery of said rotor upon rota
tion of said rotor; a valve positioned in said hous
ing and having a plurality of passages formed
therein adapted for communicating with the ends
30 of said passages in said annular member; means
regulating the volume of ?uid delivered to the
passages in said annular member; and means ac
its periphery for reception of ?uid delivered by
said delivery member; a plurality of curvilinear
members loosely mounted on said shaft in cir 20'
cumferentially spaced relation to each other and
adapted upon rotation of said shaft in excess of
a predetermined speed for moving outwardly from
the periphery thereof; and means cooperating
with said curvilinear members, upon their out 25
ward movement, for e?ecting axial movement of
said rotor relatively to said shaft against the
compression‘ of said spring.
JAMES A. MONNIER.
CORNING S. BRUSH.
30
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