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Патент USA US2128274

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Aug. 30, 1938.
Filed D60. 19, 1935
Fe. 5
Patented Aug. 30, 1938
Serglus Vernet, Yellow Springs, Ohio, alslgnor to
Vernay Patents Company, Yellow Springs,
Ohio, a corporation of Delaware
Application December 19, 1935, Serial No. 55,227
150mm. (cl. zs'r-a)
My invention relates to new and useful im
provements in control devices and more particu
larly to such a, device having temperature respon-v
cumferential'portion ll de?ning an upward fac;
ing shoulder or seat. The outer marginal edge ‘of
portion II has an upstanding peripheral continu
siv'e means for-actuating the same.
ous ?ange l2. Seated on shoulder II is a lam
One object of my invention is to provide a novel " inated disc diaphragm ii of ?exible impervious
control device.
material such as rubber covered or rubberized
Another object is to provide a temperature re
fabric which forms a movable wall of and closes
sponsive element which can be handled with fa
and seals the chamber H within the casing l0.
cility and which is durable.
overlying the diaphragm, there is a cage or guide
Another object is' to provide a thermostat which
. is sensitive to temperature change.
member I! preferably cylindrical and which ex
tends upward through the aperture 8. The lower 10
Another object is to provide means by whic
vend portion of member l5 has a laterally extend
temperature responsive crystalline ‘materials can ing peripheral ?ange which ?ares outward and
be successfully utilized in thermostatic devices. downward, as at l6, to a, diameter substantially
The invention consists in my novel control de 'equal to the internal diameter of the casing I6.
vice to be more fully hereinafter described and The ?ange ‘terminates beyond portion l6 in an‘ 16
the novelty of which will be particularly pointed
out and distinctly claimed.
"In the accompanying drawing, to be taken as a
20 part of this speci?cation, I have fully and clearly
illustrated a preferred embodiment of my inven
tion, in which drawing'
Figure 1 is a view in vertical central section of a
control device embodying my invention and taken
25 on the line l—| of Fig. 2;
Fig. 3 is a bottom plan view of the device of
Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a detail view of a certain temperature
responsive element;
Fig. 5 is a graph of the response characteristic
of Fig.
said6 element,
is a detail
- of'" another form
of tem
35 perature responsive element. 7
' is turned or bent inward over and upon the rim
II to tightly clamp the marginal edge of the dia
phragm in sealing engagement with and to the '
shoulder H. The casing portion l8 abuts the in
Fig. 2 is a view in vertical section taken on the
line 2--2 of Fig. 1;
annular ?at rim I‘! lying in a plane‘at right angles
to the longitudinal axis of member l5 and seating
upon the periphery of the diaphragm. The rim
l'l serves as~a clamping plate for engagement by
the upper edge portion 18 of the casing wall which '20
Referring to the drawing by characters of ref
erence, I designates generally a control device in
cluding a conduit member or valve housing 2
preferably substantially cylindrical with an open-
let or underside face of the spider annulus Sand
is .held tightly in position thereagainst by a re
tainer member l9 including a ring or seat portion
20 through the central aperture of which the body
portion of casing l0 passes and which bears
against the underface of shoulder II. The por
tion 20 also includes an upstanding marginal‘
?ange which positions the casing and closely re
ceives the casing ?ange l2. From the upper edge
of the ?ange on ring 20 project a plurality of
{arms 2| preferably equal in number to the spider 35
arms 6 of which there may be three and spaced to
aiine therewith. Each of the arms 2| has a lateral
outward extending seat portion 22 which ‘ter
minates in an upstanding locking member or car
23. The arms 6 are apertured, as at 24,110 receive
the ears 23 which pass therethroughand which.‘
40 ended flow passageway or duct 3 therethrough.
The member 2 which may be of sheet brass and
drawn or otherwise formed has at its inlet end.
which for descriptive purposes may be considered , have their .end portions inturned and bent tightly
the lower end, a transversely extending support
against'the top faces ‘of arms 6 so that the actu
'45 ing member or spider 4 having an annular portion ating means 9_ is rigidly secured to the conduit‘
5 eccentric of the longitudinal axis of member 2 member 2.
and joined to the lower edge of the cylindrical
The cage member l5 receives and guides a
wall of member 2 by spaced arms 6, see Fig. 3. freely sliding reciprocable piston and follow mem
The portion 5 and arms 6 are preferably provided ber 25 which seats upon the diaphragm 13 for
50 with upturned reenforcing edge‘ ?anges or ribs ‘I.
Positioned in the aperture 8 through portion 5,
there is a thermostatic actuating means 9 includ
ing a cup-shaped container or casing l0 prefer
ably substantially cylindrical and having adjacent
movement thereby and therewith. The member
25 has‘ a central longitudinally upward extending
post or rod 26 having an axial or longitudinal
bore or recess 21 which is internally screw
threaded to receive adjustably a connecting rod
68 its upper end a laterally extending transverse cir- - or thrust member 26. Surrounding the rods 26,
more fully described. The carrier material may
be rubber. but I have‘ found that more satisfac
tory results are‘ obtained by using a synthetic
28 and abutting the upper inner end wall, ll of
member II there is a helical coil spring II under
compression and .which at its lower end seats
on the piston member ‘II, being positioned in an
annulargrooveorrecessll inthetopfaceof
member lli'l‘heendwall "is
ured. arsat
cellular material such as that known on the
market as vulcanized Duprene No. 59CS984 made
‘ by the Goodrich Rubber'company, although oth
its upper end er suitable_materials are either Duprene' No.
<32, for passage of rod 14 which
~~is bent or turned at right angles to provide a ‘5968966 or No. 5908964. The expansible con
connecting arm 89. _
Extending diametrically across the conduit
member substantially midway of its length, there
is a pivot pin or shaft 84 on which is Journaled
for oscillatory movement a vane or valve mem
ber." preferably of' metal and of the butter?y
tractible medium is a crystalline fusible ma- ~
terial and may be, for example, p-dibromoben- 10.
zone or bromoform or p-dichlorobenzene or di
phenyl.- These media have different temperatures
of fusion which are substantially as followsr
Bromoform fuses at about 48° F., p-dichloroben
15 or disc‘ type. The shaft is fixed against endwise > zone at about ‘127° l"., diphenyl at about 158° -F., 15
‘movement as’ by burnishing over the shaft ends, and p-‘dibromobenzene at about 193° F. Each of
as at 39, which project through the conduit’ these media has a marked or high degree of ex
member walls. The valve bearing is provided by pansion which occurs upon the change of state '
oppositely directed, upward and downward,‘ con- - from solid to liquid, the media contracting to its
original volume upon solidification. The combina 20
20 cave, alined channels 31, 38 respectively extend
ing across a diameter of the valve member. The. ' tion of the carrier material and the crystalline . '
channel.“ is intersected \by‘ an elongated trans
verse recess "having spaced side walls 40 pro
jecting below the underface of member 35. These
25 walls 40 have alined apertures 4| on an axis par- '
allel to the longitudinal axis of shaft 34 but oil- .
set therefrom and in which the connecting arm
material lowers the temperature of fusion of the
combination so that, for example, diphenyl in
lllgprene beginsv to fuse noticeably at about
° F.
Although it is impossible by any known methods
of which I am aware, such as by microscopic ex
33 is Journaled for'operatively connecting the ' amination or bythe use of polarized 1ight,to deter
mine in what 'manner' the. crystalline material is
thermostat actuatingmeans 9 to the valve mem
The valve member has a by-Dm aperture carried by the carrier matériaLI assume that the 80
‘ ber.
or bleed hole 42 therethrough and is also pro
vided with a cavity 43 which provides clearance
in the wide open position of the valve member,
the cavity receiving theupper end portion of
the cage member l5 as will be apparent in Fig. 1.
The casing chamber l4 closed by diaphragm
material and the crystals are partially or wholly in
solution‘ which is evidenced by the fact that the
temperature of fusion of the crystalline material
is lowered when in combination with or carried
by‘ the ‘carrier material relative to the fusion
temperature of the crystalline material alone or
I3 is divided into two compartments by a wall ~ when separate. However, the solution or chemi
or partition member '44 of inverted cup-shaped cal union, as I will term it, or the absorption or
form preferably of ‘sheet metal, such as brass, adsorption of ‘the crystalline material by the car
40 having a cylindrical side wall 45 conforming to rier material is accomplished by immersing the 40
and snugly ?tting within‘the casing I 0, therim
of wall 45 preferably seating. on the casing‘ bot
The cup-shaped partition member
44 serves as a container for the temperature
45 responsive element 46,, see Fig. 4, which prefer
carrier material or body in a bath of the fused
and therefore liquid crystalline material.
satisfactory‘ solution is obtained with a bath tem
perature of about 300° F., for each of the afore
mentioned crystalline materials, though the bath 45
ably contacts the casing‘ bottom wall for heat
temperaturev may range both above and below
exchange. The element 46 comprises an expan
this degree,‘ the limits of a dipenyl bath being from
sible contractible material or mass having a cel
a low of 158° F., to a high of 500° F. The per cent
lular structure and is preferably a substance by weight of the crystalline material taken up by
50 which will take up certain media by absorption the carrier material varies with the temperature
or adsorption or by chemical solution or by loose of the bath and the length of time the carrier ma
chemical union to several times its own weight. terial or mass is immersed therein as well as with
The element is preferably of‘ laminated con different carrier materials and with different crys-_
struction in cross section, being in the ‘form of talline materials. For example, the preferable
r- an elongated strip or sheet wound into a spiral chemical union or taking up of diphenyl by or msvv
coil. It is'also desirable in order to enhance with the No. 5908984 Duprene is about 290% by
the permeability of the coil to temperature change /‘ weight which‘ takes place upon immersion of
to provide a heat conducting and exchanging-ele " that Duprene for a period of 7-1/2 minutes in a 300° _
ment 4'! of metal, for example, and preferably F. bath and which is emimently satisfactory for
60 metal foil, such as copper, of say three or four ’ a control device of the character illustrated. The
thousandths inches thickness, which is wrapped 7 product which results, namely, the expansiblev
with and preferably from end to end of the coil contractible body and the carried or contained
material 48 so as to provide alternate layers or expansible contractible crystalline material, when
laminations of material andof foil. The cylin
Duprene and diphenyl for example, has the char
drical side wall of member 44 receives and houses . acterisitics indicated by the full line curve, Fig. 5,
cs the
laminated coil holding it in its coiled shape; the dotted line curve being for diphenyl alone.‘
It is to be noted however that the member 44 isv These curves, it will be noted, are plottedwith tem
of sufficient volumetric capacity toprovide space perature as the abscissae and with expansive move- >
which is not occupied by the expansible mate‘ . mentas the ordinates.v It will thus be seen that
10 rial so that the material may expand readily the combined carrlermaterial and crystalline ma 70
upon change of state and not be excessively~ re
terial goes through its change of state over a tem
stricted by‘ the walls of the ‘container member perature range instead of at a definitepoint or
44. The material 46 serves‘ as the supporting degree of temperature. In a control device such
body7 or carrier for a certain expansible con
18 tractible temperature responsive medium, to be
as disclosed, this feature is highly desirable as the .
major part of the expansion or movement occurs 75‘
> -
after a predetermined temperature is reached and '
then upon a relatively small increase in tempera
ture. The thermal responsive element disclosed has
the further highly important advantage that the
crystalline material is at all times and irrespective
of state maintained andheld or con?ned in its
allocated position by the enveloping elastic carrier
material irrespective of rough handling or change
10 in position of the element, the carrier material ex
panding and contracting. with and upon expan
sion and contraction respectively of the crys
say 150° F., the expansive force of the crystalline
material acting to expand the elastic carrier ma
terial and transmitted by the carrier material and
the overlying liquid 48 to diaphragm l3 ‘will act to
move piston member 25 upward against the force
of spring 30 and open the valve member 35; Due
to the combination of the Duprene and the crys
talline material, the thermal element 46 super
cools considerably and through a de?nite tem
perature range, in some instances as much as 20° 10
F. which results in a lost-motion effect or effec
talline material. It maybe here noted that the , tive temperature differential in the operation of
amount of the crystalline material in solution or the valve member so that the valve member
union with the carrier material should begins to close at a lower temperature than the
not exceed an amount which can be retained by temperature of maximum valve opening. Such
the carrier material within its elasticity upon the a‘ lost~motion operation is obviously advantageous 15
expansive change of state of the crystalline ma
for warm weather engine operation and it is not
terial. The carrier material also serves to ma
deleterious in cold weather operation.
In addition to the particular cell or
20 terially reduce sublimation of the crystalline ma
terial by lowering its vapor pressure‘and likewise comprising the diaphragm closed casing element
10 above 20'
reduces the possibility of the crystalline material
I may employ a cell, Fig. 6, embodying‘
chemically attacking or physically interfering‘ ‘described,
two or more different types of crystalline mate
with the action of and possibly destroying the
sealing and responsive diaphragm It‘.
In ‘order to actuate the diaphragm l3 in ac
cordance with variation in volume of the thermal
element, a force transferring medium ?uid or
capable of ?ow which may be a gel or a liquid is
of which the following may be men
tioned: either a solution of glycerin and water, or
rial impregnated into or in chemical union in or
with separate carrier elements so that a plurality
of control stages or ranges may be had in the 25
same unit or device. This may be accomplished
by substituting for the single element 46 of Fig. 1,
two or more elements in longitudinal axial aline
ment, but of say only half the height, or of course
the height of casing l0 could be‘ increased. One 30'
of these elements might, for; example, be Du
or aluminum ‘hydroxide, or agar solutions, or prene impregnated with p-dichlorobenzene, as at
acasia solutions, or sodium silicate. ‘Of these '60, and the other might be Duprene impregnated
35 materials, I preferably use sodium silicate and in ' with diphenyl, as at 6]. ,The operation of this
concentrated solution which can satisfactorily form would then be an actuating expansion
. withstand a temperature of better than 55° F. be
transmitted to .the' controlled means at about
low freezing. Another advantage of sodium sili
110° F., comprising the ?rst stage or range and
cate is the greater aiiinityv of water therefor than then a subsequent stage or range of operative
a solution of glycol and water, or silicic acid gels,
' for rubber or Duprene, as any water, if permitted
40 access to the thermal element, woud cause swell
ing thereof creating a tight ?t of the element 46
in the container and resulting in separation of
the crystalline material from the carrier material
upon expansive change of state. A still further
advantage of sodium silicate is its lubricative
quality which cases and assures free expansive
and contractile movement of the carrier material.
The space in the casing chamber l4 on both sides
of partition 44 and not occupied by the thermal
50 element and its housing or partition is therefore
charged with a concentrated solution of sodium
silicate, designated 48, as the force transferring
medium, the charging being effected preferably
at room temperature, i. e. about 60° to 70° F., and
with su?icient spring pressure on the piston mem
ber 25 so that it will not rise more than 0.015
inch ‘when released after the guide member l5
and the casing I 0 have been clamped together.
' The operation of my control device will in large
60 measure be obvious from the foregoing descrip
tion of the cooperative relation of the parts.
However, the control device is particularly adapt
ed for controlling the ?ow of cooling water in an
internal combustion engine, ‘with the conduit
member 2 connected in the liquid circulating line
between the engine and th'e radiator, the thermo-'
static means 9 being on the engine side of the
valve member 35. As long as the temperature of
the cooling water is below the desired engine op
erating temperature, the valve member 35 will be
closed as shown; any expansive force of the ther
mal element 46 exerted below the desired valve
opening temperature may if desired be absorbed
by the spring 3|).v When the temperature of the
75 ,water to which the casing I0 is subjected reaches
expansion at about 150° F.
Although I have described the thermal element 40
46 as comprising a carrier material and a crys
talline material, I have found that Duprene alone
is temperature responsive and expands and con
tracts in accordance with temperature increase
and decrease.
The actuating means 9 may 45
therefore comprise certain carrier materials
alone as the expansive medium for certain usages
to actuate a control means.
Having thus described my invention, what -I
claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of - 50
the United States is:
1. A thermostatic element comprising a
rubber-like substance and a crystalline material
expansible on fusion dispersed through said
2. A new article of manufacture comprising a
sheet of expansible-contractible material having
in solution an expansible-contractible tempera- '
ture responsive medium.
' 3. A new article of manufacture comprising a 60
laminated expansible-contractible material and
heat conducting material interposed between
certain of the laminations.
4. A new article of manufacture comprising a
expansible-contractible 65
temperature responsive material and metallic
heat conducting foil interposed between certain
of the laminations.
‘ 5. A new article of manufacture comprising a
coiled strip of a rubber-like substance having in 70
solution a temperature responsive fusible crys
talline material.
6. A new article of manufacture comprising a
plurality of laminations of a rubber-like sub
stance having in solution a temperature respon 75
sive f'usible crystalline material and a heat con
ducting material interposed betweenv certain of
'l. In a thermostat, a casing having a movable
casing and operable to‘ transmit the expansive
force of said material to said wall member.
11. A thermostat comprising a casing having
wall and defining an expansion chamber, means 1 a movable wall and de?ning an expansion cham- s
operable by movement of said wall, and an ex gber, means operable upon movement of said wall,
pansible-contractible material in said chamber a rubber-like substance in said chamber, a fusible
and operable to move said wail, said~ material crystalline material carried by said substance
comprising a crystalline substance expansible on and operable in one temperature range to move
said wall. and a second rubber-like substance in 10
fusion and carried by a rubber-like substance.
8. A thermostat comprising a hollow casing said chamber, a fusible crystalline material car- ,
having an open side, a movable wall member ried by said second-named substance and oper
closing said side. a housing member iitting said able in another temperature range to move said
casing and de?ning therewith a material receiv
12. In a thermostat, a casing having a movable 1'
ing chamber, an expansible carrier material hav-'
ing a fusible crystalline material and positioned element cooperable with the casing wall to deiine
an expansion chamber, means operable by move
in said chamber, and a force transmitting me
dium in said casing and operable to transmit the ment of said element, an expansible-contractible
expansive force of said material to said wall body in said chamber and a crystalline substance
variable in volume on fusion and carried in solu- go
9. A thermostat comprisng a hollow casing ticn by said body so that said means will be
having an open side, a movable wall member moved by said element upon fusion of said
closing said side, a cup-like housing member ilt
13. A thermostatic‘ element comprising a body
ting within said casing and separating the easing
of pliable elastic material and temperature re- 25
into a ?uid compartment and a material receiv
ing chamber, a body of temperature responsive sponsive material, said responsive material being
expansible-contractible rubber-like material in carried in solution by said elastic material.
14. A thermostatic element comprising a body
said chamber, and a force transmitting ?uid
medium in said compartment and said chamber of pliable elastic material, heat exchange mate
and operable to transmit the expansive force of rial, and temperature responsive material, said so
responsive material being carried in solution by
said material to said wall member.
10. A thermostat comprising a hollow casing said elastic material.
15. A thermostatic element comprising a body
having an open side, a movable wall member clos
of metallic heat conducting material and expan
ing said side, a housing member ?tting said cas
ing and de?ning therewith a material receiving sible material, said expansible material including 35
a pliable elastic material having in solution a
chamber, a coiled strip of a rubber-like sub
temperature responsive crystalline material.
stance in said housing member, a crystalline ma
terial expansible on fusion contained in said
said laminations.
strip, and a force transmitting medium in said
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