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Патент USA US2128284

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Aug. 30, 1938._
R. H. BURKE
2,128,284
METHOD DE c'oNsTRUcTINc» sUBwAYs AND LIKE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
'Filed May 14, 1938
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Aug. 30, 1938.
R. H. BURKE
2,128,284
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING SUBWAYS AND LIKE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Filed May 14, 1938
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3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Aug. 30, 1938.
2,128,284
R_ H_ BURKE
METHOD oF coNsTRUcTING suBwAYs AND LIKE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Filed May 14, 1938
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Patented Aug.v 30, 1938
Z,l28,284
UNl'l‘ED S'E'Àfiëlä
2,128,284
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING SUBWAYS AND
LIKE UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
Ralph I-I. Burke, Evanston, Ill.
Application May 14, 1938, Serial No. 207,897
10 Claims.
The present invention relates to the construc
tion of subways and other underground structures,
and contemplates a new mode of operation that
includes ñrst erecting the retaining walls that
constitute the sides of the proposed subway, then
rooiing over the space between such Walls to form
a roadway as well as a ceiling for the subway, so
that the construction of the subway may be car
ried on with little if any interference with the
use of the street or roadway for traffic. The re
taining walls may be located at or near the lines
of the curbs, and by then roofing over the space
between such Walls a roadway may be provided
for traino while at the same time the material
l5 between the side walls and under the roof is being
excavated and the subway is being completed in
other respects.
It is old in the art to build underground re
taining Walls by first sinking a vertical shaft and
then excavating the earth and building the Wall
in sectional courses, beginning at the lowermost
course of the wall and constructing each super
jacent course or section upon a subjacent course
or section that has been previously completed. In
.3 such constructions, however, the first Wall sec
tion or course is completed before the next wall
section tunnel is excavated, and it is therefore
necessary in such cases to carry the concrete for
each course down through the shaft and into each
tunnel, the ñlling beginning at the far or blind
end of the tunnels, requiring the expenditure of
much time and labor in placing the concrete.
With such method, also, the material excavated
from each of the upper tunnels must be removed
35 through the tunnel in which the excavating is
then being carried on, which often necessitates the
excavation of a larger tunnel than is needed t0
accommodate the concrete wall desired, and also
requires the use of forms to construct the con
40 crete wall of the dimensions desired, all of which
makes for crowded working conditions in the
tunnel and therefore loss of time in the excavat
ing operations. It is also old in the art to ex
cavate the earth between the walls before roofing
45 over the space between them, and to place in such
excavation forms that are suitably braced from
below on to which the concrete of the roof sec
tion of the subway is poured.
The present invention has for its principal ob
ject to provide a simple and safe method of con
structing retaining walls, supporting piers and
the like, and the roofs of subways and other
underground structures, whereby the time and
labor required in the excavating operation and
55 the ñlling with concrete to form the same will
(C1. 61--44)
be reduced to a minimum, so as to make the
construction of such retaining walls and roof in
expensive as compared to the prior methods of
construction.
In constructing a subway, or like underground
structure, by my improved method, I first sink a
vertical shaft to a point level with or below the
lowermost section of the Wall to be constructed.
Then, beginning at the lower end of the shaft, I
excavate a tunnel of suitable height, and of about 10
the width of the thickness of the proposed wall.
This lowermost tunnel is of such size and shape as
to provide Working room for transporting the
earth excavated therefrom and from the super
posed tunnels subsequently excavated. Since the 15
base section of the proposed wall is ordinarily
wider than the upper portions, the lowermost
tunnel is about the width of the proposed base sec
tion. The length of this tunnel will correspond
with the length of the wall section that is to be 20
built by operating from the shaft.
In extending
this lowermost tunnel its sides are lagged or lined
with side plates and said plates are braced or
stiffened with strips or angles secured to upper
and lower margins thereof. Also secured to the lO Ul
side plates adjacent their upper margins are cross
strips or braces spaced apart longitudinally of
the tunnel. Loosely supported by the stiffening
strips at the upper margins of the side plates are
removable steel plates forming a temporary solid
roof for the lowermost tunnel to retain the earth
above it. After completing the excavation ofthe
lowermost tunnel, still operating from the shaft,
the next higher tunnel isv excavated, the plates `
forming the roof of the lowermost tunnel being
successively removed as the excavating progresses,
thus allowing the material excavated from the
upper tunnel to drop down between the cross
strips into the lowermost tunnel, from which it is
removed through the shaft. The sides of the
second tunnel are lagged and braced in a manner
similar to those of the ñrst tunnel, and in addi
tion the lower margins of the side plates of the
second tunnel are secured to the upper margins
of the side plates of the lower tunnel, spaced
apart cross strips or braces are connected between
the upper margins of the side plates of the second
tunnel, and removable steel plates are placed to
form a solid roof for such tunnel, as in the case
of the lowermost tunnel. After digging the
second tunnel, the next higher one is excavated
in the same Way, in each case the excavated ma
terial being allowed to drop into the lowermost
tunnel for removal therefrom through the shaft,
and so on until the full height of the wall is
2
2,128,284
reached. Of course, in the case of a topmost
tunnel which would reach the street level, if pre
ferred the material dislodged could be thrown
out into the street instead of being allowed to
drop through the several tunnels into the bottom
the tunnel, as is usual in tunnel construction.
The plates 9 in the lowermost tunnel extend from
the top to the bottom of the tunnel, and in the
preferred construction said side plates ñare or
pletely excavated concrete is poured into them
diverge outwardly from top to bottom as shown
in Figures 2 and 3, so that the bottom portion of
the tunnel is wider than the top portion thereof.
through pipes extending from the ground sur
face into the uppermost tunnel, or extended into
The purpose of such construction is to provide
more room for the workmen engaged in removing
the lower tunnels, as may be desired, said pipes
the material from the tunnel and also to pro
vide for the use of small dump cars, such as
shown at C in Figure 3, that ar-e usually used in
tunnel construction. The side plates 9 may be
joined together by flanges or otherwise to form a
continuous lining. If desired, after all of the 15
tunnels have been completed and before the con
one.
After the several tunnels have been com
being spaced apart at suitable distances along
the length of the proposed wall, and the concrete
will pass through the pipes or the open upper
portions of the several tunnels in the filling oper
ation, so that the lowermost tunnel will be ñlled
first, and then the remaining tunnels in suc
cession, as will be readily appreciated. If the
uppermost tunnel reaches the ground surface or
street level, the pipes may be dispensed with and
20 the concrete poured directly into the several
tunnels by the usual method to fill them in suc
cession. Tunnels may be extended from the shaft
in more than one direction, so that by sinking one
shaft a considerable length of wall or walls can
25 be formed.
Similarly, a shaft may be provided
at each end of a proposed wall section, with
the work progressing towards the center of said
section from the two shafts.
In the accompanying drawings I have shown
30 one form of means for carrying out my improved
method. As there illustrated:
Figure l is a longitudinal vertical sectional view
througha shaft and three partially completed
. superposed tunnels, showing the successive steps
of excavating and forming the tunnels; also one
of the concrete receiving pipes extending be
tween the upper tunnel and the ground surface;
Figure 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken
on the line 2_2 of Figure l, and showing in ad
40 dition in dotted lines two adjacent parallel retain
ing walls;
Figure 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view on an
enlarged scale showing the cross strips or braces
interposed between the upper and lower ends of
the side plates at opposite sides of the tunnel;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary vertical cross-section
on an enlarged scale, showing the means for con
necting the side plates of a lower tunnel to the
sid-e plates of the next higher tunnel, and the
50 means for connecting the cross braces to the side
plates;
crete is poured thereinto, vertically arranged side
plates may be inserted in lieu of the diverging
plates 9, or the plates 9 may be left in place and
vertically arranged plates or forms of other de 20
sired shape may be inserted on the inner sides
thereof in addition thereto, to form the concrete
wall of any desired shape or dimension.
An angle bar I9 is secured to the inner face of
each of the side plates 9 adjacent the upper 25
margin thereof by welding or otherwise suitably
securing one flange II of said bar to said plate,
the other flange I2 of the angle bar extending in
wardly from said plate in a horizontal plane for
a purpose to be hereinafter described. The upper
ends of the side plates 9 at opposite sides of the
tunnel are braced and held apart by spaced-apart
cross strips or braces I3 that are preferably in the
form of steel rods or bars having their outer ends
reduced in diameter as shown at It and inserted
in holes I5 provided therefor in the flanges II of
the angle bars IE) as best shown in Figure 4. Re
movable steel plates IIì are placed loosely on the
angle bars IE! to form a temporary roof for the
lowermost tunnel and to retain the earth above 40'
such lowermost tunnel until said earth is exca
vated in forming the next higher tunnel. These
removable plates i6 provide a footing for the
workmen in excavating the next higher tunnel,
and are removed in succession as such excavation 45
proceeds. The brace rods I3 are preferably
formed in two- sections connected together by a
turnbuckle to facilitate the insertion of the ends
ld of the rods in the holes I5 and to adjust them
tightly in place, as will be readily appreciated. 50
It is to be understood that any desired number
Figure 5 is a vertical cross-sectional View show
of such braces may be used as are necessary to
ing a subway structure comprising three retain
resist the pressure of the earth on the sides of
the tunnel, so long as they are spaced apart suf
-ing walls and a roof supported thereon con
structed in accordance with my improved method
and before the earth between the retaining walls
and below the roof has been excavated; and
Figure 6 is a vertical cross-sectional view simi
lar to Figure 5 showing the subway after the ex
60 cavation of the earth between the walls and be
low the roof, and the laying of the ñoor.
In carrying out my improved method, I first
construct two side walls, and an intermediate wall
when one is required, and each of such walls is
65 constructed by sinking a vertical shaft 6 down to
a point level with or below the foot of the lower
most section of the proposed wall, and the side
walls of the shaft may be lined with a plurality of
side plates such as those shown at 'l in Figure l,
70 if desired. Then a tunnel 8 is excavated, com
mencing at the bottom of the shaft and extending
along the line of the proposed wall, and as the
excavating progresses a plurality of side plates 9
are placed along the sides of the tunnel to pre
75 vent the earth adjacent thereto from falling into
ficiently to permit the material excavated from 55
the next higher tunnels, and the concrete that is
poured in from above when the tunnels are com
pleted, to drop therebetween into the lower
tunnels.
As shown in Figure 3, preferably an angle bar 60
I'I is secured to the inner face of each of the side
plates 9 adjacent its lower margin in a manner
similar to that in which the angle bars I0 are se
cured to the upper margins of said plates, and the
lower ends of the side plates 9 at opposite sides of 65
the tunnel are braced and held apart by lower
cross-braces or rods I8, similar to the upper brace
rods I3, that have their reduced outer ends in
serted in holes provided therefor in the flanges
of the angle bars I1.
70
After the first tunnel has been completed to any
desired or convenient distance from the shaft, and
before concrete is placed therein, the excavating
of the second tunnel 23 is commenced, starting
from the shaft. As the excavating of the tunnel
3
2,128,284
23 progresses the removable steel plates I6 form
ing the solid roof of the lower tunnel 8 are re
moved, allowing the material excavated from the
tunnel 23 to drop between the cross strips or
braces I3 into the rlowermost tunnel, from which
it is removed from the shaft. During this work
the sides of the tunnel 23 are lined with steel side
plates 24 similar to the side plates 9 of the lower
most tunnel except that the plates 24 are pref
10 erably vertically arranged as shown.
These
plates 24 are also preferably joined together by
flanges or otherwise to make a continuous lining.
Each of the side plates 24 adjacent its lower mar
gin is provided with an angle bar 25 having one
15 flange 26 thereof secured to said plate and its
other flange 21 extending inwardly from said plate
in a horizontal plane in a position just above the
ilange I2 of the angle bar I0 at the upper end of
the side plate 9 of the lower tunnel, and the angle
20 bars I0 and 25 are secured together by means of a
being ñlled in succession, beginning with the
lowermost tunnel. If desired, pipes 44 may be
extended into the tunnels 8, 23, and 38 by exten
sion pipe sections 45, as shown in .dotted lines in
Figure 1, such extension pipe sections being re
moved as the placing of concrete proceeds. In
cases where the uppermost tunnel reaches 'the
ground surface, the pipes 44 are dispensed with
and the material is poured directly into the upper
most tunnel, and distributed in the tunnels by the
usual construction method.
One advantage derived from my method of
constructing retaining walls for tunnels is that by
providing the spaced apart braces in the several
tunnels, reenforcing members that extend 15
through all of the tunnels may be introduced be
fore the concrete is poured 'into the tunnels,
whereby the finished wall will be properly
strengthened and reenforced from top to bot
tom.
bolt 28 extending through aligned openings in the
flanges I2 and 21 of said angle bars, respectively,
The method of constructing retaining walls
outlined above is particularly advantageous in
said bolt being held in position by a nut 29
building subways under city streets, as, by the
method described, the operation of building each
threaded thereon.
25
As shown in Figures 3 and 4, the lower ends
of the side plates 24 at opposite sides of the tunnel
23 are braced and held apart by spaced apart
cross braces 3l similar to the cross braces I3 and
I 1, and have their reduced outer ends 32 inserted
30 in holes 33 provided therefor in the iianges 28 of
the angle-bars 25, as shown in Figure 4.
The upper ends of the side plates 24 at opposite
sides of the tunnel 23 are held spaced apart in
proper position by means of spaced cross braces
35 35 (Figure 1) that are similar in all respects to
the cross braces I3 and similarly connected to the
angle bars 36 at the upper ends of the side plates
24. Removable steel plates 31 are placed on said
angle bars 36 to form a temporary roof for the
40 tunnel 23, similar in all respects to the plates I6
which form the temporary roof of the tunnel 8.
After the second tunnel has been completed,
the y next succeeding higher tunnel 38 is exca
vated, _commencing at the shaft, and as the ex
45 cavating progresses the material dislodged is al
lowed to drop between the braces 35 and 3I, and
I3 of the tunnel sections 23 and 8, respectively,
to the bottom of the lowermost tunnel 8, from
which the material is removed through the shaft.
50 This tunnel 38 is lined with side plates 39 similar
to the side plates 24 and cross braced as shown at
4 I-42 in Figure 1 in the same manner as the side
plates 24 as above described, and removable steel
plates 43 are-placed on the angles 44 at the upper
55 ends of the side plates 39 to form a roof for the
tunnel 38, in the same manner as plates I6 and
31 are used in tunnels 8 and 23, respectively.
It is well to point out that the excavation of
each of the upper tunnels may be started as soon
60 as the next lower tunnel has been excavated a
short distance, so that the work of excavating the
several tunnels may be concurrent to a large ex
tent, as will be readily understood.
In cases where the uppermost tunnel section 38
65 does not reach the ground surface, as in the illus
trated construction, I provide means for filling
the tunnel sections with concrete from the ground
surface, and such means comprises a plurality
of pipes 44, one of which is shown in Figure l,
70 that are spaced apart at suitable distances along
the length of the upper tunnel and extend from
the ground surface into said tunnel. The con
crete for filling the tunnels is poured into said
pipes and drops down between the several spaced
75 brace members of the tunnels, the several tunnels
20
wall may be coni-ined to a narow space at one side 25
of the roadway without the» necessity of digging
up the whole street or half of the street as the
work progresses, thereby reducing interference
with traiiic to a minimum.
After the side walls, and the intermediate Wall 30
if one is required, have been completed, as above j
described, the space between such walls is roofed
over. In this operation the earth between the
ground surface or street level and above a plane
passing through the upper surfaces of the retain 35.
ing walls is excavated, and concrete is then
poured into such excavation in the usual man
ner to form a roadway between the walls as well
as the roof of the subway. This is done before .
the earth between the walls is removed, so that 40
such earth supports the concrete that forms the
roof while the concrete is being poured. In Fig
ure 5 I have illustrated a subway construction
comprising two side retaining and supporting
walls 41 and 48 and a centrally disposed support 45
ing wall 49 on which a roof 5I formed in the
manner above described is supported. After the
roof has been completed, the earth between the
walls 41 and 49 and 48 and 4Q and below the roof
5I is excavated down to a point in line with the 50
lower ends of the walls 41, 48, and 49, and con
crete is then laid between the several walls to
form the. iloor sections 52 and 53 as shown in
Figure 6.
.
This method of construction is particularly 55
advantageous in building subways under city
streets since it provides a practical means of con
structing the side walls of the subway before the
main excavating of the subway is begun. The
walls having thus been iìrst constructed, the roof 60.
of the subway may be constructed at street level,
resting upon the previously constructed walls,
after which the excavating necessary for com
pleting the subway may be proceeded with be
neath the completed roof and between the com
pleted walls, in utmost safety, without interfer
ence with street trafñc and without the inconven
ience of using temporary bracing to hold the sides
or roof of the excavation.
It is apparent that
the procedure above described, which is ina-de 70.
possible by the use of my method of constructing
concrete retaining walls described herein, obvi
ates the necessity of constructing a temporary
street deck structure under which the work of
excavating and constructing the subway maybe "
4
2,128,284
carried on, and thereforeV provides for construct
ing subways at a higher level than heretofore,
thus effecting a substantial saving in the total
amount of excavating work required for the sub
way; and obviating entirely the we of back ñll
ing that is usually required above. the roof of the
subway to fill to the required street grade and
saving entirely the repaving of the street after
construction of the subway. The method is of
removing the material excavated from successive
ly higher tunnels through said lowermost tunnel,`
providing an opening between the uppermost
tunnel and the ground surface, and filling all of
said tunnels in succession, commencing with the
lowermost tunnel, with concrete poured through
said opening.
5. The method of constructing concrete re
taining walls for subways and the like, which com
further advantage in the operation of the sub
way after completion, in that it allows construc
tion of the subway at a higher level than was
prises sinking a shaft to or below the level of
the foot of the wall to be constructed, exca
heretofore practicable, minimizing the steps nec
essary for the users of the subway to take in de
ing lining plates along the side walls of the tun
nel, providing spaced apart cross braces between
scending to and ascending from the platform
levels in the subway.
the upper ends of the lining plates at opposite 15
sides of said tunnel, providing a sectional re
vating a tunnel beginning at said shaft, provid
movable ceiling for said tunnel, excavating and
1. The method of constructing concrete re
constructing successively higher tunnels begin
taining walls for subways, underground struc
tures, and the like, which comprises sinking a
ning at said shaft along the line of and over the
ñrst tunnel in a manner similar to that of said 20
shaft to or below the level of the foot of the wall
first tunnel, meanwhile progressively removing
to be constructed, excavating a tunnel beginning
at said shaft, excavating similar successively
higher tunnels beginning at said shaft along the
cessively excavated the material therefrom will
drop down between said cross braces into said first
. line of and over said first tunnel, whereby as said
tunnels are successively excavated the material
therefrom will drop down into said first tunnel,
removing the material excavated from succes
sively higher tunnels through said lowermost
tunnel,
and ñlling said tunnels in succession,
302
commencing with the lowermost tunnel, from
above with concrete.
2. The method of constructing a plurality of
superposed tunnels for the purpose of building a
concrete retaining wall, which comprises sinking
a shaft to or below the level of the foot of the
proposed wall, excavating the lowermost tunnel
beginning at said shaft, providing a sectional re
movable ceiling for said tunnel, successively ex
such ceilings, whereby as said tunnels are suc
tunnel, removing the material excavated from 25
successively higher tunnels through said lower
most tunnel, and filling all of said tunnels, in
succession, commencing with the lowermost tun
nel, with concrete poured into said tunnels'from
30
above.
6. The method of constructing subways and
like underground structures, which comprises
forming two or more spaced apart retaining walls
below the ground surface, each of which is con
structed by sinking a shaft to or below the level 35
of the foot of the proposed wall, excavating the
lowermost tunnel beginning at said shaft, pro
viding a sectional removable ceiling for said tun
nel, successively excavating and constructing one
cavating and constructing one or morey like su
or more like superposed tunnels over and in line 40
perposed tunnels over and in line `with said low
with said lowermost tunnel, meanwhile progres
sively removing such ceilings, so that the material
excavated from said superposed tunnels is allowed
to drop down into the lowermost tunnel, removing
the material excavated from said superposed tun 45
nels from said lowermost tunnel through said
ermost tunnel, meanwhile progressively removing
such ceilings, so that 'the material excavated from
said superposed tunnels is allowed to drop down
45 into the lowermost tunnel, and removing the ma
terial excavated from said superposed tunnels
from said lowermost tunnel through said shaft.
3. The method of constructing concrete retain
ing walls for subways and the like, which com
prises sinking a shaft to or below the level of the
50
foot of the wall to be constructed, excavating a
tunnel beginning at said shaft, providing a sec- v
shaft, roofing over the space between said re
taining walls to form a roof for the subway, and
thereafter removing the material from between
said walls and below said roof.
y
50
'7. The method of constructing subways and
like underground structures, which comprises
tional removable ceiling for said tunnel, excavat
ing and constructing similar successively‘higher
55 tunnels beginning at said shaft along the line of
and over said first tunnel, meanwhile progres
sively removing such ceilings, whereby as said
tunnels are successively excavated the material
therefrom will drop down into said ñrst tunnel,
forming two or more spaced apart retaining walls
below the ground surface, each of which is con
structed by sinking a shaft to or below the level 55
of the foot of the wall to be constructed, excavat
ing a tunnel beginning at said shaft, providing
a sectional removable ceiling for said tunnel, ex
60 removing the material excavated from succes
higher tunnels beginning at said shaft along the 60
sively higher tunnels through said lowermost
tunnel, and filling said tunneds in succession
from above with concrete.
4. The method of constructing concrete retain
65 ing walls for subways and the like, which com
prises sinking a shaft to or below the level of the
foot of the wall to be constructed, excavating a
tunnel beginning at said shaft, providing a sec
tional removable ceiling for said tunnel excavat
70 ing and constructing similar successively higher
tunnels beginning at said shaft along the line of
and over said first tunnel, meanwhile progres
sively removing such ceilings, whereby as said
tunnels are successively excavated the material
75 therefrom will drop down into said first tunnel,
cavating and constructing similar successively
line of and over said ñrst tunnel, meanwhile
progressively removing such ceilings, whereby as
said tunnels are successively excavated the ma
terial therefrom will drop down into said iirst
tunnel, removing the material excavated from 65
successively higher tunnels through said lower
most tunnel, ñlling said tunnels in succession from
above the concrete, roofing over the space between
said retaining walls to form a roof for the sub
way, and thereafter removing the material from
between said walls and below said roof.
8. The method of constructing subways and
other underground structures which comprises
forming two or more spaced apart retaining walls
below the ground surface, each of which is con
2,128,284
structed by sinking a shaft to or below the level
of the foot of the wall to be constructed, eX
cavating a tunnel beginning at said shaft, exca
vating similar successively higher tunnels be
Ul ginning at said shaft along the line of and over
said ñrst tunnel, whereby as said tunnels are suc
cessively excavated the material therefrom will
drop down into said ñrst tunnel, removing the
material excavated from successively higher tun
10 nels through said lowermost tunnel, and ñlling
said tunnels in succession, commencing with the
lowermost tunnel, from above with concrete, roof
ing over the space between said retaining walls to
form a roof for the subway, and thereafter remov
ing the material from between said walls and be
low said roof.
5
9. The method of constructing a subway under
a street or roadway which comprises constructing
a retaining wall below the ground surface along
each side of the roadway, rooñng over the space
between said walls to form a pavement for the 5
roadway and a roof for the subway, and there
after excavating the earth from between said
walls and below said roof.
10. The method of constructing a subway which
comprises constructing a retaining wall below 10
the ground surface along each side of the sub
way, constructing a roof for the subway supported
by said retaining walls, and thereafter excavating
the earth from between said walls and below said
roof.
15
RALPH H. BURKE.
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