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Патент USA US2128385

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Aug. 30, 1938.
Filed Aug. 29, 1955
2_Sheets-Sheet l
. Patented Aug. 30, 1938
Application Aunut 29, 1935, Serial No. 38.408 _
(01.‘ 179-119)
The present invention relates to a telephone in
Fig. 1 is a partially exploded view of the tele
strument intendedto function in a system as
transmitter or receiver, independently of external
current sources, and constitutes a continuation
phone unit;
Fig. 4 is a portion of the section along line H
oi'Flg. 1 with the parts assembled;
In most cases the dia
Fig. 5 is a plan view of the diaphragm;
Fla. 6 is a plan view of the partially assembled
unit; and
' maximum amplitudes of vibration and a minia
Fig. 'i'_ is an. elevation showing one manner in
which a pair oithe units may be combined as a
mum weight of the moving system. In attempts
to balance the mechanical system, balance of the
magnetic circuit has been overlooked with a re
A diaphragm it is sandwiched between a spac
ing ring i Land an annular boss I2 which is inte
gral with and protrudes irom a pertorated cover
plate It,‘ whereby an. air chamber is de?ned be
tween the diaphragm and cover plate. The spac
ing ring it has a bearing upon a plate it which
sulting imperfection oi’ sound transmission.
Units conforming to the present construction
?nd application for any installations wherein local
telephone systems are used, such as for ships.
apartment houses, hotels, oi?ces, mines, factories,
etc., as well-as for submarine salvage as disclosed
in the parent application already referred to. ~
In use as a transmitter, ‘the unit of the present
serves as a support for the various elements. The
base plate and cover plate are provided with reg
istering openings 55 and it respectively, for the
invention derives its actuating current from the
sound vibrations impressed upon the diaphragm,
reception oi assembly screws. Another set 01'
openings provided in the cover plate are intended
to receive‘ screws for attachment to a‘housing,
obviating the need for batteries or other external
current sources. As a receiver, the unit converts
not shown, for enclosing the working parts in
the incoming electrical currents to sound waves
30 which are reproduced by the diaphragm. While
especially intended for use without external cur-»
rent sources, the interposition of a battery or
is a sectional elevation taken along line -
‘3-3 of ‘Fig. 1 with the parts in assembled rela
phragms oi such instruments have been strained
beyond desirable limits in an attempt to obtain
system, partially broken away.
5 in part of my application Serial Number 713,023
?led on February 26, 1934.
Due to inherent defects and general ine?lciency,
instruments of the soqcalled batteryless type
heretofore constructed, have failed to meet with
10 commercial success.
Fig. 2 is a detail of portionsvoi the magnetic
watertight condition.
Secured to the base plate it by-bolts I1, is the
assembly for effecting the induced current: in 30
response to the voice or other sound frequencies
impressed upon the diaphragm. This assembly
comprises a permanent horseshoe magnet i8, pole
Faithful reproduction is obtained throughout pieces IS, an armature 20, an armature housing
the audio frequency range with units of the pres-=_ 2 I, a winding it properly insulated fromthe me 85
other current source in the circuit is also con
ent construction, by virtue of the proportions oi’
tallic structure, and means for holding the various
the various masses and arrangements resorted to.
elements in -' assembled relation and properly
Undue damping is avoided, and injury to the
spaced. A pinzt couples the diaphragm assem-
parts is prevented.
bly to the armature. to which elements its re- w
, .
The armature oi? the electromagnetic circuit is
supported in a truly balanced condition, and
measures are taken to preserve a balance of the
magnetic circuit as a whole.
v Sound vibrations impressed upon the diaphragm
spective ends are positively connected, though ad
.justably, by solder or the like.
The bolts i'i have their heads countersunk in
the base plate, their‘ shanks extending through
thesarne- with a forced ?t in order to maintain
them'in rigid, spaced relation. The spacing of 45
these bolts is such, that the ends of the horse
shoe magnet, it are nicely received therebetweeh
of transmitter or receiver alike, represent more
nearly the mean values, (whereby distortion is
overcome and the diaphragm is subjected to
smaller strains than in known structures.
. and irictionally ‘held thereby. . Counterbored
It is with the object of overcoming the faults of openings formed near the opposite ends oi’ the
prior constructions and of attaining the ends, magnet, receive, the screws 24 which threadediy
already outlined, that the present invention is engage the pole-pieces it to fasten the same to
proposed, the details of which will be understood ‘ the‘poles of the magnet. Each of the pole-pieces
from the following description in conjunction is preferably ‘termed from a ?at sheet of mag-_-'
with the accompanying drawings,
netic material, which is out to ‘a substantially T- u
’ shape, the horizontal bar of the T tending to
converge at its extremities by virtue of a slight
taper on its lower edge. In assembled relation,
these pole-pieces each have a vertical portion con
tiguous to and coextensive with the poles of the
horseshoe magnet. One end of each of these
vertical portions (in Fig. 2'» the upper end oi‘ the
left hand pole-piece and the lower end of the
right hand pole~piecel joins a horizontally ex
10 tending portion which is substantially ‘coplanar
surface of the magnet. Also, the bar
ably bowed downwardly at its central pi rtlon so
as to resiliently bear against the horizontal por
tion of the upper pole-piece 3B. The lower pole
piece is also given a de?nite bearing surface
against the base plate by designing the latter in
the manner shown in Fig. 6.
The central aper
ture of the base plate is formed of two concentric
semi~circles of different radii. Thus the smaller
semi-circle 37! leaves su?icient material to sup
with one of the planes of the horseshoe magnet.
The tips of the pole-pieces are formed by folding
inwardly towards the axial plane of the perma~
nent magnet, a pair of wings which constituted
the horizontal bar of the original T. These wings
or tips of the respective pole-pieces extcnu to
pm" "t the pole~piece without unduly damping the
wards one another, but are maintained in a pre—
terminated in the planes of the pole-piece sur
determined spaced relation by .a series of lugs t5
extending from the armature housing.
A light weight armature 20 of magnetic mate
rial, and substantially rectangular in plan, has
a short perforated integral lug 25 extending cen-u
While the larger semi-circle it pro
vides a suf?ciently large passage ‘
r air within
the instrument so as not to interfere with its
sensitivity and operation.
As shown in Fig. 4, the armature
faces so as to be cut by substant
flue: emanating therefrom.
To p
age ‘through fatigue, the armature lug
as short as possible, and to allow for
ie solder
or the like applied thereto for holding the pin
trally from one side thereof. Parallel to the side .25], the rear surfaces of the pole-pieces are pro
bearing the lug 26, on a line passing through the vided with grooves 40. A further and more im~
portant function of these grooves, is the balance
25 center of gravity of the armature, a pair of opens
ings are formed, symmetrical with respect to said of the magnetic‘ system which is achieved
center of gravity, through which the ends of a thereby. The projecting lug 25 tends to decrease
supporting pin 21 are passed. The pin is prefer~ the reluctance of the gap at the rear of the pole~
ably a length of resilient wire having its ends pieces, which factor is compensated by reducing
the area of the pole faces at this point. Conse Ill)
30 bent at 90° to their base, forming a pair of par
allel arms. The base of the pin is permanently quently, the torque applied at the opposite sides
attached to the armature, as by soldering or the .of the fulcrum provided by the pin 21 will be
likepindlcated at 2B.
equalized and likelihood of distortion dimh'lished.v
The ends of the pin 21 are‘ received in openings
After the diaphragm i0 is clamped into posi
formed in the upper surface of a one-piece arma- . tion, the pin 23 is inserted'through the opening ~
ture housing 2| which is of rigid, light nonmag» . in the lug 26, and with the armature assigned
netic materialfpreterably metal. The armature
is centered in its housing, whereupon the pin
ends are riveted and a?ixed ‘to the housing by
40 soldering or the like. The housing comprises a
top surface, a pair of side Walls perpendicular
thereto, opposed base portions spaced ‘from one
another and parallel to the top surface, and care
fully calibrated lugs 25 projecting from both ends
of both side walls, making four in all. The
upper and lower edges of all of these lugs 25 lie
in two parallel planes, for the purpose of spacing
the pole pieces IS. The base of the housing,
being discontinuous, prevents to a large extent,
50 the effects of eddy currents.
Bridging the gap between the base portions
of the armature housing, there is provided an
insulating block 29, which in conjunction with
its insulating wrapping 30, spaces the spool
55 ?anges 3| of insulating material, which are pro
vided with elongated slots for the reception of
the armature housing. Thus, except for its lugs
25, the armature housing serves as a core for the
magnet winding 22 which is formed upon the
60 wrapping 30 and between the ?anges 3|. These
elements are held in assembled relation by bend
ing the four lugs 25 outwardly along their line of
junction with they housing proper. After the
predetermined number of turns of suitable guage
65 wire have been applied on the spool, an insulat
ing covering 32 is wrapped about the coil so
A clamping bar 33 of non-magnetic material is
provided with openings for the reception of the
70 threaded ends of the bolts H, for clamping the
assembly to the base plate upon application of
the nuts 34. The bar is provided with a pair of
locating pins 35, preferably pressed from the
material '01’ the bar itself, which pins are received
in a pair of cooperating openings in the upper
to its ?nal neutral position with respect to the
opposed pole tips, the pin is ?xed to the lug.
Should the diaphragm subsequently become bent,
or should there be need of adjustment for an
other reason, the pin may be readjusted with
respect to the armature lug and a new joint
The ends of the winding 22 are brought out to
a suitable terminal block 41, from which they are 45
connected to their respective conductors for
completing a circuit with one or more similar
The diaphragm I0 is preferably a thin disk of
resilient flexible material, such as duralumin, 50
highly responsive to voice frequencies, which in
the form shown, has been impressed with a series
of concentric corrugations, the spacing and depth
of which in general, increase as their diameters
Whereas it is usual practice in devices of this
type to solder or otherwise connect the center of
the diaphragm directly to the pin which trans
mits the movements to or from the armature,
more reliable and generally better reproduction 60
has been obtained in this construction by trans
mitting movements between diaphragm proper
and the pin through an intermediate, substan
tially rigid member which is supported at a plu
rallty of points on the diaphragm. To prevent
undue damping of the diaphragm, this member
is attached at the peak of a corrugation, being
otherwise out of contact with the diaphragm.
This connecting member 42 which is prefer
ably of light yet rigid construction, has a body
portion of substantial cone shape, terminating
at its base in a rigldifying bead 43, extending
from which, there are a plurality of short stiff
lugs 44 which are perforated for the reception
of rivets 45 for attachment to the diaphragm 76
at the peak of a corrugation 48. After the parts
have been riveted together, solder is preferably
applied to therivet heads to assure an air-tight
and substantial joint, after which a coating of
a waterproof and plastic material such as a wax‘
is applied over the solder.
As shown, three lugs connect the member 42
with the diaphragm, this number having been
chosen as a-balance between light weight .and
10 rigidity, both of which factors are important.
magnet, depending upon the direction of the
current. Thus the armature will become unbal
aneed and be caused to vibrate about its fulcrum,
which vibration will be transmitted to the re
ceiver diaphragm and be emitted as sound waves. U!
Fig. 7 depicts a pair of such telephone units
assembled as a hand set, having a single casing
for the units, the cable being led into the casing
through a watertight stuffing box.
Although the construction .of the telephone
Whether the movements are transmitted from _ units especially adaptsthem to use in connec
the diaphragm to the armature while the unit tion with submarine salvage apparatus, they
have been highly successful in other uses and
' serves as a transmitter, or from the armature
to the diaphragm when in use as a receiver, a
15 more nearly perfect reproduction is effected than
with a. pinconnected at a single point to the
their application is not to be restricted beyond
the scope of the appended claims.
center of the diaphragm. The number of such
lugs may be varied without departing from the
spirit of the invention.’
The air chamber between the diaphragm and
the diaphragm cover is designed with respect to
the moving system, that is, the diaphragm, its
pin and the armature, so that when a. plurality
1. A telephone unit comprising a permanent
magnet carrying a pair of detachable pole pieces,
an electromagnet embraced by said pole pieces,
said electromagnet comprising a spool having 20
separate ?anges and a discontinuous one-piece
sheet metal armature housing having elements
holding said spool in assembled relation and pro
jecting between said pole-pieces and in contact
therewith for limiting the positions of the latter. 25
2. A telephone unit comprising a permanent
> of the units are connected in a circuit, the cir
cult will be substantially uniformly responsive
to frequencies throughout the audible range.
I claim:
The resonance of a unit used as a receiver will , ‘magnet carrying a pair of pole-pieces, an elec
be di?erent than when it is used as a trans
mitter, due to a change of its effective air chamher, and the number of different resonant fre
quencies of the system will be increased, tending
to render uniform the output of the system over
the entire audible range.
tromagnet embraced by said pole-pieces, said
electromagnet comprising an armature and a.
one-piece sheet metal housing therefor, a spool 30
composed of a plurality of elements formed about
said housing, said housingI carrying lugs engag
ing and holding the spool in assembled relation
As appears inFig. 3, the length of the pole - and contacting said pole-pieces for spacing the
tips is necessarily slightly greater than the length
of the armature housing for the lugs 25 to per
form their function of spacing these pole tips
‘ latter.
3. A telephone unit comprising a base plate
carrying a pair of spaced bolts, a horseshoe mag
net carried by said base plate having its legs in
' or. receiver interchangeably. and due to their
frictional engagement with said bolts, pole-pieces
carried by said magnet having surfaces coplanar
construction, operate emciently under the high
with those of the magnet and a clamping bar
pressure conditions to which they are frequently
subjected as in under water salvage operations
receiving said bolts ensasins coplanar surfaces
of said magnet and-said pole-pieces for. clamp
These telephone units operate as transmitter
. when used as a transmitter, the vibrations of
45 the diaphragm set up by the voice, are imparted
to the balanced armature through the pin a.
The movements of the armature in the ?eld of
ing the same to said base plate.
4. A, telephone unit comprising a horseshoe
magnet having a pair of oppositely directed pole
pieces rigidly attached thereto, said pole-pieces
the permanent magnet, vary the reluctance of . having surfaces coplanar with those of the mag
net, a clamping bar engaging the upper surfaces '
the magnetic circuits with a frequency propor
tional to that of the sound waves producing these
movements. Accordingly, proportional currents
will be induced in the winding, which currents
will be carried to similar units serving for the
instant as receivers. When current flows in the
of a pole-piece and the magnet and having posi
tioning pins received by apertures in the magnet,
a base plate engasing the lower surfaces of a -
pole-piece and the magnet, and means for asso—
ciating said clamping bar with said base plate
receiver winding, magnetic ?ux will be produced
to oppou or reinforce that of the permanent
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