Патент USA US2128388код для вставки
Aug. 30,. 1938. H. M. WILLIAMS Er AL 2,128,338 'REFRIGERATING APPARATUS ’ Filed Dec. 31, 1934 p C I ~ & ! a: > 2% I m . ‘T’ ‘7 66 F”, O ‘xv: lid/“1.” as J“ . :7; 82 = _ m Inn :3 v at?‘ 2 4f ' 47 INVENTORS. #144)’ M Wan/m: A” ' luurJ. 770mm. BY HIE/k ATTORNEYS. 2,128,388 ‘ Patented Aug. 30, 1938 OFF-ICE NlTED STATES; aizaass anrnrcanarmc Amrros Harry M. Williams and Albert J. Timmer, Dayton, Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware Application December 31, 1934, Serial No. 759,812’ 4 Claims. (Cl. 230-406) tem. My invention may be of more importance This invention relates to refrigerating systems and particularly to the means employed in such systems for causing circulation of refrigerant therein. 5 ‘ An object of the present invention is to prevent absorption of refrigerant in a closed volatile re- frigerating system by oil employed to lubricate moving parts of the refrigerant circulating ele when applied to the latter type of a refrigerating system due to the relatively large amount of re frigerant in such system and which refrigerant is ordinarily circulated in absorbing contact with 5 ' the lubricant contained therein. The system disclosed in the drawing comprises a refrigerant circulating’ element, pump or com ment or compressor of the system through which 10 the refrigerant is circulated. Another object of the invention is to provide a refrigerating system with a refrigerant circu lating element or compressor which has a sub stantially dry crankcase compartment as distin 15 guished from conventional refrigerating systems wherein a body of lubricant is ordinarily con tained in the crankcase of the compressor there of. ‘ ' In carrying out the foregoing objects it is a 20 still further object of the invention to force a pressor l0 operated by an electric motor I I. ' The compressor or pump it forces refrigerant such 10 as di?uorodichloro methane (CClzFzL. or any other suitable refrigerant through a suitable check valve, which is ordinarily contained in the top portion or head i2 of the compressor, and thence through conduit or pipe l3 into a con- 15 denser it. The compressed refrigerant is con densed and lique?ed in condenser l4 and collects in the receiver it. From the receiver l6v the li que?ed refrigerant passes by conduit i'l through an expansion valve is and into the cooling coils 20 \ or evaporator IQ of a refrigerating element where lubricant, such, for example, as oil, through or it performs its refrigerating effect in the well between the bearing surfaces of operating parts known manner. From the cooling coil 19 the of a compressor of a refrigerating system, vto vaporized refrigerant passes by means of the pipe drain the lubricant circulated to the compressor 2! back to the refrigerant circulating element, 25 25 parts from the compressor, and to isolate thev pump or compressor Ill. The thermostatic device lubricant removed from the compressor from re is represented by the numeral 22 and is disposed frigerant in the refrigerating system. _ Further‘ objects and advantages of the present , so as to be responsive to the temperature of the invention will be apparent from the following 30 description, reference being had to the accom ‘panying drawing, wherein a preferred form of the present invention is clearly shown. In the drawing: Fig. 1 discloses a refrigerating system shown 35 diagrammatically and having my invention em bodied in ‘the refrigerant circulating element perature of the space beingrefrigerated by this coil. This» device is used to actuate, as by means cooling coil is or may be responsive to the tem of a diaphragm, bellows or the like 23, a circuit making and breaking switch 24. This switch is shown in its motor non-operating position by the full lines and contacts 25 and 26 and in its opera- 3r tive position'by the dotted line. ‘J After the system is put in operation and the thereof which element is shown on an enlarged _ compressor It has been idle for a short period of scaée partly in section and partly in elevation; an m Fig. 2 is a sectional view through the oil pump employed in the present invention and is taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1. Referring in detail to the drawing there is shown for the'purpose of illustrating the inven 45/ tion a compressor-condenser-expander type of refrigerating system employing an expansion valve for "admitting refrigerant to the evaporator time, pressure within the evaporator l9, pipe 2|, and the compressor crankcase 28 is relatively high. - During this idle period the temperature of 40 a ?uid in bulb 22 rises and increases its own vapor pressure and this pressure acting inside the ?exible diaphragm or bellows 23 will expand same and thus force the switch 24 and its con tacts 25 and 26 into circuit-making position to 45 cause~ operation of the motor ll employed for driving the refrigerant circulating element, pump of the system and a thermostat responsive to compressor it. After the compressor has temperatures of the evaporator for actuating a or operated for a short period, say for a few minutes, switch for intermittently or cyclically starting the temperature and the environment of bulb 22 50 and stopping operations of the system. However, ’ reduced, and the ?uid pressure therein is re the invention is equally applicable to a so-called ~ is duced su?lciently to permit the diaphragm or bel ?ooded type refrigerating system in which a ?oat lows 23 to be contracted, thus actuating the valve controls the entrance to the evaporator and switch contacts 25 and28 into open‘position for in which operation of the system is controlled 55 by a switch responsive to pressures in the sys breaking the electric circuit to the motor H. 55 2 2,128,388 Operations of the system continue as described as long as such system is connected with the source of power. The compressor, or pump l0 may be of any suitable form and may include an eccen tric 3| ‘within the crankcase 28 which eccentric is secured to the rotating shaft 32 and has a con . necting rod 33 actuated thereby. Movement of operation of the motor H, extending to‘ a point. adjacent a counter-bored opening or chamber 40 provided on one side of the compressor crankcase 28. A unitary pump, preferably although not necessarily,‘ of the vane type, the construction and operation of which pump is well-known to those skilled in the art, is adapted to be located _ the connecting rod 33 reciprocates a piston 34 se- _ within the chamber 40. curedv to the upper end thereof. This piston 34 has located therein any suitable or conventional check valve (not shown) which opens upon the down stroke of the piston to permit the entrance of refrigerant gas into the cylinder 36 above the piston but seats or remains closed during the up or compression stroke thereof. ' The crankcase 28 of the compressor, or pump it) is on the “low side" of the system. While the compressor is operating, the refrigerant pressure therein is relatively low, but during the idle v20 period this pressure gradually rises because of the rise of temperature of'the liquid refrigerant in the low side of the system. During this idle period, therefore, the refrigerant absorbing power of lubricant ordinarily contained as a body there of in the crankcase of conventional compressors increases and a quantity of refrigerant is ab sorbed, depending, of course, on the natural a?in ity between the two ?uids, the temperature of The pump includes a rotor 4| having two vane members 42 and 43 located in a slot provided therefor'in' the rotor and which vanes are forced outwardly away from one another by a spring 44. A ring member 45 is stationarily clamped, by screws 46, between an end plate 41 and another end plate 48 which said another end plate is stationarily clamped to’the wall of chamber 40 by a plurality of bolts or screws 49. The ring 45 is mounted concen trically with respect to chamber 40 and compres sor shaft 32 and is provided with an eccentric opening which serves as a cylinder in which the rotor 4| rotates. In order to cause rotation of rotor 4| within the eccentric cylinder provided by ring 45 the rotor is provided with shaft por tions 5i and 52 formed integrally with and ex tending outwardly from each side of the rotor.’ The shaft portion 5| of rotor 4| is journaled in an opening provided therefor in the end or seal ing plate 88. The other shaft portion 52 of rotor the lubricant and the pressures of the ?uids. 30 The volume of the lubricant in conventional 6! has its end squared as at ,53 so as to be received in a similarly shaped groove or slot 54 provided , compressor crankcases (which is a mixture of in the end of the compressor shaft 32. (See Fig. 2.) The connection of shaft'portion 52 with the compressor shaft 32 obviously causes operation of the pump just described when the compressor to is operated by motor ii. During rotation of oil and refrigerant with a major portion of oil) therefore tends to increase due to this absorption of refrigerant during the idle periods of the sys tem. This is particularly true where the refrig erant and lubricant are miscible in all propor tions, but the same problem exists, in varying degrees, even when they are only partially mis cible. A body-of oil as contained in the crankcase 40 of conventional compressors is thereby readily diluted thus decreasing the lubricating properties thereof. . , In a conventional apparatus not provided with my invention, the lubricant level would tend to rise to a detrimentally high level during the idle period of the system. This rise in the level would occur because of the absorption of the refriger ant by the lubricant as described above. With \ such a detrimentally high oil level a violent boil 50 mg or foaming would occur when the compressor starts due to the release of gaseous refrigerant from the lubricant by the quick reduction in the rotor 4| a suction is created on one side of the annular edge of the rotor between the vanes 62 and 43 and at the same time a pressure is created on the other side of rotor 4| between the vanes 42 and 43 as is well-known to those familiar , with pumps of the type disclosed. Therefore I provide suitable outlet openings 55 in the upper most portion of ring 45 on the pressure side of the pump and also a similar inlet opening 56 (see Fig. 1) on the suction side of the pump. The ,. outlet openings 55 communicate, by means of the notch or groove 51 provided in ring 45, with an outlet port or conduit connection 58 and with the chamber 40, by means of the notch or groove 59 provided in the end plate 41 for purposes to be more fully described hereinafter. The inlet " opening 56 which, as before stated, may be simi pressure. Under such conditions large amounts ' lar to the outlet openings'55 is, of course, blocked of liquid are‘ ‘likely to pass through the valve, off or prevented by end plate 41 from communi not shown, but located in the piston 34 into the cating with the pressure chamber 40 but this compression chamber 36 above the piston with inlet opening 56 is in open communication with undesirable results such as causing stalling of an inlet port ‘or conduit connection 6|. A spe the'motor II and burning or blowing of fuses in ciflc type of pump having been brie?y described, the power ‘circuit. A great amount of oil is also it will be understood, however, that any suitable 60 circulated by the pump or compressor with re or conventional pump may be employed to carry frigerant to other elements of the refrigerating .out the objects of the present invention. system and this is likely to cause the compressor‘ A closed ?uid circuit is' connected to the pump to operate without being properly lubricated. above described and is adapted to contain, in According to this invention, however, the prob one portion thereof, a quantity of oil to be cir lems encountered in the use of ,conventional com culated to or through the bearing surfaces of pressors are eliminated. To this end there is moving parts of the compressor ID for lubricating provided an apparatus wherein the pump or com such parts. A conduit 65 is adapted to have its one pressor crankcase 28 is maintained in a substan end connected, by any suitable connecting means, :tially dry condition or in other words, is devoid with the outlet port or connection 58 of the 70 of a body of lubricant therein while at the same pump and the other end of conduit 65 is adapted time providing positive and efficient lubrication to be connected to a connection 66 in the hous of moving parts of the pump or compressor i0. ing 61 of a valve device generally designated by Referring again to the drawings it will be noted the reference character 68. ‘ The valve device 63 that the compressor, or pump l0 disclosed therein has a pipe connection 69 with the lowermost 75 has its operating shaft 32, which is rotated by portion of the interior of the crankcase 28 of com- 7‘ ‘2,128,888 pressor‘ I18 and is also connected, by the ?ange couplingi'll and copuler 12, with a tank 13. A conduit 14 is adapted to have its oneend 15 con nected, by any suitable connecting means, with the bottom of tank 13 and the other end 16 of conduit 14 is adapted to be connectedkwith the inlet connection 6| of the oil pump secured to and operated _by the compressor I0. The valve de 7 vice 68 included in the closed ?uid pressure cir-_ cult just described includes a plunger 3| having a valve 82 attached thereto or formed on the lower end thereof and which valve is adapted to ' connection 53 is also\in open communication, by _ _ way of the slot 51, with the openings 55 oil is also forced, by .pres'sure created by the pump, to the. ' conduit 65. The oil under pressure is circulated from chamber 48 into the central hole 9| provided a in the compressor or pump shaft 32 from where it is caused to fiow'to the bearing surfaces ofpthe 3 open or close the passage 33, leading from con duit or pipe 69 through housing 61 tothe tank 13, in a manner to be hereinafter described. 15 3 The shaft 32, thence through groove 92 to the bearing surface between the connecting rod_33 and eccen tric 3|. The oil is also forced, under the pressure 10 created by the pump, from the groove 92, through opening 93 in rod 33, to the hole 94 in the piston pin 95 thereby lubricating the bearing surface of operating parts of the compressor. As before stated oil under pressure is circulated to conduit 15 65 simultaneously, with the circulation thereof to the bearing surfaces of the various parts of compressor Ill. The pressure created by the oil 83 provided in plunger 3| permits communica pump or the oil ?owing to conduit 65 is forced 81, which receives the ' tion between the chamber through the conduit connection 63, in the valve 20 enlarged shoulder portion 34 of the plunger, and device 68, into the bottom of chamber 31 below 20 the passage 83 in housing 61. The communica the enlarged ‘portion of plunger 8| provided by tion between chamber 31 and passage 33 provided the shoulder 84 formed thereon. The pressure by the opening 36 is for the purpose of equalizing‘ of the oil pump or the oil beneath the plunger 8| ~the pressure on each side of the plunger 3| a‘nd causes the plunger to move or to be actuated up-_ 25 for permitting its free movement when pressure wardly to thereby lift valve 32 and open the pas- a 25 is applied to chamber 31 beneath the shouldered sage 83 leading from theicompressor crankcase to portion 84 thereof. A spring 88 normally tends the tank ‘I3. The pressure created by the oil to force plunger 8| downwardly so that valve 82 ' ‘pump during operation of the compressor Ill - closes the conduit or passage 33 extending from maintains ‘the plunger 3| in its uppermost posi plunger 8| has a shoulder 34 formed thereon and is hollowed out as at 85.' An opening or port 30 the compressor crankcase to the tank 13 when - the pump attached to the compressor is idle. . tion and thereby maintains valve 82 in its open position as long as the compressor is operating; The chamber 48 of the oil pump is in open oil ?owing from the bearing surfaces communication with the outlet connection 58 Therefore of moving parts of compressor l8 drips to the ' thereof and'is also in open communication with inclined bottom wall of the crankcase .23 and 85 a passage 9| provided in the center of the oper flows therefrom, through the pipe 39 and passage 8 35 ating shaft 32 of the compressor |0.- The pas 83, to the interior of tank 13.- The compressor sage 9| in the shaft 32] communicates with any crankcase 28 is therebymaintained in a substan desired number of grooves, passages, etc., provided 'rially dry condition or in other words; is free of in other operating parts ofthe compressor which a body of oil and thus the oil does not accumulate are attached or connected to the shaft 32 and are therein. >When the compressor stops, the pres-1 40 to be lubricated by oil circulated by the oily pump. sure throughout the closed 011 circulating system For example, the passage 9| may communicate equalizes and the plunger 3| in the valve device 38 with a hole extending to the surface of the shaft is moved by spring 88 to its lowermost position 32 and communicating with a feeding groove or to close valve 32 to cut off communication between the like provided in the eccentric 3| which leads the compressor crankcase 23 and the oil reser 45 to the-groove 92 in the connecting rod 33. The voir in tank 13. The oil employed for lubricating groove 92 communicates with an opening or hole the moving parts of compressor-l3 and which 93, in the connecting rod 33, which extends to an flows ‘from these parts to the ,trap 1.3 during opening 94 provided in the wrist-pin 95 for per cpcration of the compressor is thereby isolated or. mitting the connection or bearing surfaces of the maintained out of contact with the refrigerant and piston 34 to be ' wrist-pin with the rod 33 employed in the refrigerating system.- In case lubricated. The method of grooving and provid oil is carried through the compressor l8 ing the oil feeding holes in shaft 32 and the some during the running period thereof it eventually other operating parts of the compressor I8 is ?nds its way back to the compressor-‘crankcase well-known to those skilled in the art of providing 55 forced lubrication to operating parts of engines, 23 and to the oil circulating circuit after passing through the condenser and evaporator with the compressors, etc. in the refrigerating system. Substantially all of the oil employed in the refrigerant Thus it is apparent that there is provided an improved refrigerating system which will not be parts of the compressor I8 is contained in the 60 tank 13 of the closed oil circuit comprising the rendered inoperative by the absorption of re-. frigerant of the system by a bodyof lubricant; in compressor l0, conduits 36, valve device 33, con the compressor. Therev is provided a refrigerat duit 14 and the oil pump. When the refrigerat- ' ing apparatus in which the lubricant and re-' ' ing system is put into operation to cause ‘inter mittent or cyclical operations of compressor ID, frigerant employed therein are miscible or par apparatus disclosed for lubricating the moving .65 for withdrawing evaporated or gasi?ed refriger ant from the evaporator l8 and for circulating the compressed refrigerant to the condenser l4, the oil pump connected ‘with the compressor or pump shaft is also operated. Operation of. the 70 oil pump sucks or" draws oil through the inlet opening 36 and conduit "from the reservoir thereof in tank ‘I3 and forces this oil through the ‘ outlet openings 53,,notch or slot 31, and through 75 slot or groove 33 to chamber 43. ‘ Since the outlet tially ‘miscible and in‘which the miscibility or ixing thereof is prevented so as to eliminate t e difficulties of hard starting, etc;, of the com pressor which, occurs in conventional refrigerant pumps or compressors. The invention therefore prevents the refrigerant of the refrigerating sys tem from diluting the lubricating-oil and conse quently proper‘ and efficient lubrication of the operating parts of the compressor is insured. The 1.0v invention provides a compressor having a sub- "’ aieasee stantially dry crankcase and oil will not be cir culated from the compressor to other elements of the refrigerating system, thus problems, in herently present in conventional refrigerating systems, of returning oil from certain elements of. the refrigerating system to the compressor crank case are eliminated. ~ While the form of embodiment of the invention as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form, 10 it is to be understood that other forms might be adopted, all coming within the scope of the claims which follow. ‘ What, is claimed is as follows: 1. In combination with a compressor employed 16 to circulate a refrigerant through a refrigerating system in which they refrigerant is miscible with a lubricant contained in the system, means for circulating the lubricant to operating parts of the compressor, said means being rendered eifective by operation of the compressor for circulating the lubricant to operating parts thereof, means for conducting‘the circulated lubricant away from said compressor, means connected with said con ducting means for receiving lubricant conveyed from said compressor, said lubricant receiving means also ‘having. a connection with said lubricant circulating means for supplying it with lubricant to be circulated, means rendered effec tive' upon stopping the-operation of said com~ pressor for closing'said' conducting means to isolate‘ the lubricantqremoved from said com pressor from refrigerant in the refrigerating sys tem, and said last named means also being ren dered effective automatically ‘in response to oper ation of said compressor for opening said con ducting means.‘ 2. Inlcombination with a pump employed to circulate a- refrigerant through a refrigerating systemin which the refrigerant is miscible with rendered effective automatically in response to operation of one of said pumps for opening said conducting means. 3. In combination with a compressor employed to circulate a refrigerant through a refrigerating system in which the refrigerant is miscible with a lubricant contained in the system, said com pressor having a substantially dry crankcase . through which refrigerant flows during circula tion thereof through the system, a pump con 10 nected to and operated by said compressor for circulating the lubricant to operating parts of the compressor, conduit means for conducting lubri cant from operating parts of the compressor and for preventing accumulation of lubricant in the compressor crankcase, a reservoir connected with said conduit means for receiving lubricant con veyed from ‘said compressor for supplying it with lubricant to be circulated, said lubricant reser voir having a connectionvwith said pump, a valve 20 for controlling the flow of lubricant through said conduit means, said valve being actuated auto matically to open said conduit means by pressure created by operation of said pump, and said valve being actuated automatically upon stopping the 25 operation of said pump to close said conduit means for isolating lubricant removed from said compressor from refrigerant in the refrigerating system. 4. In combination with a compressor employed 30 i0 circulate a refrigerant through a refrigerating system in which the refrigerant is miscible with a lubricant contained in the system, a pump for circulating the lubricant to operating parts of the compressor‘, said pump being operated simulta 35 neously with operation of said compressor, con duit means for conducting lubricant away from said compressor, a reservoir connected with said conduit means for receiving lubricant conveyed a "lubricant contained in the system, a‘ second from said compressor, said lubricant reservoir pump for circulating the lubricant to operating having a connection with said pump for supply parts of said ?rst named pump, said second ing it with lubricant to be circulated, a spring named pump being rendered effective simultane~ ' pressed valve for controlling the ?ow of lubricant ously with operation of said ?rst named pump, through said conduit means, means communicat means for conducting the circulated lubricant ing with said pump and with said valve whereby away from said ?rst named pump, means con pressure created by said ‘pump overcomes the nected with said conducting means for receiving force exerted by said valve spring, said valve being lubricant conveyed from said first named pump, actuated automatically to open said conduit said lubricant receiving means also having a con meansupon operation of said pump, and said 50 nection with said lubricant pump 'for supplying valve being ‘actuated automatically upon stopping it with lubricant to be circulated, means rendered the operation of said pump to close said conduit 50 effective upon stopping the operation of one of means for isolating lubricant removed from said said pumps for closing said conducting means to compressor from refrigerant in the refrigerating -' isolate the lubricant removed from ‘said ?rst 5 named pump from refrigerant in the refrigerat ing system, and said last named means also being system. ' ' ALBERT HARRY M. J. TIMMER.