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Патент USA US2128388

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Aug. 30,. 1938.
H. M. WILLIAMS Er AL
2,128,338
'REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
’
Filed Dec. 31, 1934 p
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INVENTORS.
#144)’ M Wan/m: A”
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luurJ. 770mm.
BY
HIE/k
ATTORNEYS.
2,128,388
‘ Patented Aug. 30, 1938
OFF-ICE
NlTED STATES;
aizaass
anrnrcanarmc
Amrros
Harry M. Williams and Albert J. Timmer, Dayton,
Ohio, assignors to General Motors Corporation,
Dayton, Ohio, a corporation of Delaware
Application December 31, 1934, Serial No. 759,812’
4 Claims.
(Cl. 230-406)
tem. My invention may be of more importance
This invention relates to refrigerating systems
and particularly to the means employed in such
systems for causing circulation of refrigerant
therein.
5
‘
An object of the present invention is to prevent
absorption of refrigerant in a closed volatile re-
frigerating system by oil employed to lubricate
moving parts of the refrigerant circulating ele
when applied to the latter type of a refrigerating
system due to the relatively large amount of re
frigerant in such system and which refrigerant
is ordinarily circulated in absorbing contact with 5
' the lubricant contained therein.
The system disclosed in the drawing comprises
a refrigerant circulating’ element, pump or com
ment or compressor of the system through which
10 the refrigerant is circulated.
Another object of the invention is to provide
a refrigerating system with a refrigerant circu
lating element or compressor which has a sub
stantially dry crankcase compartment as distin
15 guished from conventional refrigerating systems
wherein a body of lubricant is ordinarily con
tained in the crankcase of the compressor there
of.
‘
'
In carrying out the foregoing objects it is a
20 still further object of the invention to force a
pressor l0 operated by an electric motor I I. ' The
compressor or pump it forces refrigerant such 10
as di?uorodichloro methane (CClzFzL. or any
other suitable refrigerant through a suitable
check valve, which is ordinarily contained in the
top portion or head i2 of the compressor, and
thence through conduit or pipe l3 into a con- 15
denser it. The compressed refrigerant is con
densed and lique?ed in condenser l4 and collects
in the receiver it. From the receiver l6v the li
que?ed refrigerant passes by conduit i'l through
an expansion valve is and into the cooling coils 20 \
or evaporator IQ of a refrigerating element where
lubricant, such, for example, as oil, through or it performs its refrigerating effect in the well
between the bearing surfaces of operating parts known manner. From the cooling coil 19 the
of a compressor of a refrigerating system, vto vaporized refrigerant passes by means of the pipe
drain the lubricant circulated to the compressor 2! back to the refrigerant circulating element, 25
25 parts from the compressor, and to isolate thev pump or compressor Ill. The thermostatic device
lubricant removed from the compressor from re
is represented by the numeral 22 and is disposed
frigerant in the refrigerating system.
_ Further‘ objects and advantages of the present
, so as to be responsive to the temperature of the
invention will be apparent from the following
30 description, reference being had to the accom
‘panying drawing, wherein a preferred form of
the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawing:
Fig. 1 discloses a refrigerating system shown
35 diagrammatically and having my invention em
bodied in ‘the refrigerant circulating element
perature of the space beingrefrigerated by this
coil. This» device is used to actuate, as by means
cooling coil is or may be responsive to the tem
of a diaphragm, bellows or the like 23, a circuit
making and breaking switch 24. This switch is
shown in its motor non-operating position by the
full lines and contacts 25 and 26 and in its opera- 3r
tive position'by the dotted line.
‘J
After the system is put in operation and the
thereof which element is shown on an enlarged _ compressor It has been idle for a short period of
scaée partly in section and partly in elevation;
an
m
Fig. 2 is a sectional view through the oil pump
employed in the present invention and is taken
on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Referring in detail to the drawing there is
shown for the'purpose of illustrating the inven
45/ tion a compressor-condenser-expander type of
refrigerating system employing an expansion
valve for "admitting refrigerant to the evaporator
time, pressure within the evaporator l9, pipe 2|,
and the compressor crankcase 28 is relatively
high. - During this idle period the temperature of 40
a ?uid in bulb 22 rises and increases its own
vapor pressure and this pressure acting inside
the ?exible diaphragm or bellows 23 will expand
same and thus force the switch 24 and its con
tacts 25 and 26 into circuit-making position to 45
cause~ operation of the motor ll employed for
driving the refrigerant circulating element, pump
of the system and a thermostat responsive to
compressor it. After the compressor has
temperatures of the evaporator for actuating a or
operated
for a short period, say for a few minutes,
switch for intermittently or cyclically starting the temperature
and the environment of bulb 22 50
and stopping operations of the system. However, ’
reduced, and the ?uid pressure therein is re
the invention is equally applicable to a so-called ~ is
duced su?lciently to permit the diaphragm or bel
?ooded type refrigerating system in which a ?oat lows 23 to be contracted, thus actuating the
valve controls the entrance to the evaporator and switch contacts 25 and28 into open‘position for
in which operation of the system is controlled
55 by a switch responsive to pressures in the sys
breaking the electric circuit to the motor H. 55
2
2,128,388
Operations of the system continue as described as
long as such system is connected with the source
of power. The compressor, or pump l0 may be
of any suitable form and may include an eccen
tric 3| ‘within the crankcase 28 which eccentric
is secured to the rotating shaft 32 and has a con .
necting rod 33 actuated thereby. Movement of
operation of the motor H, extending to‘ a point.
adjacent a counter-bored opening or chamber 40
provided on one side of the compressor crankcase
28. A unitary pump, preferably although not
necessarily,‘ of the vane type, the construction
and operation of which pump is well-known to
those skilled in the art, is adapted to be located
_ the connecting rod 33 reciprocates a piston 34 se- _ within the chamber 40.
curedv to the upper end thereof. This piston 34
has located therein any suitable or conventional
check valve (not shown) which opens upon the
down stroke of the piston to permit the entrance
of refrigerant gas into the cylinder 36 above the
piston but seats or remains closed during the up
or compression stroke thereof.
'
The crankcase 28 of the compressor, or pump
it) is on the “low side" of the system. While the
compressor is operating, the refrigerant pressure
therein is relatively low, but during the idle
v20 period this pressure gradually rises because of the
rise of temperature of'the liquid refrigerant in
the low side of the system. During this idle
period, therefore, the refrigerant absorbing power
of lubricant ordinarily contained as a body there
of in the crankcase of conventional compressors
increases and a quantity of refrigerant is ab
sorbed, depending, of course, on the natural a?in
ity between the two ?uids, the temperature of
The pump includes a
rotor 4| having two vane members 42 and 43
located in a slot provided therefor'in' the rotor
and which vanes are forced outwardly away from
one another by a spring 44. A ring member 45
is stationarily clamped, by screws 46, between
an end plate 41 and another end plate 48 which
said another end plate is stationarily clamped
to’the wall of chamber 40 by a plurality of bolts
or screws 49. The ring 45 is mounted concen
trically with respect to chamber 40 and compres
sor shaft 32 and is provided with an eccentric
opening which serves as a cylinder in which the
rotor 4| rotates.
In order to cause rotation of
rotor 4| within the eccentric cylinder provided
by ring 45 the rotor is provided with shaft por
tions 5i and 52 formed integrally with and ex
tending outwardly from each side of the rotor.’
The shaft portion 5| of rotor 4| is journaled in
an opening provided therefor in the end or seal
ing plate 88. The other shaft portion 52 of rotor
the lubricant and the pressures of the ?uids.
30 The volume of the lubricant in conventional
6! has its end squared as at ,53 so as to be received
in a similarly shaped groove or slot 54 provided
, compressor crankcases (which is a mixture of
in the end of the compressor shaft 32. (See Fig.
2.) The connection of shaft'portion 52 with the
compressor shaft 32 obviously causes operation
of the pump just described when the compressor
to is operated by motor ii. During rotation of
oil and refrigerant with a major portion of oil)
therefore tends to increase due to this absorption
of refrigerant during the idle periods of the sys
tem. This is particularly true where the refrig
erant and lubricant are miscible in all propor
tions, but the same problem exists, in varying
degrees, even when they are only partially mis
cible. A body-of oil as contained in the crankcase
40 of conventional compressors is thereby readily
diluted thus decreasing the lubricating properties
thereof.
.
,
In a conventional apparatus not provided with
my invention, the lubricant level would tend to
rise to a detrimentally high level during the idle
period of the system. This rise in the level would
occur because of the absorption of the refriger
ant by the lubricant as described above. With
\ such a detrimentally high oil level a violent boil
50 mg or foaming would occur when the compressor
starts due to the release of gaseous refrigerant
from the lubricant by the quick reduction in
the rotor 4| a suction is created on one side of
the annular edge of the rotor between the vanes
62 and 43 and at the same time a pressure is
created on the other side of rotor 4| between the
vanes 42 and 43 as is well-known to those familiar ,
with pumps of the type disclosed. Therefore I
provide suitable outlet openings 55 in the upper
most portion of ring 45 on the pressure side of
the pump and also a similar inlet opening 56 (see
Fig. 1) on the suction side of the pump. The ,.
outlet openings 55 communicate, by means of
the notch or groove 51 provided in ring 45, with
an outlet port or conduit connection 58 and with
the chamber 40, by means of the notch or groove
59 provided in the end plate 41 for purposes to
be more fully described hereinafter. The inlet "
opening 56 which, as before stated, may be simi
pressure. Under such conditions large amounts ' lar to the outlet openings'55 is, of course, blocked
of liquid are‘ ‘likely to pass through the valve, off or prevented by end plate 41 from communi
not shown, but located in the piston 34 into the cating with the pressure chamber 40 but this
compression chamber 36 above the piston with inlet opening 56 is in open communication with
undesirable results such as causing stalling of an inlet port ‘or conduit connection 6|. A spe
the'motor II and burning or blowing of fuses in ciflc type of pump having been brie?y described, the power ‘circuit. A great amount of oil is also it will be understood, however, that any suitable
60 circulated by the pump or compressor with re
or conventional pump may be employed to carry
frigerant to other elements of the refrigerating .out the objects of the present invention.
system and this is likely to cause the compressor‘
A closed ?uid circuit is' connected to the pump
to operate without being properly lubricated.
above described and is adapted to contain, in
According to this invention, however, the prob
one portion thereof, a quantity of oil to be cir
lems encountered in the use of ,conventional com
culated to or through the bearing surfaces of
pressors are eliminated. To this end there is moving parts of the compressor ID for lubricating
provided an apparatus wherein the pump or com
such parts. A conduit 65 is adapted to have its one
pressor crankcase 28 is maintained in a substan
end connected, by any suitable connecting means,
:tially dry condition or in other words, is devoid with the outlet port or connection 58 of the
70 of a body of lubricant therein while at the same pump and the other end of conduit 65 is adapted
time providing positive and efficient lubrication to be connected to a connection 66 in the hous
of moving parts of the pump or compressor i0. ing 61 of a valve device generally designated by
Referring again to the drawings it will be noted the reference character 68. ‘ The valve device 63
that the compressor, or pump l0 disclosed therein has a pipe connection 69 with the lowermost
75 has its operating shaft 32, which is rotated by portion of the interior of the crankcase 28 of com- 7‘
‘2,128,888
pressor‘ I18 and is also connected, by the ?ange
couplingi'll and copuler 12, with a tank 13. A
conduit 14 is adapted to have its oneend 15 con
nected, by any suitable connecting means, with
the bottom of tank 13 and the other end 16 of
conduit 14 is adapted to be connectedkwith the
inlet connection 6| of the oil pump secured to and
operated _by the compressor I0. The valve de
7 vice 68 included in the closed ?uid pressure cir-_
cult just described includes a plunger 3| having
a valve 82 attached thereto or formed on the
lower end thereof and which valve is adapted to '
connection 53 is also\in open communication, by
_ _
way of the slot 51, with the openings 55 oil is also
forced, by .pres'sure created by the pump, to the. '
conduit 65. The oil under pressure is circulated
from chamber 48 into the central hole 9| provided a
in the compressor or pump shaft 32 from where it
is caused to fiow'to the bearing surfaces ofpthe
3 open or close the passage 33, leading from con
duit or pipe 69 through housing 61 tothe tank 13,
in a manner to be hereinafter described.
15
3
The
shaft 32, thence through groove 92 to the bearing
surface between the connecting rod_33 and eccen
tric 3|. The oil is also forced, under the pressure 10
created by the pump, from the groove 92, through
opening 93 in rod 33, to the hole 94 in the piston
pin 95 thereby lubricating the bearing surface of
operating parts of the compressor. As before
stated oil under pressure is circulated to conduit 15
65 simultaneously, with the circulation thereof
to the bearing surfaces of the various parts of
compressor Ill. The pressure created by the oil
83 provided in plunger 3| permits communica
pump or the oil ?owing to conduit 65 is forced
81,
which
receives
the
'
tion between the chamber
through the conduit connection 63, in the valve 20
enlarged shoulder portion 34 of the plunger, and device 68, into the bottom of chamber 31 below
20
the passage 83 in housing 61. The communica
the enlarged ‘portion of plunger 8| provided by
tion between chamber 31 and passage 33 provided the shoulder 84 formed thereon. The pressure
by the opening 36 is for the purpose of equalizing‘ of the oil pump or the oil beneath the plunger 8|
~the pressure on each side of the plunger 3| a‘nd causes the plunger to move or to be actuated up-_ 25
for permitting its free movement when pressure wardly to thereby lift valve 32 and open the pas- a
25
is applied to chamber 31 beneath the shouldered sage 83 leading from theicompressor crankcase to
portion 84 thereof. A spring 88 normally tends the tank ‘I3. The pressure created by the oil
to force plunger 8| downwardly so that valve 82 ' ‘pump during operation of the compressor Ill
- closes the conduit or passage 33 extending from
maintains ‘the plunger 3| in its uppermost posi
plunger 8| has a shoulder 34 formed thereon
and is hollowed out as at 85.' An opening or port
30
the compressor crankcase to the tank 13 when
- the pump attached to the compressor is idle. .
tion and thereby maintains valve 82 in its open
position as long as the compressor is operating;
The chamber 48 of the oil pump is in open
oil ?owing from the bearing surfaces
communication with the outlet connection 58 Therefore
of moving parts of compressor l8 drips to the '
thereof and'is also in open communication with inclined bottom wall of the crankcase .23 and 85
a passage 9| provided in the center of the oper
flows therefrom, through the pipe 39 and passage 8
35 ating shaft 32 of the compressor |0.- The pas
83, to the interior of tank 13.- The compressor
sage 9| in the shaft 32] communicates with any crankcase 28 is therebymaintained in a substan
desired number of grooves, passages, etc., provided 'rially dry condition or in other words; is free of
in other operating parts ofthe compressor which a body of oil and thus the oil does not accumulate
are attached or connected to the shaft 32 and are therein. >When the compressor stops, the pres-1
40 to be lubricated by oil circulated by the oily pump.
sure throughout the closed 011 circulating system
For example, the passage 9| may communicate equalizes and the plunger 3| in the valve device 38
with a hole extending to the surface of the shaft is moved by spring 88 to its lowermost position
32 and communicating with a feeding groove or
to close valve 32 to cut off communication between
the like provided in the eccentric 3| which leads
the compressor crankcase 23 and the oil reser
45 to the-groove 92 in the connecting rod 33. The
voir in tank 13. The oil employed for lubricating
groove 92 communicates with an opening or hole the moving parts of compressor-l3 and which
93, in the connecting rod 33, which extends to an flows ‘from these parts to the ,trap 1.3 during
opening 94 provided in the wrist-pin 95 for per
cpcration of the compressor is thereby isolated or.
mitting the connection or bearing surfaces of the maintained out of contact with the refrigerant
and
piston
34
to
be
'
wrist-pin with the rod 33
employed in the refrigerating system.- In case
lubricated. The method of grooving and provid
oil is carried through the compressor l8
ing the oil feeding holes in shaft 32 and the some
during the running period thereof it eventually
other operating parts of the compressor I8 is ?nds its way back to the compressor-‘crankcase
well-known to those skilled in the art of providing
55 forced lubrication to operating parts of engines, 23 and to the oil circulating circuit after passing
through the condenser and evaporator with the
compressors, etc.
in the refrigerating system.
Substantially all of the oil employed in the refrigerant
Thus it is apparent that there is provided an
improved refrigerating system which will not be
parts of the compressor I8 is contained in the
60 tank 13 of the closed oil circuit comprising the rendered inoperative by the absorption of re-.
frigerant of the system by a bodyof lubricant; in
compressor l0, conduits 36, valve device 33, con
the compressor. Therev is provided a refrigerat
duit 14 and the oil pump. When the refrigerat- '
ing apparatus in which the lubricant and re-'
' ing system is put into operation to cause ‘inter
mittent or cyclical operations of compressor ID, frigerant employed therein are miscible or par
apparatus disclosed for lubricating the moving
.65 for withdrawing evaporated or gasi?ed refriger
ant from the evaporator l8 and for circulating
the compressed refrigerant to the condenser l4,
the oil pump connected ‘with the compressor or
pump shaft is also operated. Operation of. the
70 oil pump sucks or" draws oil through the inlet
opening 36 and conduit "from the reservoir
thereof in tank ‘I3 and forces this oil through the
‘ outlet openings 53,,notch or slot 31, and through
75 slot or groove 33 to chamber 43. ‘ Since the outlet
tially ‘miscible and in‘which the miscibility or
ixing thereof is prevented so as to eliminate
t e difficulties of hard starting, etc;, of the com
pressor which, occurs in conventional refrigerant
pumps or compressors. The invention therefore
prevents the refrigerant of the refrigerating sys
tem from diluting the lubricating-oil and conse
quently proper‘ and efficient lubrication of the
operating parts of the compressor is insured. The
1.0v
invention provides a compressor having a sub- "’
aieasee
stantially dry crankcase and oil will not be cir
culated from the compressor to other elements of
the refrigerating system, thus problems, in
herently present in conventional refrigerating
systems, of returning oil from certain elements of.
the refrigerating system to the compressor crank
case are eliminated.
~
While the form of embodiment of the invention
as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred form,
10 it is to be understood that other forms might be
adopted, all coming within the scope of the
claims which follow.
‘
What, is claimed is as follows:
1. In combination with a compressor employed
16 to circulate a refrigerant through a refrigerating
system in which they refrigerant is miscible with a
lubricant contained in the system, means for
circulating the lubricant to operating parts of the
compressor, said means being rendered eifective
by operation of the compressor for circulating
the lubricant to operating parts thereof, means
for conducting‘the circulated lubricant away from
said compressor, means connected with said con
ducting means for receiving lubricant conveyed
from said compressor, said lubricant receiving
means also ‘having. a connection with said
lubricant circulating means for supplying it with
lubricant to be circulated, means rendered effec
tive' upon stopping the-operation of said com~
pressor for closing'said' conducting means to
isolate‘ the lubricantqremoved from said com
pressor from refrigerant in the refrigerating sys
tem, and said last named means also being ren
dered effective automatically ‘in response to oper
ation of said compressor for opening said con
ducting means.‘
2. Inlcombination with a pump employed to
circulate a- refrigerant through a refrigerating
systemin which the refrigerant is miscible with
rendered effective automatically in response to
operation of one of said pumps for opening said
conducting means.
3. In combination with a compressor employed
to circulate a refrigerant through a refrigerating
system in which the refrigerant is miscible with
a lubricant contained in the system, said com
pressor having a substantially dry crankcase .
through which refrigerant flows during circula
tion thereof through the system, a pump con 10
nected to and operated by said compressor for
circulating the lubricant to operating parts of the
compressor, conduit means for conducting lubri
cant from operating parts of the compressor and
for preventing accumulation of lubricant in the
compressor crankcase, a reservoir connected with
said conduit means for receiving lubricant con
veyed from ‘said compressor for supplying it with
lubricant to be circulated, said lubricant reser
voir having a connectionvwith said pump, a valve 20
for controlling the flow of lubricant through said
conduit means, said valve being actuated auto
matically to open said conduit means by pressure
created by operation of said pump, and said valve
being actuated automatically upon stopping the 25
operation of said pump to close said conduit
means for isolating lubricant removed from said
compressor from refrigerant in the refrigerating
system.
4. In combination with a compressor employed 30
i0 circulate a refrigerant through a refrigerating
system in which the refrigerant is miscible with
a lubricant contained in the system, a pump for
circulating the lubricant to operating parts of the
compressor‘, said pump being operated simulta 35
neously with operation of said compressor, con
duit means for conducting lubricant away from
said compressor, a reservoir connected with said
conduit means for receiving lubricant conveyed
a "lubricant contained in the system, a‘ second from said compressor, said lubricant reservoir
pump for circulating the lubricant to operating having a connection with said pump for supply
parts of said ?rst named pump, said second ing it with lubricant to be circulated, a spring
named pump being rendered effective simultane~ ' pressed valve for controlling the ?ow of lubricant
ously with operation of said ?rst named pump, through said conduit means, means communicat
means for conducting the circulated lubricant ing with said pump and with said valve whereby
away from said ?rst named pump, means con
pressure created by said ‘pump overcomes the
nected with said conducting means for receiving force exerted by said valve spring, said valve being
lubricant conveyed from said first named pump, actuated automatically to open said conduit
said lubricant receiving means also having a con
meansupon operation of said pump, and said
50 nection with said lubricant pump 'for supplying valve being ‘actuated automatically upon stopping
it with lubricant to be circulated, means rendered the operation of said pump to close said conduit 50
effective upon stopping the operation of one of means for isolating lubricant removed from said
said pumps for closing said conducting means to compressor from refrigerant in the refrigerating
-' isolate the lubricant removed from ‘said ?rst
5 named pump from refrigerant in the refrigerat
ing system, and said last named means also being
system.
'
' ALBERT
HARRY M.
J. TIMMER.
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