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Патент USA US2128569

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Aug. 30, 1938.
. 2,128, 569
Filed Jan. 18,' 1955
(7a/rence JI Weiz
MM# @dw-d4..
menus Aug. 30,1938 ‘
f 2,128,569
" I y unirse' STATES PATENT >olf-'Fica
wA'rEn AND sawaan
.clarence J. ven, wmnumg, N.' 1;.
Q 'Application January 18, 1935, ISeriallN’o. 2,336
1s claims.
. ‘_Ihis invention relates -to the treatment of wa
ter, sewage or similar liquors for the removal. of
. objectionable suspended, colored or colloidal mat
ter therefrom and has for its- object the Lprovisionv
of certain improvements therein. More partic
ularly, the invention contemplates an ‘improved
' apparatus for andmethod of effecting a more
(ci. 21o-1e)
fico-producing agent can be charged into the
lower portion ofv afchamber at a. relatively high
velocity and. passed upwardly at a progressively
reduced rate with the resultant formation of a
suspendedor floating blanket of ilocculent mat
ter.` The suspended matter or blanket serves as
a screen through whichthe liquor must pass, and
eil'icient and complete ñocculation Aof (such objec-` this results in anagglomeration of theïñocculent
tionable matter and clariiìcation _of the liquor.
matterand _its eiîective separation from the liq
In accordance with my improved method of
>treating aqueous liquor (e. g., water to be condi
tioned'for potable or industrial purposes, or do
uor. One of the broad aspects 'of my invention,
accordingly., comprises the passingof an aqueous
. liquor containing a doc-producing agent ata rel
flestic or industrial sewage) for the removal of ob
atively high rate of ñow into a chamber and then
-jectionable matter (suspended, colored or," col
upwardly in the chamber at a progressively re
15 loidal matter) ,` I am able to obtain a highly ef ' ducedrate of flow.
j fective' separation of the .objectionable matter, '
My present invention further contemplates cer
in llocculent form, from the `aqueous liquor. I tain improvements in the sedimentation of liq
have discovered a number >of improved operations uor containing ñocculent matter. ~I have found
or steps and anew procedure in the ,treatment of that when liquor containing ilocculent matter,
20 aqueous liquors for the removal _of objectionable agglomerated lmore or'less as a result of suitable
matter-therefrom, comprising a combination of treatment for that purpose, is passed upwardly
“manipulative steps and control of conditions ' and then horizontally, a very precipitous descent
therein, and my invention includes the applica
of the ñocculent matter occurs during the hori
tion~ of these discoveries alone or in combination.
-' My invention contemplates 'certain improve
zontal movement of the liquor. It is, therefore,
ments in the preparation and `utiliaationof fioc
producing agents. i. e. agents conducive to the for
mation of fiocculent matter in aqueous liquors.
containing agglomerated ñocculent matter up
wardly and then horizontally through a suitable
chamber for the rapid precipitation of such mat
In the conditioning of aqueous liquor for the re
moval of objectionable matter in ilocculent form,
I may introduce any' suitable original lloc-pro
ducing agentfa new, unusued agent freshly pre
pared, e. g., from a salt of a metal of high valency,
such as aluminum. iron or chromium, or a mix
ture or combination of such salts) _into the liquor,
but, according to a preferred method of my in
_ vention; I add reactivated iiocculent matter to
gether with an original vflee-producing agent”to
the liquor and agitato the same ,to obtain a uni
A further object of my ~invention involves the
reactivation of agents conducive to the formation
of vilocculent matter. AIn this improved step of
my method I subject liquor containing a relative
ly high concentration of Ílocculent matter to re-`
activation treatment comprising adjusting the
ion concentration of the liquor to a point above
or below that which will convert the iìocculentgel into a colloidal sol. , I have discovered that
a very highly eii‘ective lloc-producing action re
form dissemination of the agents in the liquor. . suits by introducing a mixture of suitably reacti
I may use any appropriate agitation 'but prefer
to carry out the methodv in a chamber` providing
a long passage for the flow of the~ liquor, and I
may employ auxiliary mechanical or air agita
tors. It is one of the objects of my invention to
reactivate ñoccule'nt matter removed from. the
treatment of aqueous liquor and to return the re
- activated ñocculent mattei` to the process in con
Ztrolled quantity. ,
one of the objects of my invention to pass liquors ~_
As a result of my investigation and experimen
tation I have discovered an improved control of
the flow of liquor containing ñocculent matter
which results in an improved separation of the
objectionable, matter from the liquor.
I have
Ul (il foun'd that aqueous liquor properly mixed with a
'vated lloc-producing agent, together with one or
more original flac-producing agents into the liq
uor to be treated, and it is one of the objects of
my invention to incorporate such a mixture in
suitable proportions into the liquor to produce
flocculation of the objectionable matter.
In. carrying out the method of my invention` I
in its complete and preferred form, the aque
ous liquor to be treated is ilrst passed into a ,mix
ing basin wherein I add one or more agents con- --
ducive to the formation and development or floc
culent matter. The particular agent or agents
selected depends upon the nature of the liquor
being treated and may consist of one or more of
the usual agents used for such purposes. I pref
" "'r
aisance ì
erably introduce metallic compounds which not
dispersion index was measured to be 1.5.
only produce flocculent matter effective as a clar
dispersion index I mean the ratio of the time re
ifying agent, but also ñocculent matter formed
therefrom which can be reactivated and re-used
in successive applications.' This use and re-use
through the chamber to the time required to pass
10% of the volume of matter through the charn
of reactivated flocculent matter in certain re
spects is similar to the process of recirculation of
sludge, but it- is distinctly different in its clari
, ber, a ratio of 1.0 representing a perfect theoreti
cal passageV time,l with no dispersion.) On the
other hand, under otherwise comparable condi
quired to pass 90% of a given volume of matter .
fying characteristics.- When substituting reacti , tions when I changed the mixing chamber so that
vated flocculent matter for a portion of the fioc
producing agent, I found that substantial sav
ing in the amount of lloc-producing agent re
quired (ranging from 20% to 50%) is effected.
The method of reactivation will be described in
15 detail hereinafter. I have found that salts hav
ing a metal constituent of high‘valency (or mix
tures or combinations of such salts) such as
thatf the path of travel from inlet to outlet was
reduced to one-fourth ofthe previous distance,
both when using mechanical agitation devices
and when using air, I obtained only a 30% reduc
tion in colored matter. Even though the capacity
of the mixing tank was doubled to provide for a
volume equivalent‘to sixty- minutes of uniform
The necessary quantity of coagulant and the
quantity of reactivated flocculent matter used de
pends upon the nature of the liquor being treated,
flow of water, the shortening in the distance of
travel resulted in a dispersion-_ index of 5.2.
Therefore, in my preferred practice AI may use
any of a number of well known mixing devices
which will iit into the mixing chamber, the im
5% by volume` of the liquor being treated there
cation step.` I carry out the agglomeration and.
aluminum, iron and'chromium are particularly
effective agents in this method.
the capacity of the chamber was doubled and so
portant consideration being uniform mixing and
and in each specific case can readily be deter
mined in a manner similar to the methods now a low dispersion index.
The eiiiuent liquor from the mixing step of the
25 in use for establishing the dosage of coagulant. ,
In most cases I find that the use of reactivatedr method venters that part of the treatment which I
floeculent matter in an amount equal to 1% to have designated as the‘agglomeration and clarifi-l
with sufficient to effect a saving in lloc-producing - clarification step of the process in a chamber de
signed to aid in the desired control over the flow
30 agent of `from 20% to 50%.
The liquor containing the fico-producing agent of liquor, preferably in a chamber embodying
is then thoroughly agitated to obtain a uniform characteristics found in .the unit- of apparatus
distribution of the agent throughout each succes- - which I have herein described as an agglomera
sive unit of yeffluent from the mixing chamber. I tor-clarifier.- The liquor- enters the chamber at
the bottom at a relatively high velocity and flows
35 have found a method of mixing which produces
an equalquantity of floc nuclei in each successive upwardly at a controlled rate, varying gradually
unit of eñluent which the next step of my method from a high velocity at the bottom entrance to a
quickly and' completely agglomerates, thereby ef
fecting a high degree of clariñcationof the liquor.
Efficient and effective mixing requires agitation,
While efficient and effective agglomeration of
i'locculent matter requires quiescence. Therefore,
by conducting agglomerationand clarification as
a separate step, I can separate these two opera
45 tions so that mixing is `confined to an operation
of mixing or agitation whereby certain matters
are uniformly distributed throughout the liquor
treated, all in preparation for the distinct and
separate operation of agglomeration and clariñ
The type of chamber best suited to the mixing
operation, I have found is one in which dispersion
or short circuiting is minimized. In general,l the
most eñectlve and efficient chamber is one which
55 for a specific volume and specific rate of flow of
low velocity at the top. I prefer to control the
flow in such a manner that a floating blanket of
yilocculentimatter is maintained in the vicinity of 40
’the central portion of the chamber, e. g. midway
between the top and bottom. The space between
the blanket -and the bottom entrance is free of
accumulations and the space above the blanket
consists uof clarified liquor or a mixture of clari
fied liquor and well formed iioceulent matter.
I’ñnd 4that particles of matter in the liquor in'
the form of floc nuclei are bombarded against the
floating blanket by the high bottom velocity of
the. liquor. The nuclei are thereby rapidly and
completely agglomerated and compressed into rel
atively large, dense, tough particles which possess
unusual characteristics highly beneficial in clari
fication and further treatment operations. The
particles have a high subsidence velocity, are
liquor will provide the longest distance of travel . large, dense and tough and not fragile and deli
from the inlet to the/outlet. I have also found
that the control of short circuiting is of more im
portance than the type of device used in the
Any of the
80 chamber for agitation and mixing.
known devices for agitation, such as mechanical
paddle Wheels, or diffusion of air may be` employed
in the chamber to assist' the’agitation. I prefer
- to measure the effectiveness and efliciency of the
65 mixing operation by the degree of dispersion.
For example, I have found that in the treatment
by my preferred practice, of a certain surface
water, principally for the removal of colored mat
ter, I obtained an 80% reduction in colored mat
70 ter by using a mixing chamber having a long
path of travel from inlet to outlet, both when
using mechanical agitation Vdevices and when
using air for agitation. The capacity of this mix
ing chamber was equivalent to the volume of
75 thirty minutes of uniform flow of water and the
Two fundamental principles are. involved in4
this step of my process, (l) the simultaneous
rapid and complete mass agglomeration of iloc AG0
culent material uniformly throughout the liquor f
treated, _ and
the upward flow of liquor
throughthe mass accumulation of iiocculent
`matter constituting the floating blanket,
The-first principle is particularly effective in
clarifying liquors of colored matter and colloidal
matter, wherein the clarification is effected by
agglomeration or precipitation-«a reaction sup
posedly physico-chemical in nature, requiring in
timate contact between the flocculent matter and 70
the colored and colloidal matters to effect the
reaction and produce universal concomitant pre-v
The second principle is effective to a certain
extent in clarifying liquors of colored or colloidall 75
, 3
2,128,509 '
matter..l or either of' thennbut
clarifying'- characteristics
by newly
effective in entrapping and removing suspended - formed ilocculent matter. These clarifying char
matter, Asupposedly by a'mechanicelprocess of
arresting or filtering.
The accumulation of flocculent matter in the
Afloating blanket can be removed from time to
acteristics are imparted to the ñocculent matter
without resorting to decomposition »or regenera
tion of the fiocculent matter into a form of the 5
coagulant chemical added to rproduce the floc
'time' as desired. This step` of agglomeraticn , culent matter initially. .The reactivation of noc
' and clariiication has'been- found highly enective culent matter leaves its,physical structure essen
in carrying out mycomplete process,- but it is in ' tially unchanged» Wn’en reactivated’ ñocculent
10 no way restricted to the particular preliminary matter is added to the liquor being treated.' the 11ov
or subsequent treatments which I employ.
liquid is next subjected to the separation
reaction is physico-chemical in `nature rather
than purely chemical and therefore does not ma
' of flocculent matter from clarified liquor. - In the
terially alter the‘chemical constituents of the
treatment of certain liquors, particularly where liquor being treated. In treating certainï liquors
15-'large volumes are involved, I -have found thatv , this characteristic can be used to advantage par-_
it is more economical not- to effect complete sep
15 y
l ticularly where a speciñc water or sewage is de
reration ofiioccuient matter in the clarification flcient. in the chemical constituents required in
.and agglomeration step, but to allow the emuent .the usual'coagulation reactions, or 'where it is
therefrom 'to consist oi’ a mixture of ’clarified~ 'desired to minii'nize- the change'in constituents
20 liquor and agglomerated ñocculent matter, and
perform the separation by other means such as
by sedimentationy or by ñltration. I prefer to
use the sedimentation method. As stated herein
before, the particles of flocculent matter "pro
2_5. duced in the clarification and agglomeration-step
such as a change in concentration of hydrogen 20
ions, thereby savingin the vusey of corrective
Reactivated flocculent matter is particularly effective in clarifying liquors of colored or colloidal
matter or mixtures thereof. The theory of this Á25V
possess an'unusually high subsidence velocity, and ` clarification is based on/_a physico-chemical con
_are completely formed into large, dense, tough
cept, whereby the electricalv charge -acqulrediby
particles. By virtue of these facts, the separa
fthe reactivated ñccculent matter in the process of
tion by sedimentation is effected in an extremely reactivation reacts with the electrical charge on Y
30 short time ranging from one-fifth to one-twen
the colored on colloidal matter thereby producing.' 30
tieth of the time usually required in other sedi
concomitant precipitation and effecting clarifi-y
mentation methods usually used in water and cation. Flocculent matter initially formed from
sewage treatment. Although not essential, I pre? , the addition of the coagulatingagents presumably
fer a shallow sedimentation basin or tray in this acquires itselectrical charge from the constitu
35 operation. I have found that the nocculent maté ents of the liquor'being treated su'ch.~for exam- 35 y
ter upon being releasedfrom the vertical force ple, as a positive charge bythe absorption of _
of the upward flow~ of liquor in the clarification hydrogen ions. Itsis' a well known fact that
and agglomeration~ step, when-_ the direction »of l clarification by the formation of flccculent mat
the flow is- changed to horizontal flow„immedi- v_ ter is lenhanced in certain, waters by increasing
40 ately tends ta take a precipitous descent dowri
_warcl to the bottom.v In certain instances this
_ descent is so rapid as to -cause _disturbance oi’
the settled material at thebottom, and therefore,
I prefer td use what‘I call a stationary parabolic
45 floc accumulator. I have found that by the use
the concentration of hydrogen ions in the water 4.0
being treated. This is usually accomplished by
the addition of large quantities of coagulating
agent which in its- reaction increases the concen
tration of hydrogen ions, or by the addition of' .
acids which produce a high concentration oi' .c5
hydrogen ions. In either case the treatment is
- contained in the eiliuent from the agglcmeration -given .to the entire volume of water beingtreat'ed
and clarification step is directed along the par
and generally requires relatively large quantities
abolic accumulation and is rapidly and complete
of either coagulant or acid or-both. ,
` L
of such an accumulator the ñocculent matter
5Ó ly decelerated, and retained within it, without
breaking or carrying over. This method of sedi
mentation permits velocities tWo to three times
the usual rates of flow, and the separation is ac
'complished'in an extremely short period.
` >55
’Continuous sludge scraping and removing del;
vices of the standard chain orl belt type can be
In a .certain sense my - preferred method is 50
similarly accomplished, but it is distinctly dif-l
ferent in that bymymethod: I impart the elec
trical charge to‘ñoccu'lent matter .which already
has been formed and previously, been used in'
clarification, which is toV be formed and used 55
for .the first time,- in a separate operation before
used to remove continuously the accurnulationsy the `ilocculent matter is added to' the liquor be
and to maintain 'the parabolic form oi’ the sta `ing treated.> I have found that by this separatetionary- accumulation. For example, I have , operation vthe electrical charge is imparted or re~'
60 found that in the treatment of a particular water imparted _' much moreemciently Vand .economi- oo'
supply by my preferred method. and» using this cally, that by.Y virtue of this separateìperation the
~ _type of separator, I was able to obtain practically
complete separation> of ñocculent matter in a
bulk of the'tyater neédknot be adjusted, and also
that 'the' change in chemical co1nstitucnts‘«` of the
` sedimentation 'basin of capacity equivalent to water resulting from the reaction of the -coagul»
05 ten to fifteen minutes of flow. " I do not attribute )ants is vrnix'iiimi'zed.> 4Il have also found that e5
thisresult entirely to this separation step, since ' charged or recharged flocculent matter added to
without the aid oi’ the previous agglomeration- t -the liquor being treated, together with coagulat--
and clarification step, such a high degree lof lim-v ring agents, accelerates the formation of new
provement in, treatment would not be possible ' flocculent matter from such agents. In a certainl
70 either in separation or filtration.
sense this reactivated ficcculent matter acts as A70
The next major operation or step of myv 'pre-' a catalytic agent and at the same time provides
ferred, practice is the reclamation of flocculent the nuclei about which the new ñocculent matter
- ,l matter by the process of reactivation.
As stated
hereinbefore, in the process- of reactivation, pre:l
" 75 viously formed and used ñocculent matter has
readily forms.
I have found that ñocculentï matter formed
from 'coagulating agents of salts 'the metal ’con- Z5 F I
stituent of which is of high valency such as
ing vessel. It is understood that other acids may
aluminum, iron and chromium, is capable of ac
be used than commercial sulphuric acid.
As another example, I have also found that in
quiring an electrical charge readily if thoroughly .
and uniformly mixed with a high concentration
treating certain colloidal matters, particularly
of hydogen ions. I have 'also found that this
ñocculent matter is capable of >reactivation and
positive electrical charge, the preferable fioccu
those common in sewage and those possessing a
re-use in' repeated operations, and that When
reactivated flocculent matter is used in conjunc
lent matter is that formed by iron salts and the
tion with a reduced dosage of coagulating agent
10 the fiocculent matter is maintained satisfactorily
as to quantity, quality and effectiveness. Fur
should contain a high concentration of hydroxyl
agent used for reactivating this flocculent matter
ions added in an amount yielding a pH from 8.0. 10
thermore, with the use of reactivated flocculent
to -10.0. Any salt or alkali such as soda, commer
cial lime, caustic soda or others may be used as
matter in an amount equivalent to 1% to 5% by
volume of the liquor being treated, excellent re
the agent to produce the desired pH.
I have also found that the reactivating process
suits can be obtained, and a reduction in the
can be used as a means of applying and distrib
amount of coagulating agent, from 20 to .50% is-`
uting other agents which may assist in the for
mation of i'lccculent matter and in clarification,
but essentially have ‘a separate function to effect.
For example, I have found that economy and
efficiency in the use of absorptive agents for re
Thus, in accordance with my invention, I with,
draw for reactivation flocculent matter with
20 either the agglomeration and clarification step or
from' the sedimentation step, or both, in an
amount equivalent to 1% to 5% of the volume of
the liquor being treated-the exact amount de
pending upon the nature of the liquor being
25 treated and the concentration of the flocculent
matter Withdrawn. If the concentration is high,
1% to 2% is usually all that need be used; if the>
concentration is low„4% to 5% ls required. This
matter is passed into an appropriate reactivator>
30 which should be of sufiicient capacity to accom
modate a volume equivalent to iive to tenmin
utes of flow of ñocculent matter. Apreferred form
moval of odor such -as the use of activated car
bon is effective if such agents are added to the re
activating vessel and thoroughly distributed with
the flocculent matter. This method of application
of activated carbon is particularly effective if used 2.5
in conjunction with the agglomeration and clari
ñcation step of my process.
lIt is understood that the method and opera
tion of charging or re-charging of flocculent mat
ter as hereinabove described can be used in treat
ment methods other than that outlined as my pre
ferred practice. For example, it can be used to
of reactivator is onethat is small in area and
deep. The reactivator should be equipped with
35 an agitating device, preferably of the paddle
wheel type with a vertical shaft. Agitation
charge newly formed unused ñocculent matter
formed in a separate operation, to re-'charge fioc
culent matter previously formed and used in other
operations, to form and at the same time charge
should be suiîiciently vigorous to insure uniform
new ilocculent matter in itself, or it can be used
in combinations-of the above uses. In my pre
mixing of the ñocculent matter and reactivating
agents, and also to insure a uniform concentra
40 tion of the ñocculent matter throughout all parts.
The agitation should not be violent. I prefer'a
continuous flow reactivating vessel with ñoccu
lent matter and reactivating agent inlets at the
top and a discharge outlet at the bottom.
The choice of reactivating agent or agents de
pends upon the nature of the coagulant used to
form the flocculent matter and the nature of
the colored -or colloidal matter to be removed
from the liquor. In general, the reactivating
agents I prefer have a high concentration of hy
drogen or hydroxyl ions, although other highly
active positive and negative ions may be used.
For example, in the treatment of certain waters
for the removal of colored or colloidal matter or
' both, the flocculent matter which I prefer is that
ferred practice, I usually conñne the operation to
re-charging flocculent matter which has already 40
been formed and used.
A further object of my invention is the provi
sion of an improved apparatus comprising a num
ber of'units or devices in which I may carry out
one or more of the method steps of my invention.
When the varióus units comprising the apparatus
of my invention are operatively associated, they
comprise a structure suitable for the practice of
-thecomplete and preferred method of my inven
In accordance with the apparatus of my inven
tion I provide a mixing basin containing a plu
rality of interconnected chambers and means for
the ñow of liquor from chamber to chamber. I
arrange the chambers to provide a long passage ,
formed from a coagulating agent consisting of a for liquor with accompanying suitable agitation.
proportion of aluminum salt (50 to 90%) and a The basin is preferably constructed and arranged
, to provide operatively connected pairs of super
proportion of iron salt (50% to 10%) such as a
posed chambers through which the liquor con
proportion of 70% commercial aluminum sul
taining a fico-producing agent may flow while
phate with 30% commercial ferric chloride or undergoing suitable agitation. I preferably pro
chlorinated copperas.- The reactivating agent I vide inlet conduits at the end portion of one of
prefer to use for such floccul'ent matter has a high
the upper chambers for the admission of liquor
concentration of hydrogen ions. The concentra
_ tion of ions should be as high as possible but
not to the extent that the ñocculent gel is re
and doc-producing agent, mechanical agitators
in each chamber and a discharge weir at the end
portion of one of the upper chambers.
versed into colloidal sol. Usually the concentra
tion indicated by pH 3.0 to pH 4.0 is satisfactory.
The quantity of agent necessary to produce and
maintain the desired pH must be determined in
The mixed liquor'discharged from the mixing
basin is preferably passed into the inlet opening
each instance.
cient in carrying out the agglomeration and clar
iñcation treatment of my invention is deep, long
and narrow, with the inlet at the bottom along
one entire long side or at intervals along the side
to provide uniform distribution of flow upon en
I _have found that usually a
quantity of commercial sulphuric acid equiva
lent to 0.3 of a grain to 1.0 grain for each gallon
of the‘bulk of the liquor being treated is suiil
.75 cient to-maintain the desired pH in the reactivat
of a unit which I have herein referred to as an ag
glomerator-clarifier. A unit found highly eiii- "
from compartment I3 to compartment I6. I may
agitate the liquor in one or more of the com
partments either by air'or mechanically', and
since I prefer mechanical agitation, I have illus-__i
inclination, preferably in the-form of'a parabolic
28 and driven by the pulleys 29.
liquor from the sedimentationbasin. The liquor
3|] extending from end wall I to end wall 2
spaced from the wall 5 so as to -form anappro
trolled conduit 59 and is discharged for ultimate
utilization or subsequent treatment.
The drainage points _53 and 54 of the sump 52 10
connect with a pipe 60 which carries the sediment
to waste or into another pipe 6I which discharges
curve. The belt may be rotated (upper surface in
the direction of the sump) by a suitable mecha
nism Bt.- Along the upper edge of the wall 4 aV
trated rotary agitators 2l mounted upon shafts _ Weir box 58 is constructed for the overflow of
The agglomerator-clariiler has a hanging Wall ‘ entering the Weir box flows through a valve-con
10 priate passageway 3i therebetween.
The walls
t and 30 are the side-walls of the agglomerator
clarifier. The side wall 30‘ terminates above the
bottom 9 and thus forms an inlet opening 32 the
into the upper portion of a reactivating vessel.
The manifold collectors _45 and 46 from the ag
glomerator-clarifier may also connect with the 15
length of the agglomerator-clariiier at the bot->
15 tom thereof for the admission of liquor.
opening 32 should be controllable to meet vary
ing conditions in operation, and I pro-vide a gate
33 which is raised or lowered across the opening
to control the ilow of liquor by appropriate
mechanism 34.’ By this construction 'and ar
rangement liquor may flow from compartment
reactivatingvessel near the top and consequently
ilocculent matter may be charged into the vessel
from either the agglomerator-clarifier or the sedi
mentation basin. The reactivating vessel is
equipped witha rotary paddle wheel agitator 62
which is rotated to impart a mild agitation Vto
the liquor. A pipe 63 for the admission of re
I6 into the Weir box 2l, thence‘into the conduit
3| and through the opening 32 into the agglom » activating agents enters the upper portion of the
.25, I provide a chamber in the agglomerator-clari
vessel and a pipe I9 connects with the lower por
` tion of the vessel for discharging reactivated floc
fier of relatively small cross-sectional area at the
bottom and increasing cross-sectional area in the
direction of the top. In my preferred construc
tion I form a chamber 35 therein between the
30 curved baii‘le 36 and bottom 9, the curved bafiies
36 and i3i, the V-shaped bai-lies 33 and 39, and the
downwardly inclined bailles lill and di. These
bañles are staggered, being alternately attached
' to the side walls 30 and 6 along their edges, and
35 to the end walls l and ~2 along their ends. These
baiîiesmay be adjustably mounted and I may
A I have found it un
'employ any desired number.
desirable to allow flocculent matter'to accumu
late in the chamber between the bottom _9 and
baiile 36, between bai'lies 35 and 31, or between
bailles 37 and 38, and I have constructed the pas
sageway between these members in the form of
Venturi throats at the lowerpoints to increase
,the velocity of flow and sweep upward any ñoccu
producing agent into the mixing basin. In cer
tain instances it is desirable to employ a. pump
55 to charge the reactivated `agent into the mix- , '
ing basin.
In carrying on the preferred and complete 30
method of my inventionin the combination of
apparatus illustrated, an aqueous liquor to be
treated is passed through conduit I1 at acon
trolled rate. , By a suitable adjustment` of gate
valve 33, the adjustable weir 48 and valve-con
trolled conduit 58, a' suitable iiow of liquor is ob
tained. Newly formed unused fico-producing
agents may be admitted through ypipe I8 and
reactivated floc-producing'agent through pipe I9.
The liquor ilows through compartment I3, open 40
ing 2d, compartment i4, opening 25, compartment
I5, opening 26, compartment I6,.opening 20 and
into the weir box 2l. During the flow through
the mixing basin, the liquor is agitated by the
lent matter which might otherwise tend to ac- Y rotary agitators 21, and a uniform distribution 45
of hoc-producing agent in the liquorrresults by
The suspended or floating blanket of flocculent the time the liquor enters thel Weir box 2i. The
matter herein' referred to- develops in the vicinity liquor ñows downwardly in the passageway 3l
of baffles `38 and 39, and to remove 'accumulations through the opening. 32 and into the chamber 35.
Due to the construction of the chamber 35, the 50
50' of vsuch matter at these points, I extend the mani
fold collectors d5 and dS through wall l into this liquor which enters the opening 32 at a relatively
vicinity of the agglomerator-clarifier and prefer- < high velocity progressively decreases in velocity
ably along the trough-like parts of bailles 38 and
' w39, and I may use either pump action or’gravity
55 flow for'the withdrawal of _the liquor-containing
flocculent matter through .these manifolds.
The wall 6 dividing the agglomerator-clariñer
andsedimentaticn basin does not extend to the
normal liquor level M, andthe liquor‘can over
flow from the agglomerator-clarifier into the sedi
mentation basin at,this point. I have found it
desirable to controlïthe ñow of liquor into the l
as it rises to the top. As a result of the con
trolled n_ow of liquor a suspended blanket of iloc
culent matter forms in the central portion of the 55
chamber, i. e. inthe region adjacent the manifold
collectors d5 and 46, and serves as a screening
medium for the liquor as it’ flows upward. When
'this blanket becomes too voluminous, a portion
of the flocculent matter can be ‘withdrawn by the 60
manifold collectors d5 and ¿16. .The ñoating blan
ket may be maintained at the desired location
sedimentation basin-and' place an adjustable Weir and consistency by controlling the velocity
te along the lïpper >edge of wall ß for this pur- l through the diiîerent passageways, or by removal
of ñocculent matter. In certain instances it may
65 DOSE.
Along the upper edge of wall 5 a belt pulley t9 ' be advantageous to use an agitating device such
is mounted on the adjustable mechanism 50. A as a jet of water from a pressure line provided
‘V-shaped sludge sump 52 sloping to two drainage at intervals with small orifices.
The fiocculent matter withdrawn from the vi
points. 53 and 54 is constructed in the bottom Iii
70 of the sedimentation basin. Adjacent one edge cinity of the ñoating blanket by the manifolds
of the sump a second belt pulley 55 is mounted on 65 and 46 is preferably discharged into the re
,activating vessel. The liquor leaving the cham
the adjusting mechanism 56. A belt 51 is mount
ed en_.the pulleys and by the desired adjustment ‘ber 35 and flowing over the Weir 4B is ln a more
of the mechanisms 59 and 56 the .upper surface .or less clarified condition' depending upon the
of the belt >may assume the desired profile or liquor being treated, etc., and the flocculent mat~
ter is largely in an agglomerated state.~ Due to .. of >activated sludge from sewagel in conjunction- ' Í
_ the fact _that the- liquor lis discharged along thev withsedimentation in ñhal clarliiex‘s; toimprove
upper surface over the weir 58,„-the liquor moves sedimentation processes as a conditioner pre
across the sedimentation basin without objec- _' cedingy sedimentation, either with lor >without re
tionable -agitation. A very rapid settling of sed
iment or agglomerated ilocculent matter takes circulation of settled matter: to provide uniform
place in this basin.
an'd even distribution of _flow 4~inoperatlons in- '
In accordance with the prin- ‘
volving changes from a high to a low velocity;`
ciples described -hereinbefore, the smooth para-' as a conditioner of either ñocculent matter or '
bolic surface ofiiocculentmatter maintained on ` sludges or mixtures thereof preceding filtration
10 the belt- is eñective in separating >fiocculßent mat~ operations; in conjunction with certain manu
ter from the clariñed liquor. The proñle ofthe
belt may be adjusted by lowering or raising the-- facturing treatment processes -as ail/agglomera
tor, clarifier, conditioner, collector, separator and
pulley 89, or -by'moving pulley 55 forward onback
flow regulator combined, or as any one ci these
I _ ward.’ The belt-is operated at a speed to permit v.
functions, or any ,combination of these >îunfc
15 an even accumulation of‘nocculent matter.
The separation of iìocculent matter from 'the
’ is. I.
liquor is practically complete in the sedimenta
l.` An ircm'ovedy apparatusfor the treatment
.tion basin, the ñocculent matter being collected
of aqueous liquors which comprises a liquor mix
on theparabolic surface ofthe belt 51 and dis
charged into the sump 52. The clarifledliquor
'overiiows into the. Weir 5B from which it is dis
ing basin having an inlet i‘orthe admission of
liquorl thereto »and an outlet for'. the discharge
charged by the conduit 59 to use orïfurther trcat~v oi’ liquor therefrom, a chamber having an inlet
in the lower end portion thereof for the admis
sion of liquor thereto ._f communicating with the
By gravity dow; or by .pump action, ii desired, _discharge
opening ofthe mixing basin, means
'the sedimentation is conveyed through pipe t@v ' for progressively decreasing the rate >of ñow of
6|. The liquor in the reactivating vessel con-v» liquoras it ñows upwardly in the chamber, means for discharging the liquor from'the upper end
to waste or into the reactivating vessel .by pipe
' taining a high' concentration of ?iocculent mat
portion Àof 'the chamber, a sedimentation basinl - ' "
_ter (sediment or agglomerated 'fiocculent v_mat
ter) is subjected -to suitable reactivation.
adapted- to receive liquor discharged from the
chamber, conduit connecting means'betwcen the 80
I withdraw from either the agglomerator-clar
sedimentation'basin and a reactivating vessel for n
iñer or the sedimentation basin,-or'both, liquor` 'passing liquor from the sedimentation basin into
containing ñocculent matter in an amount equal the vessel, and conduit .means'connecting `the
to from l to 5%._ of the volume of liquor being vessel and the mixing basin for the passage of treated for reactivation. The liquor is charged
into the upper end oi’ the reactivating vessel „ _ .2.'Apparatus for the treatment oi’ aqueous
.through the ymanifolds ¿it and @t or the-pipe ti, ' liquor comprising a, mixing basin. a chamber rec
and the ion concentration 'is adjusted in accord
ance with the result sought tobe accomplished.
In the reactivationoi’_-ilocculent' matter contain~
ing a considerable percentage of an aluminum
sait, for examplei I add an acid, preferably com~
tangular in horizontal section having an openn
ing along one side adjacent its bottom, a con
marcial sulphuric acid through the-,pipe t@ at a _
desiredvrate to adjust the ion concentration to
from pI-I 7 to 3 and preferably to within the
Arange ci’ from about pI-I 4 to 3.
.in> reactivating' flocculent matter containingv
iron salts, I add an alkaline agent such as soda,
lime,` caustic soda _or the like to adjust the ion
_concentration to' from pH '7 to 10 and prefer»`
ably to Within the range of from about pH ‘8 to
10. The -liquor and reactivating agent which
have been charged into the tcp~ of the reactivat1
ing vess'eriiow downwardly therein, and a gen
55 tie-agitation is imparted thereto by the paddle'
_ _wheel t2 as the reactions oi' reactivation pro
ceed. The ilocculent matter is completely re
activated by'the time it _reaches the bottom of
» 'the Vvesselfrom which point it is discharged into
il@ the pipe it and passed into the mixing lbasin at
the desired rate. _ Althoughl vhave described the
. use of .chemical
reagentstfor adjusting the hy
drogen ion concentration, I may advantageously
vadd other innato) accomplish the reactivation
duit connecting the mixing basin with the open
ing of the chamber, a. gate for regulating the size vd0
of the opening to control the how of liquor
therethrough, -said chamber being provided with.,
battles for controlling the ñow of liquor upwardly
therein, and a weir along the top of the side op
posite the side having the opening therein io
discharging liquor from the chamber. -i
3. Apparatus for the tnaatinentl of aqueous .'
liquor comprising amixing basin, a chamberjrec
tangular in horizontal section having an? open
ing along one side adjacent its bottom, a con
duit connecting the mixing basin with the open
ing íoi’ thechamber, a gate for regulating the
size of the opening to control the dow ci 'liquor . -
therethrough; said-chamber being provided with'
.battles for controlling the dow oi liquor up 55.
wardly therein, a-weir alongthe top ofA the side
opposite the side having amopening therein for
discharging liquor from the chamber, and a sed
imentation basin connected along one side of the 60
chamber vwhereby liquor may overñow the Weir
into the sedimentation basin. '
4. ‘Apparatus for» the treatment- of aqueous
comprising'a mixing basin, a chamber rec-»_
purposes of my invention as, for, example. by , liquor
tangular in horizontal section having an open 65
adding a'chemic‘al compound capable of ioniza
tion and `producing other ions,'or by appropri
ate electric means.>
_ "
\ 'It is understood that' the'descriptions herein
represent my preferred practice and that'the ag
glomerator-clarlfier or method ci aggiomeration
and clariilcation can ¿be used as an independ
ent‘ device or method alone,- or in conjunction
with other treatment apparatus or processes
such.~ for example,_ as .to improvethe. separation'
ing' along one side adjacent _its bottom, a conduit
connecting .the mixing basin With'the opening'
of the chamber, a gate for~rcgula`ting the size
of the openingto control the now of'liquor there-~
through, a weir along the top oi' the eide oppo
site the s_ide having an opening therein for dis-.
charging liquor from the chamber, and a plu--v
'ralitvl of bailles within the chamber alternately
attached to 1the sides and extending _the widthv -`
inner surfaces of which lie in substantially con
5. The improvement'in the treatment of aque
ous liquor containing objectionable matter which
comprises subjecting the liquor to an agglom
tinuous planes, an elongated opening communi
cating with the bottom of the chamber, a conduit
connecting the mixing basin with the said open
eration treatment, withdrawing liquor contain
ing a relatively high concentration of flocculent
matter from the agglomeration treatment, sub
jecting the withdrawn liquor to a reactivation
treatment, incorporating the liquor subjected to
reactivation treatment in the liquor prior to the
ing, said chamber being provided with bailies
extending into the chamber from the opposite
side-walls which are mounted to be stationary
during operation for controlling the iiow of liquor
upwardly therein, one or more of said bañles be
ingarranged to provide a Venturi throat through 10
10 agglomeration- treatment,- passing the remaining '
which the liquor flows in the chamber, and a
level in the form of a relatively wide stream . sedimentation- basin onel side-wall of which is
common with one of said chamber side-walls and
along one side thereof adjacent the level of liq
has an elongated horizontal edge over which
„uor, and discharging liquor from the basin ad
incoming liquor from said chamber flows in a 15
15 jacent the level of liquor and along a side op
liquor into a basin filled with liquor to a desired
posite the first-mentioned side.
sheet-like stream into the basin.`
~ 10. In the treatment of aqueous liquor con
6. The improvement in the treatment of aque
ous liquor containing objectionable matter which
taining objectionable matter, the method which
agent, thereby reactivating the iìocculent mat
ter, and incorporating the reactivated iiocculent
matter in a fresh body oi liquor prior to passing
together with suspended agglomerated ilocculent
comprises passing'the liquor containing a floc
comprises adding a flac-producing agent a prin
producing agent into the lower end portion of a
20 pical constituent of which is an iron salt to theV
liquor, passing theliquor into the lower portion suitable chamber, at a relatively high rate oiv
ñow, the said rate of ilow being such as to pre
of a chamber and upwardly therein> at a pro
gressively decreasing rate of iiow as the liquor` vent an accumulation of ñccculent matter in the
rises in the chamber to eíîect anagglomeration lower portion of the chamber, then passing the
liquor upwardly in the chamber at a progressively 25
25 and clarification of the liquor, withdrawing liquor
containing a relatively high concentration of decreasing rate of ñow such as to eüect an ag
fiocculent matter from the chamber, adjusting glomeration of ñocculent'matter and the forma
tion of a suspended blanket of such ñocculent
the pH of the withdrawn liquor to a concentra
tion of hydrogen ions represented by a range in matter in the liquor above the lower end portion
pH from 8 to 10 by the addition of a reactivating of the chamber, and removing clarified liquor 30
the same into the chamber.
'1. The improvement in the treatment of aque
cus liquor containing objectionable matter which
comprises adding a fico-producing agent to the
liquor, passing the liquor intothe lower portion
. of a chamber and upwardly therein at a progres
matter from the upper portion oi the chamber.
11. The improvement in the treatment of in
coming aqueous liquor containing objectionable '
matter, which comprises withdrawing liquor con
taining a- relatively high concentration of iìoccu
lent mattepi‘ormed through the action of a chem
ical coagulant on the liquor from one step in
the treatment, adjusting the pH ci` the with-.
drawn liquor to an ionic concentration in the 40
in the chamber to effect an agglomeration anoly vicinity of the solubility point of the fiocculent
40 sively decreasing rate of iiow as the liquor rises
clarification of the liquor, withdrawing liquor
containing a relatively high concentration of
matter, the ionic concentration after adjustment
being such that the ñocculent matter has charges
ñocculent matter from the chamber, adjusting
the pH of the withdrawn liquor to a' concentra
tion oi hydrogen ions represented by e. range in
pH from 3 to 4 by the addition of a reactivating
imparted thereto and maintained as a gel with
out converting it into a‘colloidal sol, and incor
agentrthereby reactivating the ñocculent matter,
incoming aqueous liquor undergoing treatment. l v
and incorporating reactivated ilocculent matter
l in a. fresh body of liquor prior to passing the same
into the chamber.
8. An improved apparatus for the .treatment of
aqueous liquor containing objectionable matter
which comprises a chamber having an inlet in
the lower portion thereof for the admission of
liquor thereto. means for controlling the flow of
liquor through said inlet, bail‘les stationary dur
ing operation in the lower'portion of the chamber
which are constructed and arranged to provide a
restricted passageway for controlling the velocity
of ñow of the liquor sufiiciently to propel foreign
matter contained» in the liquor upwardly into
the central portion of the chamber, means con
necting the inlet with the restricted passageway,
additionalbañes in the central portion of the
chamber spaced in a manner progressively to
decrease the velocity as the liquor rises in the
chamber, means for discharging the liquor to
porating the so treated withdrawn liquor con
taining charged iiocculent matter into the
1/2. The improvement in the treatment oi in-> `
coming aqueous _liquor containing objectionable ,
matter,- which comprises withdrawing liquor Acon
taining a relatively high concentration oi floccu
lent matter formed through the action of a chem
ical coagulant on the liquor from one step in the
treatment, adjusting the pH of the withdrawn
liquor to a concentration of hydroxyl ions which
is in the .vicinity` of pH 10, whilemaintaining the
ñocculent matter as a gel, by the „addition thereto
of a reactivating agent, the hydroxyl ions at such
concentration reactivate the rlocculent matter by
imparting negative charges thereto but do not
convert the ñocculent matter _into a colloidal sol,
and incorporating -the' so treated withdrawn
liquor containing reactivated 'iiocculent matter V
into incoming aqueous liquor undergoing treat
13. The improvement in the treatment ot aque
ous liquor containing objectionable matter which
gether with themajor portion of the entrained
compriseszadding‘ a doc-producing agent to th@
75 ber having at least two upright side-walls the
ing a. concentration oi such matter, passing the
liquor, passing the liquor into the lower portion `¿i0
solid matter vfrom the upper portion oi the cham
ber, and a sedimentation unit adapted to receive ‘of a chamber and upwardly therein at .a pro
gressively decreasing velocity as theliquor rises
the liquor discharged from the chamber.
9. Apparatus for the treatment oi aqueous in the chamber, suspending ilocculent matter in
the liquor rising in the chamber thereby produc,-l
liquor which comprises a mixing basin, a cham
liquor into a sedimentation basin, ñowing the
liquor through vthe basin and permitting sedi
mentation of agglomerated iîocculent matter to
_tionable matter in a body of the liquor, with
drawing liquor containing fiocculent matter
from the body of liquor. subjecting the with
take place, withdrawing a relatively small portion
of liquor from the sedimentation basin contain
draw'n liquor to the action of a hydrogen ion
bearing agent of such character and such amount 5
ing a relatively high concentration of agglomer
ated flocculent matter,-reactivating such ñoccu
lent matter by the addition oi'> ionic charges
to convert the pH of the liquor to about 3v and
impart to the ilocculent matter positive charges
thereby reactivating the fiocculent matter, said '
thereto, and returning the reactivated fiocculent , reactivated'matter being maintained in the form
10 matter to the process.
of a gel, and returning the liquor containing re-v 10
14. The improvement in the treatment of aque
activated fiocculent matter to a fresh body of
ous liquor which comprises passing liquor con
liquor to be treated.
taining a doc-producing agent upwardly in a
16. The improvement in the treatment of aque
chamber at a progressively decreasing velocity, ous liquor containing objectionable matter which
suspending ñocculent matter in the form of a comprises effecting a fiocculation of the objec 15
blanket in the liquor rising in the chamber there
tionable matter in a body of the liquor, withdraw
by producing a concentration of such matter, ing a relatively small portion of liquor containing
withdrawing liquor containing a ?ortion of the ñocculent matter from the body of liquor, sub
concentrated ñocculent matter from the vicinity jecting the withdrawn liquor to the action of a
20 of the suspended blanket, _imparting ionic charges
hydroxyl ion-bearing agent of such character and 20
to the ilocculent matter of the withdrawn liquor, Vin such amount to convert the pH of the liquor
and incorporating the ilocculent matter having to from 8 to 10 and impart to the ?locculent mat
ionic charges imparted thereto in a fresh body ter negative charges but maintain the flocculent
of.v liquor undergoing treatment.
matter inthe form of a gel, and returning the
15.` The improvement in the treatment of aque
fiocculent matter having negative >charges im-'
ous liquor containing objectionable matter which parted thereto to the liquorbeing treated.
comprises en'ecting a docculation of the objec
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