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Патент USA US2128578

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Aug. 30, 1938.
'
2,128,578
(F. R. BRIDGES
SIGNALING SYSTEM
,Filed Dec. 24, 1955
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Patented Aug. 30, 1938
2,128,578
UlTED STATES
PATENT OFFEQE
2,128,578
SIGNALING SYSTEM
Frank R. Bridges, Needham, Mass, assignor to
The Gamewell Company, Newton Upper Falls,
Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts
Application December 24, 1935, Serial No. 56,044
7 Claims. (01. 177-378)
This invention relates to signaling systems and
more particularly to fire alarm and similar sys
tems, which, as is well known, require provisions
for reliable operation even under extremely ad
verse conditions as, for example, broken, grounded,
or short circuited lines. Such provisions include
in most cases the use of an emergency conductor.
which is under certain conditions supplied with
current impulses derived from the source normally
supplying the signaling circuit with current. The
present invention also utilizes a separate con
ductor, usually the ground, for emergency signal
ing, but provides improvements which render the
operation of signaling systems of this type especi
ally secure and certain.
The principal object of my invention is to pro
vide a comparatively simple, rugged and there
fore reliable, durable and inexpensive signal trans
mitting station or alarm box which is neverthe
20 less adapted to perform the functions of more
complicated devices for signaling under abnor
mal conditions through an emergency conductor,
especially in circuits according to my Patent No.
2,056,709 of October 6, 1936, although it is under
25 stood that the new apparatus will provide these
bene?cial and novel functions in other installa
tions.
Other objects and aspects of my invention will
be apparent from the following description, by
.30 way of example, of a speci?c embodiment of the
invention.
in which:
This description refers to drawings,
Fig. 1 represents a connection diagram of a
signaling circuit including a sender according to
v35 the present invention;
_
Fig. 2 a side elevation of the contact and non
interference magnet portion of an alarm box in
corporating my invention;
Fig. 3 is a schematical side elevation of the con
.40 tacts of Fig. 2, showing the contact side by side
instead of behind each other;
Fig. 4 is a detail View of- the contact control
mechanism shown in Figs. 2 and 3;
Fig. 5 a schematical representation of the
.45
spatial contact arrangement according to- Fig. 2;
and
Fig. 6 a schematical representation of a modi
?ed contact control arrangement.
Referring to Fig. l, L denotes a signal line or
:50 loop leading to station terminals I and 2 and
containing a number of signal transmitters, here
in referred to as alarm boxes R, R’, R” which
normally keep the signal loop closed and their
ground connections open. Busses DC supply di
rect current of suitable voltage derived from any
convenient source, and leads 3 and 4 of the direct I ‘V
current circuit D connect terminals I and 2 to
these busses. Lead 3 contains an inductance ill
intermediate terminal I and its direct current
bus, and a signal recorder X is inserted in lead
ll between terminal 2 and the other direct current
bus. Although the signal recorders are herein
indicated as being of the tape imprinting type, it
is understood that any signal manifesting device
may be used instead as, for example, acoustic
means or relays controlling separate signal mani '10
festing or repeater circuits. A battery B, in the
nature of a so-called ?oating reserve power sup
ply, may be connected across leads 3 and 4.
Busses AC supply alternating current, prefer- '
ably from the public utility line, to the primary
I I of a transformer T.
One terminal Ill of the
transformer secondary I2 is grounded, whereas
the other terminal I5 leads to conductor 7, which
is part of an alternating current circuit A includ
ing lead Sconnected to terminal I, a capacitance
2I, an inductance 23, recorders Z and Y, an in
ductance 24, a capacitance 22 and lead 6 connect
ing to terminal 2. Inductances 23 and 24, in series
with condensers 2| and 22, are provided for the
purpose of compensating the phase displacing
e?ect of the capacitances, in order to decrease
as far as‘ possible the impedance of the alternat
ing current circuit.
-
The direct current derived from busses DC con
tinuously supplies the signal loop L, so long as "30
the latter is not interrupted by the code signal
sending means of an alarm box, or by a break
'in the line. Condensers 2| and 23 prevent direct
current from entering circuit A, whereas circuit
D is protected from alternating current by choke
coil In which is so dimensioned that its inductance
i 35
presents an alternating current resistance of a
magnitude excluding for practical purposes the
alternating current of A. It will be obvious to
any one skilled in the art, that inductance it
passes substantially only direct current and that
capacitances 2| and 22 pass substantially only
alternating current, so that the loop L may carry
superposed direct current and alternating cur
rent, whereas alternating current is excluded
fromcircuit D and direct current from circuit A.
The signal transmitters R, R’ and R” accord
ing to my invention have a normally closed shunt
ing switch 10 which opens when the box. is pulled
and. remains open so long as the box movement
is operative, namely, so long as the double code
wheel 90 rotates. Arrangements of this type are
well known in the art and for example shown
.at d4 of Fig. 1 of Patent No. 553,838 to F. W. Cole. 555
2,128,578
2
The double code wheel 99 comprises two identical
of the box. This grounding switch has princi
pally the function of an auxiliary gap preventing
toothed portions on a common shaft I99 and is
adapted to actuate two sets of switch levers 99
and 91, 98 and 99, respectively. Switch springs
99 and 91, and 98 and 99, respectively, are mount
ed on blocks of insulating material which elec
trically separate the switch levers but permit
their joint operation by the code wheel, which
break down for example in case of an accidental
connection of the signaling circuit with a power
line.
The above described arrangement with two
code wheels on a common shaft, although capa
ble of satisfactory operation, may under circum
stances introduce the difficulty of necessitating
upon rotating lifts and drops levers 91 and 99.
In parallel with the shunting switch are spring
exact alignment of the cams which, if not oper
10 contacts 96 and 91, connected to the signaling
ating their respective switches with the proper
time relation may cause unsatisfactory operation.
lines leading to terminals I and 2, respectively.
Spring contacts 9I and 92 are connected to the
terminals of a non-interference magnet I99, op
erative substantially only with direct current, and
15 also to another pair of spring contacts 93 and 94,
Hence, an arrangement providing the same func
10
tion, but having only one code wheel, is preferable
for practical purposes. An arrangement of this 15
type is shown in Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5.
respectively, which cooperate with contacts 98
and 99, respectively. Switch levers 98 and 99,
herein referred to as grounding contacts, are
joined to ground through conductor 95. Under
normal, inoperative conditions, the followers of
levers 91 and 99 rest on cams 69 of the code
wheel, which keep them in elevated position,
thereby connecting levers 99 and 91 with con
As will be seen from Figs. 2 and 3, the arrange
ment of switches, magnet and line connections is
exactly as in Fig. 1. Instead of having separate
code wheels, contact groups 9i, 92, 99, 91 and 93, 20
94, 98, 99 have separate followers M9 and 2H,
respectively, pivoted at H2 and moving the con
tact springs by means of insulator tips 259, 2I9.
One of the followers, for example 2I9, is directly
operated by a code wheel 299, as shown in Fig. 4. 25
tacts 9I and 92, respectively, whereas levers 98
From follower 2 I9 extends a rod 69 across to fol
lower 2II engaging it in a recess thereof, so that
the two followers and the two contact groups
necessarily move concomitantly. As above de
at 259 of Fig. 2, and permits free movement of
levers 96 and 9?, if the non-interference magnet
scribed with reference to Fig. 1, contacts 93, 99 30
and 94, 99 respectively close, and establish con
nection to ground shortly after contacts 9|, 99
and 92, 9'5 respectively are opened. Pin 59 co
operates in this instance with follower 2“ which
is prevented from dropping if 99 is moved in front 35
of surface 25I of follower 2H. Contacts SI, 99,
92, 91 are then prevented from opening, exactly
25 and 99 are lifted from contacts 93 and 99. Pin
99 is associated with the armature of the non
interference magnet I99, for example as shown
30 was energized during the initial signaling period
of the box, notwithstanding a subsequent deen
ergization due to the opening of the signaling
circuit at 9I and 92 or a subsequently pulled box.
A locking arrangement accomplishing this result
35 is, for example, described in Patent No. 1,244,587
to F. W. Cole for “Successive non-interference
box”, dated October 30, 1917. If no current is
?owing in the circuit- due to previous pulling of
as above explained with reference to Fig. l, '
whereas the operation of contacts 99, 99, 98, 99
is not affected. ‘It will now be evident without 40
vanother box or to some accident, and non-inter
40 ference magnet I99 is therefore de-energized
upon the opening of ‘I9, the pin moves under
neath lever 91 and prevents its dropping and
therefore the opening of the circuit at 9! and
92. Therefore, if box R is pulled with the circuit
45 in good condition, as shown in Fig. l, the circuit
remains closed over 99, 9I, I99, 92, and Si; ‘I9
is opened, magnet I99 remains energized, pin 59
is out of the way, and the circuit is opened and
closed at 9I and 92 when the follower of 9'5 drops
50 in the interdental spaces of its code wheel, there
by initiating code signals. Shortly after con
tacts 9I, 96 and 92, 91, respectively, open, con
tacts 93, 98 and 94, 99, respectively, close, and
establish a ground connection. The ground con
55 nection at 98 and 99 is again interrupted shortly
before contact is reestablished at 9! and 92.
When box R is sending, and the line is inter
rupted, as, for example, due to a break in the
line as indicated at c, or due to another box
60 already operating, pin 59 prevents levers 96 and
9'I from dropping and interrupting the circuit
at M and 92, whereas levers 99 and 99 are inde
pendent of the non-interference magnet and
establish ground connections at 99 and 99 every
65 time the follower of 99 passes over the teeth of
code wheel 99. The above-described subject mat
ter will be found in my above mentioned Patent
No. 2,956,799.
i
Although this is not absolutely necessary, a
70 switch with contacts I98, I99 may be provided
between ground and conductor 95. This ground
ing switch is preferably operated together with
the above described shunting switch l9, so that
76
the alarm box is only grounded during operation
further explanation, that this arrangement op
erates as described in connection with Fig. 1.
Under normal conditions of the signaling cir
cuit the new system operates as follows: If the
line is wholly normal and none of the boxes is 45
operated or “pulled”, no alternating current ?ows
in any part of the circuit since only one terminal
of secondary I2 is connected thereto. Direct
current flows in circuits‘ D and L and is excluded
from circuit A by condensers 2i and 22 as herein 50
before described. Record-er X is normally ener
gized, whereas recorders Y and Z are deenergized
and, upon operation of a box, signals are received
at X, recorders Y and Z remaining inoperative.
The non-interference arrangement of the box 55
operates exactly as in a non-grounded system.
However, boxes of the type according to the pres
ent invention keep the signaling circuit closed,
but establish ground, and signal over ground each
time when the non-interference magnets are de 60
energized upon a box being pulled, so that the
signals of two simultaneously sending boxes are
received correctly. For example, if box R” is
pulled ?rst and box R somewhat later, the direct
current signals of R" are received at X, whereas 65
two alternating current circuits are established
by box R. through ground and two branches of
the signal loop, and corresponding signals are re
ceived at Y and Z. Box R signals over Y and Z
while box R’ ' operates, whereas upon R’ ' stopping 70
and releasing the direct current circuit, box R
assumes control of the direct current circuit and
its remaining signal impulses are also received
at X.
In the case of a broken circuit, as indicated at c
52,128,578
of Fig. 1, the direct current is interrupted, re
corder X drops its: armature and becomes in
capacitated, andsubstantially'no current ?ows in
the system.
"16
,
Assuming now an accidentally grounded signal
loop‘ as indicated at jg in Fig. 1, the direct current
recorder or relay X remains energized, since the
direct current circuit is not interrupted, but alter
nating current cicuits including ground 9 and the
respective adjacent branches of the signal loop
are now established in addition, so that record
ers Y and Z are also energized and. their arma
tures attracted, indicating the faulty condition of
~15
the circuit.
Since the direct current circuit is
normal, correct signals are received at X from all
boxes just as if ground g-were not present.
If a short circuit'exists across a signal box, for
example, around box R" as indicated at min Fig.
1, this box is not able to signal over the direct
so current
circuit since it is by-passed with respect
thereto, but its signals are correctly received at
recorders Y and Z, since upon becoming deener~
gized, the boxes drop the armatures of their
direct current responsive non-interference mag
nets and signal through ground as above de—‘
scribed.
'
If both boxes-R and R", for example, are
simultaneously pulled, both transmit understand
able signals, box R over recorder X and box R”
over the alternating current recorders.
A short circuit across the entire signaling loop,
as indicated at n of Fig. 1, in?uences the cir
cuit as follows: Any one of the short circuited
boxes is able to send signals over ground, which
35
signals are received at X and/or Y. However,
under this condition, two or more simultaneously
pulled boxes produce mixed signals since the non
‘3
lines in Fig. 5, and keeps switches 3M and .392
‘open. If the- magnet I00 becomes deenergized
anditsarmature drops, pin 350 moves to the posi
tion shown in dotted lines in Fig. 6, and spring
contacts 324-391 and 3\l3-—396 close.
' It will ‘now be evident that this arrangement
‘functions like the one previously described.
Namely, during normal operation, contact pairs
93—98 and 99-99 close, and contact pairs 92_9'i
and 9l-—99 open every time when follower 399 "170
‘drops into an interdental space of code wheel 999.
‘If, however, the dropping armature of the non
interierence magnet has retracted pin 359 from
‘contacts 396 and 391, switches 39! and 392 close,
shunting-contacts 9‘l--91 and 94-98, respective
ly, thereby preventing the opening of the normal
signaling circuit at these points. Otherwise the
function of this embodiment of my invention is
exactly as described with reference to Figs. 1 to 5.
It should be understood that the present dis 5:20
closure is for the purpose of illustration only and
that this invention includes all modi?cations
and equivalents which 'fall within the scope‘ of
the appended claims;
I claim:
'
1-. A signal transmitter comprising two ter
minals, an auxiliary signaling connection, nor
mally closed and normally open switching means
connected in succession intermediate said aux
iliary connection and each terminal respectively,
‘signal initiating means for rhythmically opening
and: closing said ?rst switching means and clos
ing and opening respectively said second switch
ing means, said second switching means being
closed subsequently to the opening of said ?rst as
switching means and opened prior to the closing
of said ?rst switching means, switch control
interference mechanisms of all short circuited
boxes are incapacitated upon being deprived of means, and means responsive to the amount of
current ?owing therethrough for actuating said
40 their energizing direct current.
vcontrol
means, said actuating means being con v40
In circuits utilizing a transformer secondary i2
in series with the signaling loop, and having a nectedv to said‘ terminals in series with said nor
grounded intermediate terminal (as shown in Fig. mally closed? switching means, and said control
means maintaining said normally closed swtich
2 of application Serial No. 620,683), my new ing
means in effectively closed position so long
45 alarm box functions in similar manner.
as the current in said actuating means remains 45
Instead of mechanically locking (as with stop within
a predetermined range.
59) the normal signaling contacts 9!, 92, 96, 91
2.
A
signal transmitter comprising two ter
in closed position upon deenergization of the non
minals, an auxiliary signaling connection, nor
interference magnet, a similar effect can be ob
mally closed and normally open switching means
50 tained electrically in a manner now to be de
connected
in succession intermediate said con 50
scribed by way of example with reference to Fig.
6. In this ?gure, there are again four contact nection and each terminal respectively, signal
pairs 9l-96, 92—-9‘l, 93-98 and 94-439. How
55
ever, contact pairs 9|, 92 and 93, 94, which are in
different switch units in Figs. 1 to 5, are now elec
trically connected and mounted on contact
springs 224 and 2l3, respectively. A single code
wheel 390 with follower 3 l0 operates both contact
units by means‘ of insulating actuator M5 and
60
likewise insulating connecter 3|6. It will be
noted that contacts 94——99 and 93——98 are nor
mally open and contacts 92-9'l and 9l—96 nor
mally closed, establishing exactly the same circuit
connections as the embodiments shown in Figs.
65
1 to 5. In addition, two shunting switches 3M
and 392 are provided, having contacts 324, 391,
M3 and 396 connected to contacts 224, 97, ‘M3
and 95, respectively. Contact pairs 324—391 and
3l3_39? are normally retained open by means of
pin 359 which is actuated by the non-interference
magnet I99. The actuating mechanism of pin
359 may correspond exactly to that of pin 59 of
Figs. 1 to 5 and is therefore not again shown in
Fig. 6. If the armature is attracted as shown in
75 Fig. 2, pin 350 is in the position shown in full
initiating means for rhythmically opening and
closing said ?rst switching means and in the
same rhythm closing and opening respectively
said second switching means, said second switch
ing means being closed subsequently to the open 55
ing of said ?rst switching means and opened
prior to the closing of said ?rst switching means,
switch control means, and means responsive to
the amount of current flowing therethrough for 60
actuating said control means, said actuating
means being connected to said terminals in
series with said normally closed switching means,
and said control means maintaining said nor
mally closed switching means in effectively closed 65
position so long as the current ?ow in said
actuating means is substantially zero.
_3. A signal transmitter comprising two ter
minals, an auxiliary signaling connection, nor
mally closed and normally open switching means, 70
conductors for connecting a normally closed and
a normally open switching means in series in
termediate said connection and each terminal re
spectively, signal initiating means for rhythmi
cally opening and closing said ?rst switching 75
2,128,578
4
nals, an auxiliary signaling connection, normal
means and in the same rhythm closing and open
ing said second switching means, a non-inter
ly closed switching means and normally ener
ference magnet connected across the conductors
intermediate the ?rst and second switching
means associated with each terminal respective
ly, and means controlled by said magnet and
across said terminals, a normally open switch
ing means between a point of said series con
upon deenergization of the magnet retaining
said ?rst switching means in closed position
said initiating means and said normally closed
during operation of said second switching means.
Li. A signal transmitter comprising two ter
10 minals, an auxiliary signaling connection, nor
mally closed switching means and non-interfer
ence means in series across said terminals, a nor
mally open switching means between said nor
mally closed switching means and said connec
15 tion, and signal initiating means for rhythmi
cally opening and closing said ?rst switching
means and in the same rhythm closing and open
ing said second switching means, said non-inter
ference means retaining said normally closed
20 switching means in closed position when deen
ergized.
5. A signal transmitter comprising two ter
minals, an auxiliary signaling connection, nor
mally closed and normally open switching means
25 connected in succession intermediate said con
nection and each terminal respectively, signal
initiating means for rhythmically opening and
closing said ?rst switching means and in the
same rhythm closing and opening respectively
80 said second switching means, said second switch
ing means being closed subsequently to the open
ing of said ?rst switching means and opened
prior to the closing of said ?rst switching means,
normally open shunting contacts in parallel with
said ?rst switching means, current responsive
actuating means connected between said termi
nals in series with said normally closed switch
ing means and means controlled by said actuat
ing means for closing said shunting contacts as
40 long as the current in said actuating means re
mains within a predetermined range.
6. A signal transmitter comprising two termi
gized non-interference means connected in series
nection and said auxiliary connection, signal
initiating means, actuating means intermediate
switching means for rhythmically opening and
closing said normally closed switching means in 10
response to said signal initiating means, a sec
ond actuating means intermediate said ?rst
actuating means and said normally open switch
ing means for closing and opening said second
switching means in the same rhythm, said non
15
interference means when deenergized arresting
said second actuating means for retaining said
normally closed switching means in closed posi
tion.
7. A signal transmitter comprising two ter 20
minals, an auxiliary signaling connection, nor
mally closed switching means having contacts
connected between said terminals, normally open
switching means connected between said aux
iliary connection and said terminals, signal 25
initiating means for rhythmically opening and
closing said ?rst switching means and closing
and opening respectively said second switching
means, said second switching means being closed
subsequently to the’ opening of said ?rst switch 30
ing means, and opened prior to the closing of
said ?rst switching means, means for controlling
the effectiveness of said ?rst switching means,
and means responsive to the amount of current
?owing therethrough for actuating said control 35
means and connected to said terminals in series
with said normally closed switching means, said
control means maintaining a current path across
said contacts so long as the current in said actu
ating means remains within a predetermined 40
range.
FRANK R. BRIDGES.
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