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Патент USA US2128676

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Aug. 30, 1938.
‘
H. E. IVES
2,128,676
COLOR CHART AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME
Filed Dec. '7, 1935
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INVENTOR
ATTORNEY
Patented Aug. ,‘30, 1938
' 2,128,676..
(,
umreos'rA'rss _* PATENT OFFICE
. cocoa ‘cnAn'r iéigiijém OF MAKING
assignor
lierbert E. Ives, Upper Montclair,~N. LL,
Cincinnati,
'
to
Intel-chemical ' Corporation,
Ohio, a’ corporation of Ohio
Application December '1, 1935, Serial No. 53,303
16 Claims.
(01. 41-5)
This invention-relates to a color chart and to a
method of making the same, and aims to provide
a convenient and easily made color chart to
serve as a guide in the use of a three-color palette.
To apply the principle that 'all colors of the
5
a
Y
1
the invention having a_continuous color series
varying by imperceptible gradations;
Fig. 3 shows a single impression of a printing
member which may be used to make the chart
shown in Fig. 2;
spectrum may be produced by mixtures of red,
green and blue light to the mixing of three colored
pigments, it is necessary ‘to select ‘three pigments
which absorb respectively narrow spectral bands
1
_
Fig. 2 is a face view of. a color chart embodying
'
-‘
>
Fig. 4 is a face ‘view of a modi?ed color chart
having series of colors varying by de?nite steps;
‘Fig. 5 shows a single impression of a printing 10
member which may be used to make thechart
10 .of blue, green and red light. All hues of the
spectrum may be matched ‘by the use of such pig
shown in Fig. 4; ,
'
'
'
Fig. 6-is a face view‘ of a color chart containing v
ments and mixtures of pairs of them.
‘The color chart which I have invented as a
seriesoi’ spaced spots of color; and
_ Fig. ‘Tshowsa single impression of a printing
' guide for mixing such pigments‘ has the form of a
' member ‘which may
15 regular hexagonr Around the peripheral portion
of the hexagon is a series of colors rarying regu
be used to make the color 15.
chart shown-in Fig. 6.
.
larly in hue, and along the radii of the hexagon 1 The color chart shown in Fig. 2 has the shape
of a regular hexagon ABCDEFA. At the periph
are series of colors of the same hue varying regll."
larly in strength or density. The series ‘of colors‘ eral portion of the hexagon at the corner A‘ is 20
20 around the periphery contains those .colors which shown the yellow color of a pigment which ab
sorbs a narrow band of light inthe blue part of
may be made by mixing together in different pro
the spectrum. At the corner-C is the bluish-green
portions any two of a set of three colored pig
color of a pigment which absorbs a narrow band
ments which absorb blue, green and red light re
'
'
tr m, ‘and, at the
spectively. These colors are the
colorswhich
of maxi;
intensity
can. vcorner
in the E,
redthe
part
of the
spec
purple
color
of au pigment which
25 mum strength and maximum
absorbs a narrow band in the green part of the
vbe obtained from the set of pigments and are re
spectrum. Radial reference lines, 0A, 0C and 7 ferred to herein as “pure colors". The pure col
OE are drawn on, the chart to these three corners.
From the corner A to the corner C is a graduated 30
ors produced by each one of the three pigments
separately are shown at three spaced corners of a
30 hexagon, and the pure colors which can be' pro
duced by mixing any two of they pigments in vari
series of the pure colors which'can bevproduced
by di?erent mixtures of the blue-absorbing pig
ous proportions are shown in a regular series ex
ment whose color is shown at A‘ and the red
tending 'along the periphery between the two
absorbing pigment whose cclor'is shown at C. At
the middle of the series, at the corner Bris shown 35
the green color which is produced by mixing equal
corners at which the ‘colors’ of these two pigments "
35
are shown.
v
u
'
.
The center of the hexagon'is white. The body
of the hexagon between its peripheral portion _
vand its center is so colored that a line from any
point on the periphery to the center contains a
'40 graduated series oi the colors produced by mixing
' regularly varying proportions of white with the
colored pigment mixture which forms the pure
‘color shown at the end oi‘ the‘ line.
’
vThe important advantage of my color chart lies
£5
parts of the red-absorbing and ~blue-absorbing
pigments. Between the comers A and B in the‘
'
‘ series are shown
absorbing pigment are shown in the series between
the corners B and C.' The peripheral portion of 45
in the fact that the, peripheral ‘variation in hue
andthe radial variation in vstrength may be simul-.
C and E shows
the hexagon between the corners
i
‘.550 ,
’ v
a
,
.
A detaiie'd description of the invention will be
sorbing pigment, and the peripheral portion be
and vA shows a similar series 50'
of the colors obtained by mixtures of the green- _
- tween the corners E‘
‘ given-in connection with the accompanying draw.-.
absorbing‘ pigment and the red—absorbing pig
*ing in which‘ colors are‘. represented by an arbi
trary system which has been selected because of
.' ‘the fact that it makes it ‘possible to give in black
>
‘
- -55 and white
some
indication.‘ of ' the ’ color e?ects
obtained by mixing pigments oi’ <different colors
or superimposing impressions of different colored
inks.
In the drawing:
'
'
'
Fig; 1 is a chart-of the color indicatibns used in
=00 Figs; .2. 4' and 6;
_
I
p
_
in a similar way the colors obtained by mixtures
of the red-‘absorbing pigment and the green-ab
taneously produced by three overlapping color im
pressions, each of ‘which varieslin density in one
direction only;
the colors obtained where the
proportion’ of the blue-absorbing“ pigment is
greater than the proportion of the red-absorbing
pigment, while the colors where the red-absorbing
pigment is in greater proportion than the-blue
ment.
’
'
_
.
Along each radial line from‘the periphery of
the hexago to its center is‘ shown a series of 55
colors of th same hue, but gradually diminishing
in strength or density to white at the center.
The radial series thus show the colors of re
duced strength. which‘may be obtained by mixing‘
with. the, pigments necessary to‘ produce the
2
2, 128,676
sion, as in that shown in Fig. 3, there is a regu
lar variation in density along lines parallel to
The arrangement which has been described is the center line 0'-3', but this variationis by
such that the mixture of'pigments required to steps instead of by imperceptible gradations. '
produce the color shown at any point on the The result of three overlapping different colored
chart is indicated by the position of the point impressions of this printing member, as shown in
pure color at each pointv oi the periphery varying
proportions of a white colorless pigment.
on the chart.
Thus, any point on the periphery
of the chart between the lines 0A and 00 may
' be obtained by mixing the pigments whose colors
10 are shown at A and C in the proportion indi
cated by the nearness of the point to the lines
0A and 0C. In the case of colors indicated by
points which are not at the periphery, the proportions of colored pigment to produce the 're
15 quired hue is indicated 'by the distances from
the point to two of the reference lines, while the
proportion of white to be added to obtain the
required diminution in strength is indicated by
the radial position of the point. Thus, to ob
20 tain the color shown at the point X on the
chart shown in :Fig. 2, a mixture is made of the
blue-absorbing pigment whose color is shown at
A and the red-absorbing pigment whose color is
shown at C in about the proportion of four to
25 three, as the distance d’ from the point X to the
line OA measuredparallel to the line 00, is about
three-fourths of the distance d2 from the-point X
to the line 00 measured parallel to the line
0A. To one part of thismixture of these two
30 colored pigments must be added about one-half
part of a white pigment, since the radial dis
tance from the point X to the periphery is about
one-half the radial distance from the point X
35
to the center 0.
The color chart shown in Fig. 2 may be print
ed by three different colored overlapping im
pressions of a printing member, a single impres
sion of which is shown in Fig. 3. The printing
member has the shape of a ?gure 8-6-2-3-4
Fig. 4, is to produce contiguous, diamond-shaped
spots with a regular variation in hue from spot
to spot along and parallel to the periphery of the
hexagon, and a regular variation in strength or 10
density from spot to spot along the radii of the
hexagon.
’
The chart shown in Fig. 6 has similar hex
agonal spots, but the spots are slightly separated
instead of being contiguous. As shown in Fig. 15
7, the printing member for producing such a
chart produces an impression vconsisting of sepa
rated diamond-shaped spots. The rows of-spots
extending- parallel to the base l"-0"-5" and
the top 2"-3"-4" of the ?gure are each of 20
uniform density, while the rows of spots extend
ing parallel to the center line 0"-3" increase
regularly in density from spot to spot.
When great accuracy is required, there is an
advantage in making a color chart with con 25
tinuous gradual variation in hue and strength
as indicated in Fig. 2.
Where an approximate
indication is required, it may beadvantageous
to use the form shown-in Fig. 4v or the form
shown in Fig. 6 in which de?nite spots of color 30
may easily be seen.
The size of these spots, as
compared withv the size of the hexagon, may be
made either greater or less than shown in Figs.
4 and 6, as may be desired for particular use:
What ,I claim is:
35
l. A color chart comprising a regular hexagon
having along its periphery a graduated series of
pure colors varying regularly in hue, and along
its radii graduated series of colors of the same
40 5-0 bounded by four sides 5-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5
hue varying regularly in strength, and three ref 40
and two radii 0-l, 0-5 of a regular hexagon
and is so formed that the density of the ink layer
produced by it is a minimum or zero along its
concave base l-0-5, and a maximum along its
45 convex top 2-3-4. From the base to the top of
erence lines extending from the center of the hex
agon to equally spaced corners thereof so that
the relation between the distances from any point
on the chart to the two nearest reference lines,
regularly in a direction parallel to the center line
0-3 and outer sides 1-2, 5-—4 of the ?gure. In
measured parallel to adjacent sides of the hex 45
agon, indicates the proportions in which pig
ments of the colors at the outer ends of said two
reference lines should be mixed to produce the
making the chart shown in Fig. 1, the printing
color at said point.‘
the ?gure, the density increases gradually and
50 member whose impression is shown in Fig. 2 is
60
(i5
70
75
.
2. A color chart comprising a regular hexagon 50
inked with an ink containing a blue-absorbing having along its periphery a continuous series
pigment and impressed on the portion OEFABCO of pure colors varying regularly in hue by imper
ceptible gradations, and along its radii continuous
of the chart. LIt is then inked with an ink con
taining a red-absorbing pigment and impressed series of colors of the same hue varying regularly
upon the portion OABCDEO oi the chart, and in strength by imperceptible gradations, and three
then with a green-absorbing pigment and im— reference lines extending from the center of the
pressed upon the portion OCDEFAO of the hexagon to equally spaced corners thereof so that
chart. The variation of the density of the three the relation between the distances from any point
ink layers in parallel lines has the eifect of on the chart to the two nearest reference lines,
making the combined impression have a regular measured parallel to adjacent sides of the hexa
variation in hue around the periphery of the gon, indicates the proportions in which pigments
of the colors at the outer ends of said two ref
?gure and a regular variation in strength or den
erence lines should be mixed to produce the color
sity along the radii of the ?gure.
at said point.
‘
The regular variation in hue along and par
3. A color chart comprising a regular hexagon
allel to the periphery and the regular variation
in strength or‘density along the radii may be having along its periphery a continuous series of
continuous or by imperceptible gradations as pure colors varying regularly in hue by de?nite
indicated in Fig. 2, or these regular variations steps, and alongits radii continuous series of col
may be continuous and by de?nite perceptible ors of the same hue varying regularly in strength
steps as shown in Fig. 4, or discontinuous and by corresponding de?nite steps, and three refer
by steps as shown in Fig. 6.
ence lines extending from the center of the hexa
gun to equally spaced corners thereof so that the
To produce a chart having step-by-step va
rlation both in hue and in strength, use is made relation between the distances from any point on
of a printing member producing an impression the chart to the two nearest reference lines,
such as that shown in Fig. 5. In this impres
measured parallel to adJacent sides of the hexa
55
60
65
70
75
3
9, 128,676
gon, indicates the proportions in which pigments
of the colors at the outer ends of said two ref
erence lines should be mixed to produce the color
at said point.
7
4. A color chart comprising a regular hexagon
having along its periphery a discontinuous series
of pure colors varying regularly in hue by de?
nite steps, and along its radii discontinuous series
of colors of the same hue varying regularly in
strength by corresponding de?nite steps, and
10
' ‘ three reference lines extending from the center
of the hexagon to equally spaced corners there
- of so that the relation between the distances from
any point on the chart to the two nearest refer
15 ence lines, measured parallel to adjacent sides
of the hexagon, indicates the proportions in
which pigments of the colors at the outer ends
of said two reference lines should be mixed to
produce the color at said point. '
5. A color chart comprising a regular hexagon
20
bearing diamond-shaped spots of color having a
regular variation in hue from spot to spot in di
rections parallel to the periphery of the hexa
gon, and a regular variation in strength from
25 spot to spot along the. radii of the hexagon.
6. A color chart comprising a regular hexagon
bearing contiguous diamond-shaped spots of color
having a regular variation in hue from spot to
\ spot in directions parallel to the periphery of the
30 hexagon, and a regular variation in strength
from spot to spot along the radii of the hexagon.
7- A color chart comprising a regular hexagon
bearing spaced diamond-shaped spots of color
having a regular variation in hue from's’pot to
35 spot‘in directions parallel to the periphery of the
hexagon, and a regular variation in strength from
spot to spot along the radii of the hexagon.
8. A color chart having the form of a regular
center line of said area, said three areas being
so positioned that their center lines lie on three
radii of the hexagon,‘ extending to three equally
spaced corners thereof.
'
12. A color chart having the form of a regular
hexagon‘and containing colors produced by three
pigments, each of which is applied to an area
of the hexagon enclosed by four sides and two 10
radii of the hexagon in separated diamond
shaped spots and varies regularly in density from
spot to spot along lines parallel to the center line
of the area, said three areas being so positioned
that their center lines lie on three radii of the 15
hexagon, extending to three equally spaced cor
ners thereof.
-
13. A color chart having the form of a regular
hexagon containing colors produced by three pig
ments, each of which is applied to an area of 20
the hexagon enclosed by four sides and two radii
of the hexagon, and varies regularly in density
along lines parallel to the center line oi’ said area
from a minimum density at the concave base of
the area to a maximum density at the convex 25
top of ‘the area, said three areas being so posi
tioned that their center lines vlie on three radii
of the hexagon, extending to three equally spaced
corners thereof._
"* 14. A color chart having the form of a regular 30
hexagon and containing colors produced by three
pigments which absorb respectively narrow bands
of the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum,
and each of which is applied to an area of the
hexagon enclosed by four sides and two radii of 35
the hexagon and varies regularly in density along
pigments, each of which is applied to an area
of the hexagon enclosed by four sides and two
lines parallel to the center line of said area from
a minimumdensity at the concave base of the
area to'a maximum density at the convex top of
the area, said three areas being so positioned that 40
their center lines lie on three radii of the hexa
radii of the hexagon and varies regularly in den
sity along lines parallel to the center line of said
thereof.
hexagon and containing colors produced by three
40
of the hexagon and varies regularly in density by
de?nite visible steps along lines parallel to the
area, said three areas being so positioned that
their center lines lie on three radii of the hexa-l
45 gon, extending to three equally spaced comers
thereof.
‘
9. A color chart having the form .0! a regular
hexagon and containing colors produced by three
pigments which absorb respectively narrow bands
gon, extending to three equally spaced corners
~
‘
15. A method of making a color chart which
comprises making an impression of one color in 45
the shape of a ?gure formed by four sides and
two radii of a regular hexagon and varying regu
larly in density along lines parallel to the center
line of said ?gure, making a similar impression
the hexagon and varies regularly in density along
of a different colored ink positioned so that one 50
half of it overlies one-half of the ?rst impression, a
and making a similar third impression with a
third colored ink in a position in which one-half
of it overlies the ?rst impression and the other
lines parallel to the center line of said area, said
half of it overlies the second impression.
of the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum,
and each oi’ which is applied to an area of the
hexagon enclosed by four ‘sides and two radii of
- three areas being 50 positioned that their cen
ter lines lie on three radii of the hexagon, ex
tending to three equally spaced corners thereof.
'
16. A method of making- a hexagonal color
chart which comprises making an impression with
55
a pigment absorbing a narrow band of the red
hexagon and containing colors produced by three
part of the spectrum in the shape of a figure
formed by four sides and two radii of a regular 60
of the hexagon enclosed by four sides and two
radii of the hexagon and varies regularly in den
sity by imperceptible gradations along lines par
making a similar impression with _a pigment ab- .
‘sorbing a narrow band in the green part of the
10. A color chart having the form of a regular
pigments, each of which -isv applied to an area ~. hexagon, and varying regularly in density along
lines parallel to the center line of said ?gure,
allel to the center line of said area, said three
spectrum so positioned that one-half of it overlies
one-half of the ?rst impression, and making a
lie on three radii of the hexagon, extending to
similar third impression with a pigment absorb-yv '
ing a narrow band of the blue part of-the 'spec- ’
.65 areas being so positioned that their center lines
three equally'spaced corners thereof.
_ 11. A color chart having the form of a regular trum so positioned that one-half of it overlies
hexagon and containing colors produced by three ' the ?rst impression and the other half of it over
,
.,
‘pigments, each of which is applied to an area of lies the second impression.
HERBERT E.‘ IVES.
4 the hexagon enclosed by four sides and two radii
,
R
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