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Патент USA US2128716

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Aug. 30, '1938.
4
T. N. SMITH
2,128,716
WELL TESTING DEVICE
Filed Nov. 2, 1957.
2 sheets-sheet 1
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Àug. 30,_ 1938.
T. N. SMITH
2,128,716
WELL TESTING' DEVICE
‘Filed NOV. 2, 1937 _
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
. Patented Aug. 30, '19385v
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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
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WELL TESTING DEVICE
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Thomas Noah smith, san Antonio, Tex.
Application Nqvember z, 1937, serial No. 112,431
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sI claims.
(c1. 16s-1)
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This invention relates to well testers for use in
testing a well preferably> of the gas and oil type,
Fig. 2 is a central longitudinal section through
the device, showing the same in a seated position
to determine whether a producing stratum has
been reached.
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in a formation to be tested;
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Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view showing the jawed
Up until recently, the commonly accepted
members at the zone where the packer body and 5 -
method used for testing wells involved consider- the' drill stem meet, in the position at the time
able labor and expense and quite frequently re- ¿ the device is being lowered into the well;
suited in destroying the well.v It generally in-v
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary view at the same zone
volved thesettlng of well casing and a screen to- ~ of the same parts, in the position where the
10 gether with the work of ‘cementing the well before the test could be made. The well then had
to bewashed and tested and if it was found that
no producing formation had been reached, the
liner, screen, wash pipe and related equipment
15 had to be removed, so that the -well could be
drilled further into another stratum. Seldom, if
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seating;
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Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical section of the ~
modification shown in Fig-5 but in the position l5
`after seating;
ever, was the' screen recovered in a condit on
Fig. 7 is a perspective view, partly in section,
where it could be used again because of the` act
showing the packer removed from the device; and
that'it had been so firmly anchored.
.
Fig. 8 is a modification of the valve means
It is an object of this invention to provide a shown in Figs. l and 2.
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device which can be quickly introduced into the _
This tool is intended for use in the rotary sys
well to make a test of the formation and then
again easily withdrawn, all with a. minimum expenditure of time and money.
25.
packer body is seated, in the formation;
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Fig. 5 is _a fragmentary vertical section showing
_a modification of the packer in a'position before
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A particular object of the invention is to pro-vide means whereby the tool may be »seated in
the bore hole and lpacked oiï before the valve is
tem of drilling wells, wherein the work of pro
ducing ahole is done by a bit attached to the
end _of a tubular drill stem.
The drill stem is
rotated by a rotary, the connections between the 25
drill stem and the rotary being such that the
drill stem may be fed downwardly while, at the
opened, so that aproper seat is assured and the
same time, it is being rotated.
ñuid below the packer is shut off before the valve
with the rotary and downward motion of the bit,
30` is opened. -
Simultaneously
drilling fluid. or mud, is .pumped downwardly 30
Still another object of the invention is to pro-
through the drill stem, this _iluid emerging from
vide valved means above the packer for setting
ports, or water courses, _in the bit. After thev
up’ a circulation of ñushing ñuid down through
the string of pipe and up the outside thereof,
drilling iiuid leaves the_blt it travels upwardly.
through the space between the drillstem and the
35 equalizing pressures and thereby causing a back well wall to the surface, where it is stored in a 35
pressure to force the liquid or gasback in ordèr- "slush pit” for use again. This drilling fluid
to prevent a blow out, a very serious but not com-
40
serves to `coo1 the cutting edges of the bit; to re
mon happening when testing wells at different
move cuttings made bythe blt;v and to prevent,
strata,
so far as possible, “blowouts” which might- occur
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Yet another object is to provide a novel form
' and construction for the packer employed.
Since the well is full of this drilling fluid at
A further object of the inventfìonfisto provide a
valve means provided with iiuid ducts, so de' signed that the fluid issuing therefrom` under
45 high pressure and containing particles of foreign
matter will not have a tendency to erode the
valve seat.
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when high >pressure formations are encountered. 40
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A still further object of the invention is to provide a testing tool in which the parts are so de50 signed and arranged as to make for ease in as-sembly, economy in the cost of manufacture and
simplicity and efficiency in operation.
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Referring to the drawings: ~
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55'` the
Fig.
device
1 is embodying
a central longitudinal
the invention;
section through
all times, it is clear~that the static pressure .at
any given point in the well is dependent upon
the head of the fluid above that point. Usually,
therefore, in deep well drilling the static pressure 45
in the well is sufficient to prevent blowouts.
But the static pressure also has its objections. -
One of them >is that oil or gas bearing strata
might ~be passed without the driller having knowl- i
edge of this.> This is because the static pressure 50
of the drilling fluid serves to prevent the entrance ' `
of gas or oil into the hole- unless the gas or oil _
is under suñlcient Ipressure to enter the well-
against
. In order
the to
static
eliminate
pressure...
the possibility
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- passing 55
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2,128,716
producing formations during the drilling of the
well, it is customary to take frequent tests when
in the vicinity of producing strata. 'I'his is done
communicating with a plurality of horizontal
openings 2l, which openings lead to a recess 22
by. running a bit of smaller diameter than the
the valve seat 1 and valve 8.-
regular drilling> bit, forming a hole of reduced
diameter through the strata to be tested. The
. smaller hole is known tothe operator as a rat
ho1e, and the shoulder of thlsghole furnishes a.
sealing means for sealing oiï the static pressure
of the well from the rat hole while' the device
' rests on the shoulder and the test is being made.
Upon the shoulder casing may also be set, should _
production be discovered in the> small rat hole.
The rat hole is usually cored' in`by one crew
15 yof workmen.. 'I'he next crew reams down, leav
formed in the valve housing and directly below
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'I‘he lower portion of the bore 20 has screwed
therein a choke plug 25 which is provided with
passage 26, said passage in turn communicating
with passagesor fluid inlet openings 213 and 28
in the bull plug or strainer 30, which depends
' from the valve stem 9 and is separated'fròni the 10
packer _body proper by lock washer 3 I.
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'I'he packer body proper II is shaped as shown,
provision being made for a plurality of superim
posed layers of packing material 35, suitably, se
ing a full-gauged hole to'bottom, ready for the
cured _to the packer.body by any well known 15
means. The packing material is made of rubber
next crew to, begin rat-heling or core drilling
again. 'I'he core obtained in the rat hole opera
Afeatures ofthe packer body is that, due to the
ized material or of leather belting.
One of the
tion gives the driller an accurate log o1'- the well square shoulder- 36, it can easily be seated on soit
20 and also gives him an indication of when oil or ' or hard formations, without forcing said forma 20
gas formation is reached.
tions outwardly.. 'I'heshoulders 36 seat on the
After drilling the rat hole the entire string of » shoulders 31 of the rat hole 38. Frictional resist
drill stem is removed from the well and the bit ance between the packing material and the forma
is replaced by the testing tool. The bit is> re
tion se'at will prevent rotation of the packer body.
~25 _moved from the hole during testing. The valve
Turning now to Fig. 1, and particularly to the 25
of the testing'tool is:î held in Aa closed position portion marked A, -one views the tool »in which the
during the time the tool is being lowered; conse
relative positions of the cams, spring and valve
quently the inside of the drill stem contains no ' when entering'or leaving the well, lare shown.
iiuid and >for this reason there is no static pres-_ Fig. 3 should also be considered in connection with
sure in the drill- stem. Invother words, the well Fig. 1, since this shows the cam arrangement at
is full of drilling iluid but there -is none in the the portion marked A. In Figs. 1 and 3, the cani
drill stein.A
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After- thetesting tool has been seated on the
shoulder ofthe rat hole and the static pressure
from Vthe hole above has been sealed oiI from the
rat hole, the valve in the testing tool is opened
thereby relieving the formation being. tested of
arrangement or jaws are shown in a closed posi
tion. The jaws, dogs, or cams 40 and 4I, there I
vbeing a plurality of themY around the circum
ference of the valve housing and the packer body.
are shaped as shown in Fig. 3. The rspring I1 is
a. compression springend is employed to aid the
packer body and valve housing to separate when
being tested willnow` enter'the rat hole, pass _the Jaws or cams are rotated to the proper point.
_through the valve of the testing tool _and into the and it is also employed to hold the jawed mem
drill> stem,_ thus furnishing a sample `of the pro
bers apart when the testing device is raised from
ducing capacity of that particular strata.
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its seat after the test is completed, thereby clos
all static pressure.- Any oil >or gas in thejstrata
On removing the tool from its seat the valve is
again closed, thereby retaining the fluid which
ing the valve 8 ’against the static pressure of the `
well and preventing the entrance of drilling fluid
into the drill stem. -In Fig. 1, the static pressure
to the surface’.v
in the wellv acts against the area of the valve 8
'I'he device of Fig. 1 is intended to be secured which. except- for the- force exerted by the spring
to the lower end_of a hollow drill stern I by means I1, would cause the valve 48 to open. Drilling
of the threads shown or, a standard A. P. I. drill 'fluid would then enter the drill stem and ruin
stem tool joint or coupling (not shown). and in
any test that has been taken. In removing tests
serted downwardly into the well within the casing vof very 'deep wells where the force exerted by the
2. The hollow drill stem serves to control and _spring I1 is not great enough to hold the valve
operate the testing device. The nipple orl short , 8` against its seat 1, the drill stem may be rotated
length section 3 constituting a sample retaining to a partial turn before raising the packer of! of
chamber, has formed therein a flared mouth l and _its seat, bringing the- raised portions of the jaws
is formed with -screw threads 5 to which is adapted or `cams in line and closing the _valve 8. ’I'he rel
. to be secured the valve housing 8,' said housing ative positions of the parts while making the test
having a valve seat 'l upon which is adapted to are shown in Figs. 2 and 4 and the jaws or cams
seat a valve 8.
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lll and 4I are as shown at the portibn B of Fig. 2.
_. _ 'I'he valve. is housed,l as shown.’ the valve stem4
After the testing tool >has been seated on the 00
Shaving a sliding ilt therewith and being pro
shoulder of the rat hole and the static pressure
.vided throughout its lower extremity with threads- from the hole above has been sealed of! from the
,l 0, securing the packer body proper I I to the valve ' rat hole, the-valve 8 is opened by rotating part
5 clockwise with respect to part I I, so that the
65
The valve housing is provided with a down
Jaws or cams take the position shown in Fig. 4, 65
wardly depending guide I5, adapted to ñt vwithin thereby relieving the formation being tested of
and slide with respect to a guide I 8 formed on the ' all static pressure. Any oil or gas being tested
packer body proper.
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will- enter the rat'hole, pass through the stem
has entered during the test, vuntil the tool is raised
housing
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A helical spring I1, -ofthe proper tension, is " of valve 8 and into Ithe drill stem, above valve 8, placed within the recess formed by the guide I5 thus furnishing a sample of the _producing ca
and surrounds the valve stem 9, as shown, said pacity of thewell.
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spring aiding in keeping lthe parts 6 and II apart ' The direction of rotation ofthe drill stem for
-while the device is being lowered into the valve.
the opening and .closing operations of the. valve
The valve stem has a longitudinal bore 20 there vis always clockwise~ or in the same direction.
in, extending throughout its _length,`fsaid bore
This is important-'since the> joints composing
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. the drin stem erejoi?ed together with rightr hand
inside -of the drill stem land on the outside of the
threads. Any rotation inthe reverse direction
might cause the threads and joints to loosen;
_drill stem, causing -a back pressure and forcing
the ñuid or gas back into the well, to prevent»
The reason the square shoulder of the packer..
_ is provided, Vis manifest. WhenI the packer is
seated on the shoulder -of the rat hole, the en»
- tire weight ofthe drill-stem is allowed'to rest
what is known as a blowout.l
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Other advantages, besides those mentioned, of
the construction, will -be apparent to those skilled
' in the art.
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on~the packer. _If an angular form 'of packeris
1. In a device of ,the character described in
`employed,„as is common in the art, this great
A10 weight causes the packer to be wedged into the
rat hole so `tightly that it is very diii‘lcult to re
cluding a drill' stem, a nipple constituting a same 10
ple retaining chamber, a valve housing secured
to said nipple, a valve at the upper end of said
‘ valve housing `and having a downwardly depend
_ » In the modification shown in Fig. 7, the packer ing valve stem to which is secured a packer, said
15 body is designated as 55 and is composed of a _packer being slidable with respect to said vvalve
move the packer. The wedging action is elimi
nated by using a square shouldered packer.
metal supporting member surrounded by arub housing, said packer andhousing being provided
ber composition member 56, shaped as shown. with cooperating cammed surfaces whereby said
Any desired -iibrous composition might be used valve can be moved away from its coacting .valve
seat when said drill stem is rotated in one direc
instead of the rubber composition', >to suit indi
20.
20 viduei conditions. As shownthe lower end of tion only with respect to said packer.
2.
In
a
device
of
the
character
described
in
the packer is slightly cupped, so that when it
is seated on vthe _upper edge 31 of the-rat hole cluding a drill stem, a nipple constituting a sam
38, the edge 58' will turn outward and thereby ple retaining chamber, a valve housing secured to
aid `materially in securing a perfect seal. This said nipple, a valve at the upper end of said valve `
housing and having a downwardly depending 25
25 condition is best shown in Fig. 6.
It will be
noticed that the metalsupporting member 55
is provided with an annular ñange‘ 59, having an
Y annular row of spaced perforations 59 and that
the annular flange 59 -is located nearer to the
upper portion ofthe member 55 than it is to
the lower portion thereof. This assures igreater
resiliency to the> material 56 .below the flange
59. The material 56 encompasses‘the iiange 59
valve stem to which‘is secured a packer, said
»packer bein-gl slidable with respect to said valve
housing, a spring surrounding said valvestem
and normally urging said valve housing and said
packer away from each other, said packer and
housing being provided with cooperating cammed
.30
.sur-faces whereby said valve can be moved away
from its coacting valve seat when said drill stem
. and is also worked into the. perforations 6d.'
Another object in locating the flange 59 as
is rotated in one direction only with respect to
said packer.
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3. In a device of the character described in
' shown, is that, in removing the packer from its
cluding a drill stem, a nipple constituting a sarn- A »
seat, the pull of the flange 59 will tend to elon
gate >the member 55 and thereby `reduce its di
amet'er'. vIt is clear that this vaction will aid great
40 1y the removal of 'the packer from its seat. Ob
ple retaining chamber, a valve housing secured
toìsaid nipple, a valve at the upper end of said
valve housing and having a downwardly depend 40.
viously, the packer here shownA will >not wedge ' ing hollowvalve stem to which is secured a pack
er, said packer being slidable with respect to said
in slome. of the softer formations the packer valve housing, said packer being provided with
should sink below the surface of the rat hole, land cammed surfaces contacting cammed surfaces
have a tendency to stick, the pull applied to the on said valve housing, a sprlng- surrounding said
packer in removing it from the seat will cause valve stem and normally urging said~valve hous
the same to elongate and reduce the diameter ing and said packer away from each other, said
thereof, thereby releasing the packer from the ‘ valve being adapted to move to its seat when said
hole. The member 55 is held to the valve stem cammed surfaces are disengaged and from its seat
when said cammed surfaces are engaged’ and 50
50 9 andthe threads> l0 by means of the nut 51.
In the modification of the valve member, shown when said drill stem is rotated in one direction
'in Fig. 8, passages 65 near the upper end of the only with respect to said packer, whereby ñuid
valve stem 9, >and just under the valve 8, are is allowed to enter the, lowerA end of said hollow
valve stem and pass above said valve.
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provided.- These passages are upwardlyfand out
4. In a device of the character described in
55 wardly directed and communicate with the bore
20. The object in providing these passages is cluding a drill stem, a nipple constituting a
to prevent the' iiuid which enters the testing sample retaining chamber, a valve housing'se
in the upper end of the rat hole, 'and even though
cured to said nipple, a valve at the upper end
of said valve housing and having a downwardly
60 _This fluid, which generally enters the tool under
depending hollow valve stem to which is securedv
l high pressure and contains bits of sand and for - a packer, said packer being slidable with respect
eign matter, will rapidly vcut any valve or valve to said valve housing, said packer being pro
' seat with which it comes Ain contact. 'I'he pas~- ‘vided with cammed surfaces contacting cammed
sages 65 will guide the ñuid past'the valve with surfaces on said valve housing, said packer being
- device- when the valve `is open, from cutting
vacross the face of the valve'or the valve seat l.
65 out any cutting action.
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While the test is being made and iiuid is en
tering intofthe drill- stem, if there should be
any tendency for the pressure from the forma
tion, either ñuid or gas, to raise the drilling iiuid
v(or mud) or get beyond control,_with this de
«vice it is only necessary to start the mud pumps
-at the surface and apply pressure through the
column of drilling'fluid inside the drill stem
provided with square shoulders for engaging the 1
upper ,portion of a rat hole in a well, said valve>
stem having a perforated lug screwed on the
lower end thereof and engaging said packer and
adapted to project down into the rat hole, a
spring surroundingsaid valve stem and normally
urging said valve housing _and said packer away
from each other, said valve being adapted to movel
to its seat when said cammed surfaces are disen
gaged and from its seat when said cammed sur
which in turn will cause valve 50 to open, equaliz
75 ing the pressures on‘both the column of . _ñuid ' faces are engaged and when said drill stem is _ro
2,128,716
tated in one direction only with respect to saidàA ible packer rests on said rat hole, -said cupped
packer, whereby iiuld is allowed to 'enter the lower face will effect a Atight seal wßh the formation
end of said hollow valvezstem and pass above said adjacent said rat hole.
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valve.
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5. In. a device ofthe character described for
testing formations in oil wells, in which the well
is provided with the usual bore and rat hole», a
substantially cylindrical compressible packer
mounted on a packer body secured to the valve
10 stem of said device, said packer having substan
tial depth lengthwise of said valve stem and hav
ing a diameter greater than said rat hole and less
than said bore hole, the lower face of said pack
er beingcupped so that when said device is low
ered into said well for testing and said compress
6. For use in a device of the character de
scribed, _ a compressible packer consisting of a
cylindrical rubber plug having a longitudinal bore
therethrough, said bore accommodating a. metal
hollow tubular supporting member, which mem
ber has projecting therefrom at right angles an
annular ñange of substantial width, said ilange
10
being provided with a plurality of throughl open
ings, said ?lange, openings and tubular member
lbeing embedded in said cylindrical plug, the lower
face of said compressiible packer being cupped.
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THOMAS NOAH SMITH.
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