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Патент USA US2128884

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Aug. 30, 1938.
2,128,884
E. MARX ET AL
ARC CONVERTER
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Filed OCT.. 22. 1935
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Aug. 30, 1938.
E. MARX El' A1.
2,128,884
ARC CONVERTER
Filed oet. 22, 1935l
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Aug. 30, 1938.
E, MARX Er AL
2,128,884
ARC CONVERTER
Filed Oct. 22, 1955
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Patented Aug. 30, 1938
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UNITED
~ 2,128,884
STATES
PATENT oFricE
2,128,884
ABC CONVERTER
Erwin Marx, Brunswick, and Herbert Buchwald,
Berlin-Reinickendorf, vGermany
Application October 22, 1935, Serial No. 46,202
I
~In Germany October 25, 1934
27 Claims. (Cl. Z50-27.5)
Our invention relates to certain new and use
ful improvements in are converters, i. e., arc rec
tiilers, arc inverters, devices i'or frequency con
version described in the book of the inventor
5 Professor Erwin Marx and uned “mcntbogen
stromrichter” published in Berlin in 1932 and
where the arc is periodically initiated by an aux
iliary arc and periodically extinguished in a flow
of air and/or gas and/or steam, such arc con
H O verters being called “Marx~Stromrichter" in 'Ger
many.
.
An object of our invention is to provide means
for introducing into the arc gap, i. e., the space
between those parts of the electrodes between
15 which the arc plays, a continuous ñow of air
and/or gas and/or` steam wholly or partially
through one electrode between the main elec
trode and the screen electrode. The said- now
of air and/or gas and/or steam will be called in
2 the following description the axial flow. While
the arc is burning, the said axial ilow streams
along the arc and surrounds the arc on its en
tire length, in order to prevent accumulation of
arc products in the space between the electrodes.
25
After the current feeding the arc has passed
through zero and the arc has been extinguished
the flow of air and/or gas and/or steam must
he adequate to ensure the scavenging of the arc
gas from the arc residues remaining behind and
30 facilitating back-firing of the converting ar
auxiliary are between the main electrode and the
screen electrode, whereby the auxiliary arc is
driven to the opposing main electrode by the
current of air and/or gas and/or steam intro
duced into the arc gap through the said main 5
electrode and screen electrode.
A stili further object ot our invention is to in- - -
troduce into the arc gap the current of air and/or
steam @rtially in radial direction iiowing be
tween the opposing surfaces oi the two screen
electrodes. The use of the said gas now-»called
briefly radially inward gas iiow in the following
description-_is attended by the advantage of pre»
venting the impingement of the gas against the
surface of the opposite screen electrode and/or i5
any undue expansion of the arc along its path
between the electrodes.
This additional ñow of air and/or gas and/or
steam may also he supplied through holes dis
tributed over the surface adjacent to the arc gap 20
of one or both screen electrodes or any annular
opening in the one and/or the other screen elec
trode without departing from our invention. ,
Further objects and advantages of our invention
will become apparent as the description proceeds. 25
Our invention will be fully set forth in the fol
lowing description referring to the accompanying
drawings and the features of novelties which
characterize our invention will be pointed out
with particularity in the claims annexed to and 30.
forming a part of this speciñcation.
rangement.
Fig. 1 is a sectional view relating to one form
Another object oi our invention is to provide ' of execution of an arc converter embodying our
means ior discharging the air and/or gas and/or invention and consisting of a couple ol electrodes
steam wholly lor partially through the other elec
arranged in a chamber of pressed air and/or 35
35 trode between the main electrode and the screen gas and/or st.
electrode.
Figs. 2-i relate to diüerent forms of execution
For introducing into the arc gap and discharg
of the parts of electrodes between which the arc
ing the said current o! air and/or gas and/or may be maintained and along which and/or be
steam we propose ducts of annular cross section tween which the gas or steam current may have 40
4W formed by two or more adjoining parts of elec
a very high velocity.
`
trodes. By this way the current of air and/or
Fig. 5 shows a plane view of the ignition elec
gas and/or steam passing through the are gap trode as shown in Figure 4 seen in the direction
forms a hollow cylinder surrounding the arc
from below.
burning between the electrodes.
Figure 6 shows an example oi execution of the '45
,45 A further object is to provide parts of elec
part of the main electrode upon which the -burn
trodes suitably shaped between which and/or ing-od caused by foot points of the arc may take
along which the current of air and/or gas and/or place, the adjoining screen electrode being
steam is guided with more or less high velocity.
` Any sharp bend and any immediate alteration of omitted.
Figure 7 relates to another form of execution 50
5° the cross section of the gas ñow at points of showing an electrode consisting of a screen elec
high velocity may cause eddies and impingement trode, a main electrode and a particular auxiliary
along the way of the gas current., which may
'
produce bad eüects on the working conditions electrode.
in Fig. 1 the two main electrodes are formed
of. lthe converting arrangemen .
by tubular bodies i and 2 which are arranged op- 55
55
A frurther object oi our invention is to start the
2
2,128,884
posite toeach other. Each main electrode is sur
rounded by a coaxial cylindrical body 3 or 4
respectively of suitable shape adapted for screen
ing the main electrode from the electrostatic held
and for guiding the iiow oi air and/or gas and/or
steam properly to the arc gap 31 and for leading
away from the arc gap the said ilow in a suitable
manner.
Since we propose to start the auxiliary are be
tween a main electrode and the adjoining screen
electrode, it _is necessary to insulate the said main
electrode from the part of the screen electrode
to which the igniting voltage may be applied. In
the example shown in the drawings of Figure 1
15 the screen electrode is insulated from the main
which may serve at the same time as an auxiliary
electrode in order to initiate the auxiliary arc is
oi.'_annu1ar shape surrounding the front portion
of the main electrode, thus leaving only a -small
duct 43 between the auxiliary electrode and the
main electrode. 'I'he auxiliary arc is started be
tween two closely opposing points upon the said
both parts of electrodes, e. g., at the points 4l and
v4I in Fig. 1 or 44 and 45 in Fig. 3 and blown to
the opposite electrode by the pressed gas arriving
from the direction shown by the arrow 33.
10
As -
it is apparent from the> drawing of Fig. 1, Fig. 2
and Fig. 3 the passageway of the ñow of air and/or
gas and/or steam from point 3l to the arc gap 31
~electrode by the cylinder 5 of bakelized paper or - forms a narrow duct oi' annular shape and there
15
the like suitably ilxed to the main electrode I. In fore the velocity ofthe said flow may increase
along
the
said
passageway.
For
this
reason
the
particular cases of working conditions it will be
desirable, that both oi' the screen electrodes may said inset pieces of the screen electrode and/or oi'
be insulated from their respective main electrodes. the main electrode must be suitably shaped for
The converting chamber consists of a cylinder ' avoiding sharp bends of the gas flow and the
3 oi porcelain, bakelized paper or any insulating formation of excessive eddies. The upper rim 42
material oi' suillcient-mechanical strength. Onto in particular, of the central opening 65 oi' the
the two ends of the said cylinder metal rings 1 and screen electrode may be specially designed e. g.,
8 are attached to which the headers 9 and I0 are sharply edged for keeping the jet oi' the gas ilow
entering the arc gap concentrated.
secured, forming chambers which serve for distri
The inset piece 25 of the screen electrode 4 25
bution and recollection of the air and/or gas
and/or steam entering and leaving the converting referred to above is of annular shape surround
chamber. Finally the whole chamber is shut ing rthe top portion of the main electrode 2 and
against atmospheric pressure by the covers I I and the inset piece 23. As the gas current ñows from
I2 into which the main electrodes are screwed by the arc space between the said screen electrode 30
means of threads I3 attached to both the covers and the main electrode to 51 at a considerably
high velocity no immediate alteration of the cross
and the main electrodes.
The air and/or gas and/or steam enters the section may take place in the conical duct 55
formed by the inset piece 25 of the screen elec
35 distribution chamber 9 through the supply duct
trode and the main electrode, i. e., the cross sec- ï' ‘
I4 and leaves it through the annular space I1 in
order to ilow along the main electrode. -'I'he tion of 56 will widen very gradually up to the
chamber I 0 is divided into two parts 20 and 2i cross section of 51.
In Figs. 4 and 5 channels 41 radially arranged
by a flat ring I9 ilxed to the sidewall of the said
chamber. Th duct I5 is the inlet for the radially are inserted into the auxiliary electrode into the
surface opposite to the main electrode. By this 40
inward flowing gas or steam, whilst I5 is the dis
charge duct for the gas recollected in the room 2|. means the area'of the cross-section of the gas
A header 9 as described above, separated into stream may be increased, whilst the distance of
two parts 20 and 2|, may be used on both sides the points 4I and 40 between which the ignition
545 of the converting chamber for introducing the- of the auxiliary arc takes place remains small,
the point 4I being disposed on the section 43 be
radially‘ inward gas flow from either the top tween
45
two channels.
header or the bottom header or from both the
headers without departing from our invention in
its broader aspects.
Those parts of both the main electrodes and
the screen electrodes upon which the foot points
oi.' the arcs will remain or which will be touched by
the arcs may consist of particular inset pieces 22,
23, 24, 25. 'I'he said inset pieces are made of suit
able metals or alloys apt to withstand excessive
burning-oil by the arcs, and are secured to the
main parts of the electrodes in a suitable man
ner in order that they can be exchanged easily.
In order to transport away the heat produced by
the foot points of the arc a cooling medium, e. g.,
pressed gas, water or the like is supplied to the
main electrodes through the ducts 23 and leaves
the main electrodes through the ducts 21. 'I‘he
path of the said cooling medium inside the main
85 electrodes is not shown in the drawings. 'I‘he
clamps 28 and 29 represent~ the line connection
terminals of the converting circuit. The voltage
for igniting the auxiliary arc is applied to the
clamps 30 and 28.
70
The inset pieces 22 and 23 of the main elec
trodes referred to above usually are of conical
shape. but they may also reveal any form'of
curvature, if required, asthe examples of Figs. 2
and 4 show.
75
l
'I'he inset piece 24 of the screen electrode 3,
Furthermore in Fig. 4 an example is given
showing that the burning-oil' of the main elec
trode by the main arc may increase to a con
siderable amount-as shown by the narrowly
hatched area 48-without disturbing the gas 50
stream and without preventing the regular igni
tion of the auxiliary arc. 'I’he points 4I and 42.
between which, at the beginning, the igniting arc
was started, have moved according to the amount
of burning-away o! the points 40 and 50.
Another example dealing with the burning-of!
of the main electrode is shown in Fig. 6. The
electrode I has at the top a taper bore 5I.
Against the wall 52 an inset piece 3I upon which
the foot points of the arc may remain during
the burning period is pressed by a spring 32.
In Fig. 7 a third electrode 34, used as ignition
electrode has been provided for. yThe main elec
trode I has aA bore 36, into which the ignition
electrode 34 is arranged _suitably insulated against
the main electrode. The auxiliary arc is started
between 53 and 54, and is blown to the opposite
electrode by the portion of the air and/or gas
and/or steam streaming in the direction ot the
arrow 35 between the said main electrode and 70
ignition electrode. In this -case the screen elec
trode serves only to screen the main electrode
from the electro-static iìeld larising between the
electrodes during the idle half period and must 75
' 2,128,884
l not necessarilybe insulated vagainst the main
electrode.
.l
The general principles of operation of an arc
converter in accordance with our invention may
,be briefly summarized as follows:
4 The pressed air‘and/or gas and/or steam enters
the distribution chamber 9 through the duct I4
. and flows through the annular opening l1 between
` the screen electrode 3 and the main electrode I in
10 the direction indicated by the arrow 58.
Passing
the annular narrow duct 43 in the direction indi
cated by the arrow 39 the gas iiow enters the arc
`gap 3'!` through the central aperture 65 of the
screen electrode 24. 56 forms an annular duct
more or less conically arranged for discharging
the gas flow streaming through the arc gap. In
this case the current of air and/orgas and/or
steam forms on its passageway through the arc
gap a hollow cylinder of constant or varying
20 diameter. Because of the small openings _55 and
65 of the screen electrodes which are necessary
to ensure the screening of the hot main electrode
heated by the foot points of the main arc the gas
flow may obtain a high velocity on its passageway
through the arc gap.
Preferably means are provided for avoiding the
excessive formation of eddies of the current of
15
air and/or gas and/or steam particularly in those
parts of the passage of the said current having a
high velocity. For this reason it is also advan
tageous that the said. gas flow has in no parts
of its passage through the converting chamber
a greater velocity than on the part where it passes
the arc gap, i. e., the actual space in which the
arc is burning. It is obvious that the formation
of eddies is associated with different draw-backs.
For instance the formation of eddies in or near
the arc gap may constitute regions in which an
40
accumulation of heat and/or arc products may
take place, thus facilitating back-firing between
the electrodes.
The formation of eddies also
3
of eddies, the impingement of the current of air
and/or gas and/or steam or any other troubles
inflicted upon- the said current may also be pre
vented by additional introduction or discharge
of parts of currents of. air and/or gas and/or`
steam.
A voltage is applied to the auxiliary electrode 3
and the main electrode I, which are separated
from each other by the cylinder 5 or insulating
material. When the said voltage has risen to a 10
sufficient magnitude flash-over will occur between
the nearest opposite points upon the auxiliary
electrode and main electrode and an auxiliary
arc follows this flash-over. The gas current flow
ing through the narrow duct 43 between the
auxiliary electrode and the main electrode and,
gaining a considerably high velocity because of
the reduced cross-section, will drive the auxiliary
arc forming a loop to the opposite main electrode.
The one foot point of auxiliary arc arisen al 20
ready upon the portion of the main electrode
upon which one of the foot points of the main arc
shall exist may remain there near the point
marked as 40 or, if the ignition may occur lower
down between the points 44, y45 as shown in Fig. 3, 25
the said footpoints may travel to a point near 40.
The other footpoint of the auxiliary arc estab
lished upon the auxiliary electrode at 4|, as Fig. 1
shows, or at 44 as Fig. 3 Shows, travels quickly
to point 42 and finally jumps to the opposite
main electrode thus forming a conductive path
for initiating the main arc.
It will be of advantage to establish the foot- '
point of the auxiliary arc upon such points of the
surface of the main electrode. that the foot point 35
of the main arc may be able to start travelling.
Since it may be provided for that the auxiliary
arc driven to the opposite electrode ymay make
contact with the main electrode, the foot points
of the main arc remain already from the begin 40
ning of the firing period upon parts of electrodes
which are electrically screened, see 59 and 60 of
Fig. 1.
For this purpose and/or in order to make the
results in unduly increasing the pressure drop
of the current of air and/or gas and/or steam
across the converter chamber, thus reducing the
overall efficiency of the converting arrangement. , foot points of the arc travel along any desirable 45
path, portions of electrodes covered with insulat
These advantages may be remedied by means in
cluding parts of electrodes suitably shaped which ing material, e. g., non-conductive metal oxides
prevent impingement of the current of air and/or may be employed, which will not carry the arc.
Furthermore the foot points of the arc may
gas and/or steam upon parts of electrodes, and/or
be
caused by suitable means to travel upon an 50
sharp bends of the said current having high
velocity and/or any undue departure of the said area of the surface, the diameter of the said area
being greater than that of the aperture of the
current from the surface of the parts of elec
trodes along which the said current is moving screen electrode, wherebythe area of the surface
with high velocity and/or immediate changing, exposed to burning-off will be considerably large
particularly increasing the cross section of. the and the amount of burning-off reduced.
Special means must be provided for ensuring
said current.
regularly initiating the auxiliary arc and/or the
Since in accordance with our invention the
ignition oi'v the auxiliary arc may take place be
tween the main electrode and the screen elec
trode of the one electrode, the distance between
60
the said parts of electrodes may be rather narrow
for ensuring a regular establishment of the auxil
iary arc with certainty. Any difiiculty arising
from the said narrow duct may be overcome by
65
channels 41 radially inserted into the surface
cf the screen electrode 24 and/or main electrode,
the said surface opposingthe adjoining part of
the electrode. By this means the area of. the
cross-section of the duct between the screen elec
trode and the `main electrode is eilicaciouslyin
creased, the distance of the opposing points be
tween Which the auxiliary arc is to be initiated
remaining still small. The foot point of the
auxiliary arc then is established upon the section
75 remaining between two channels. The formation
main arc. For instance a pronounced sharp
edged, crater-like rim 40 upon the main electrode
opposing the screen electrode may facilitate the 60
igniting of the auxiliary arc. The use of the
crater 66 as shown in Fig. 2--in Fig. 4 a crater 48
after long time service is shown-furnishes the
further advantage that the footpoint of the arc
burning within the said crater is protected
against the gas blast of high velocity, streaming
between the main electrode and the adjoining
screen electrode.
, The said crater may consist of a metal of low
melting point and/or low conductivity and/or 70
may be filled Wholly or partially with mercury.
The said sharply edged rim of the crater may
consist advantageously of a metal of higher melt
ing temperature than the crater.
Furthermore, for the deposition of burnt par
4
9,128,884
ticles carried along by the arc and/or by the
current of air and/or gas and/or steam ilowing
through the arc gap a recess 63 may be provided,
if any troubles because of the said burnt particles
may arise.
In a converting arrangement according to the
preceding and still following description it does
not matter in which direction the current flows,
which matter of fact has been proved by thorough
tests.
Many cases, however, following distribu
tion of polarity, may give more satisfactory work
ing conditions. The ignition electrode, e. g., the
screen electrode upon which the auxiliary arc is
to be established is of positive polarity against
the adjoining main electrode, upon which in this
case the cathode foot point of the main arc is
established. The foot point of the auxiliary arc
initiated upon the ignition electrode represents
the anode and, therefore, will jump more easily
to the second main electrode upon which then
the anode foot point of the main arc is estab
lished.
During the burning period the main arc ex
tending between the two main electrodes is en
veloped by the gas blast in order to avoid undue
lengthening of the main arc, with the consequent
high losses and great heating of the gas current
and the electrodes and to transport away the heat
produced by the arc. The velocity of the current
30 of air and/or gas and/ or steam forming a hollow
cylinder as already described, will be less at the
inner parts of the cylinder and/or at parts which
are in the vicinity of the main arc than at the
outside parts of the said hollow cylinder. This
distribution of velocity across the cross section
of the gas current may also be effected by the
heat produced by the arc.
After the -current of the main arc has passed
through zero the gas blast assures the thorough
40 cleansing of the space between the electrodes
from the residual arc products in order to pre
vent re-establishment of the arc between the
electrodes.
-In some cases it may occur, that the gas jet
45 leaving the opening 65 of the screen electrode 24
may diverge a little, and impinge upon the screen
electrode of the confronting electrode. This will
be overcome by the current of air and/or gas
and/or steam introduced into the distribution
50 chamber 20 through the duct I5, iiowing through
the holes 62 along the outer wall of the cylindri
cal body 4, and entering the arc gap between the
two screens electrodes. The said current will
compress the arc and/or the axial gas Íiow par
55 ticularly in the front the screen electrode 25,
eiîecting a uniform flow of air and/or gas and/or
steam passing the air gap and leaving it through
the aperture 55 of the screen electrode 25.
In some cases it may prove of advantage to
60 eiîect a spiral-like movementy of the said cur
rents of air and/ or gas and/or steam.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art
that the said radially inward gas iiow may be
introduced into the arc gap from any part pro
65 vided for in the arrangement, e. g., through spe
cial holes or annular openings provided for in
one or both of the screen electrodes without de
parting from our invention.
The gas current leaving the arc space through
70 the opening 55 of the screen electrode ñows
through the narrow duct 56 between the main
electrode and the screen electrode into the
counter compression room 51 from which it
enters the recollection chamber 2| through the
75 opening 63, where the velocity of the current
will be reduced and the current diminished be
fore leaving the converter chamber through the
duct I 6.
By means of the threads Il, the position of the
main electrode may be adjusted longitudinally
with respect to the screen electrode.
While we have shown and described several
embodiments of our invention, it will be obvious
to those skilled in the art that various changes
and modifications may be made without depart
10
ing from our invention in its broader aspects
and, we, therefore, aim in the appended claims to
cover all such changes and modifications as fall
within the true spirit and scope of our invention.
What we claim as new and desire to secure
by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least 20
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream 'of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the 25
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen electrode, 30
and means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises in the vicinity of that point
where one of the foot points of the main arc 35
which is to be initiated shall exist.
2. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a flow of air and/or
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at 40
least of a main electrode and a screen electrode
and with means for a periodic initiating of the
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for intro
ducing a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam
into the arc chamber through one electrode be 45
tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
whereby additional openings for a further stream
may be provided, means for discharging the air
and/or gas and/or steam through the second
electrode between the main electrode and screen 50
electrode, and means including parts of elec
trodes between which the auxiliary arc is struck
periodically whereby at least one of the foot
points of the auxiliary arc arises on'portions of
electrodes or in the vicinity of portions of elec
trodes upon which one of the foot points of the
main arc which is to be initiated shall exist,
means including parts of electrodes having such
a form, e. g., such holes as to make the whole
or partial current of air and/or gas and/or steam 60
move along the main arc and envelope the said
main arc on its entire length whereby the said
main arc is caused to burn between the main
electrodes without any undue lengthening.
3. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a ñow of air and/or gas
65
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main 70
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
are chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be 75
5
2,128,884
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screenV electrode,
means for diminishing the velocity of the cur
rent of air and/or gas and/or steam, streaming
along the main arc and/or enveloping the main
arc at the inner parts of the cross section of the
said current which are in the vicinity of the
io
main arc.
4. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
means for a periodic initiating of the main
16 with
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
20 ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen elec
trode, means for causing the main arc to effect
25 the diminishing of the velocity of the current of
air and/or gas and/or steam streaming along
the main arc at the inner parts of the cross sec
tion of the said current which are in the vicinity
of the main arc by the heat produced in the
30 main arc.
5. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiflers, and arc inverters corn
prising two electrodes in a ñow of air and/or
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at
35 least of a main electrode and a screen electrode
and with means for a periodic initiating of the
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for intro
ducing a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam
into the arc chamber through one electrode be-1
40 tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
whereby additional openings for a further
stream may be provided, means for discharging
the air and/or gas and/or steam through the
second electrode between the main electrode and
screen electrode, means for introducing into the
arc gap a current of air and/or gas and/or
steam of annular cross section and means for
discharging a current of air and/or gas and/or
steam of annular cross section whereby the said
50 current of air and/or gas and/or steam forms a
hollow cylinder of constant or varying diameter.
6. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of amain electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing
a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into
(50 the arc chamber through one electrode between
the main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
...i Ll
additional openings for a further stream may be
(in
prising two electrodes in a iiow of air and/or
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at
least of a main electrode and a screen electrode
and with means for a periodic initiating of the
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for intro
ducing a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam
into the arc chamber through one electrode be
tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
whereby additional openings for a further stream
may be provided, means `for discharging the air
and/or gas and/or steam through the second
electrode between the main electrode and screen
electrode, means including parts of electrodes
suitably shaped, between which the gas is to pass,
for diminishing the velocity of the current of
air and/or gas and/or steam on its passageway
to and from the arc gap whereby the velocity of
the said current is not greater on its passageway
to and from the` arc gap than on its passageway
through the arc gap.
20L
8. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiiiers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a ñow of air and/or
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at
least of a main electrode and a screen electrode 25
and with means for a periodic initiating of the
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introduc
ing a stream of air and/or gask and/or steam
into the arc chamber through one electrode be
tween the main electrode and screen electrode, 30
whereby additional openings for a further stream
may be provided, means for discharging the air
and/or gas and/or steam through the second
electrode between the main electrode and screen
electrode, means for introducing into the arc 35
gap a second current of air and/or gas and/or
steam adapted-to compress the jet of air and/or
gas and/or steam entering the arc gap through
the central aperture of the one screen electrode
and adapted to avoid undue expansion of the 40
main arc because of the heat produced by the
said arc.
9. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiñers and arcinverters com
prising two electrodes in a ñow of air and/or 45
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at
least of a main electrode and a screen electrode
and with means for a periodic initiating of the
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for intro
ducing a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam 50
into the arc chamber through one electrode be
tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
whereby additional openings for a further stream
may be provided, means for discharging the air
and/or gas and/or steam through the second 55
electrode between the main electrode and screen
electrode, means including parts of electrodes
suitably shaped, along which and/or between
which the current of air and/or gas and/or
steam is guided with high velocity, for obviating 60
the danger of impingement of the said current
and/or the dangerof formation of eddies be
cause of sharp bends of the sai-d current and/or
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
immediate alteration of the cross section on the
means for establishing the foot points of the
main arc upon portions oí the electrodes which
are located within the hollow cylinder formed
by the flow of air and/or gas and/or steam and
means for keeping the main arc within the said
hollow cylinder formed by the flow of air and/or
gas and/or steam from starting until quenching
leading to the arc gap to the point where the
of the arc.
l'1. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
75 converters, arc rectifìers and arc inverters corn
passageway of the said current from the point 65
where the said current enters the annular duct
said current leaves the annular duct leading away
from the arc gap.
l0. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc 70
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a flow of air and/or
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at
least of a main electrode and a screen electrode
.andwith means for a periodic initiating of the 75
6
`amas“
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introduc
ing a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam
into the arc chamber through one electrode be
tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
whereby additional openings for a further stream
may be provided, means for discharging the 'air
and/or gas and/or steam through the second
electrode between the main electrode and screen
one oi' the foot points of the main arc which is to
be initiated shall exist, means for driving the
loop of the auxiliary arc, formed between the
main electrode and the screen electrode of one
electrode, to the opposed main electrode where
by the one footpoint of auxiliary arc remains
upon the main electrode whilst the other foot
point of the auxiliary arc, which arises upon the
screen electrode, is travelling along the surface of
electrode, means including parts of electrodes
having additional apertures for introducing and - the said screen electrode through the aperture of
discharging parts of the current of air and/or the said screen electrode and finally jumps to 10
gas and/or steam for avoiding impingement the
opposed main electrode.
and/or the formation of eddies of the current
14. 'I'he arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
of air and/or gas and/or steam on those parts
of the passageway where the said current attains
a high velocity.
11. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
converters, arc rectitlers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a flow of air and/or
gas and/or steam, either electrode consisting at
least of a main electrode and a screen electrode
and with means for a periodic initiating of the
main arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introduc
ing a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into 20
the arc chamber through one electrode between
the main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
additional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or gas
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby and/or steam through the second electrode be 25
additional openings for a further stream may be tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
provided, means for .discharging the air and/or ` means including parts of electrodes between which
gas and/or steam through the second electrode the auxiliary arc is struck periodically whereby at
least one of the foot points of the auxiliary arc
30 between the main electrode and screen electrode,
arises on portions of electrodes or in the vicinity
25 arc chamber through one electrode between the
means for effecting a spiral-like movement of
the axial iiow of air and/or gas and/or steam
and/or of the radial now of air and/or gas and/or
steam.
35
12. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectifiers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a ilow of'air and/or gas
and/ 0r steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
40 with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arc by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
45 additional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
means including parts of electrodes suitably
shaped for obviating the danger of disturbing
the converting service by the deposition of burnt
particles carried along by the arc and/or by the
current of air and/or gas and/or steam, means
including a central recess being in said main
electrodes into which the said burnt particles are
caused to settle.
13. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a flow of air and/0r gas
60 and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
65 arc chamber through -one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
70 between the main electrode and screen electrode,
and means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or in
75 the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon which
30
of portions of electrodes upon which one of the
foot points of the _main arc which is to be ini
tiated shall exist, means for striking the auxiliary
arc on points of the main electrode from which
the foot point of the main arc is able to start 35
travelling upon the main electrode.
15. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters comprising
two electrodes in a ilow of air and/or gas and/or
steam, either electrode consisting at least of a 40
main electrode and a screen electrode and with
means for a periodic initiating of the main arcs by
auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a stream of
air and/or gas and/or steam into the arc cham
ber through one electrode between the main elec 45
trode and screen electrode, whereby additional
openings for a further stream may be provided,
means for discharging the air and/or gas and/or
steam through the second electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, means in
cluding parts of electrodes between which the
auxiliary arc is struck periodically whereby at
least one of the foot points of the auxiliary arc
arises on portions of electrodes or in the vicinity
vof portions of electrodes upon which one of the
foot points of the main arc which is to be ini
tiated shall exist, means for striking the auxiliary
arc on such points of the main electrode that the
surface of the main electrode exposed to burning
away due to the travelling foot point of the main 60
arc has a greater diameter than the aperture of
the screen electrode.
16. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectifiers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas 65
and/0r steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the 70
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided-means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode 75
2,128,884
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points oi the
a stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
which one of the foot pointsof the main arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, means for ini
tiating one or both foot points of the main arc
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
additional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen elec
trode, means including parts of electrodes be
tween which the auxiliary arc is struck periodi
cally whereby at least one of the foot points of 10
upon portions of electrodes which are electri
cally screened.
the auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes
or in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
which one of the foot points of the main arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, the said parts
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at lcast
of electrodes having their opposing surfaces suit 15
ably shaped ior facilitatingthe ignition of the
auxiliary arc between the said parts of electrodes
17. 'I‘he arrangement of arc gaps. e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters corn
prlsing two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/cr
gas and/or steamA through the second electrode
between the main electrode andscreen electrode,
whereby due to the burning-away upon the main
electrode a sharply edged crater is formed and/or
20
is retained.
20. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a ilow of air and/ or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a Ascreen electrode and 25
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
whereby ‘at least one of the foot points of the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby 30
additional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
3 i)
7
in the vicinity of portions of electrodes‘upon
which one of the foot points of the main arc
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
which is to be initiated shall exist, means in
cluding parts of electrodes‘consisting of insulat
ing material or covered with insulating material,
e. g., non-conductive oxide for influencing the
electric i‘leld conditions.
'
18. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc
converters, arc rectifiers andare inverters com
prising two electrodes in a iiow of air and/or gas
40 and/or steam, either electrode consistingr at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the ‘
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
means including parts of electrodes between 35
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
in the vicinity ofA portions of electrodes upon
which one of the foot points of the main arc 40
which is to be initiated shall exist, the said parts
of electrodes having their opposing surfaces suit
ably shaped for forming a sharply edged crater
arc chamber through one electrode between the
upon the main electrode due to the burning-away
whereby the foot point of the main arc upon the 45
said main electrode is retained within the said
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
crater without being disturbed by the current
additional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means `for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
the said parts of electrodes.
'
21. The arrangement of are gaps, e. g., arc con
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
50 means including parts' of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
55
in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
which one of the foot points of the main arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, means in
of air and/or gas and/or steam ñowing between
50
verters, arc rectiñers, and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main 55
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
cluding parts of electrodes suitably shaped be
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
tween which the au 'liary arc is formed for additional openings for a further stream may
60 causing a slow movement of the foot point arisen be provided, means for discharging the air and/or
upon the main electrode and for causing the gas and/or steam through the second electrode
foot point arisen upon the screen electrode to between the main electrode and screen electrode,
travel fast to the upper rim of the said screen means including parts of electrodes between
electrode, whereby the said footv point arisen which the auxiliary aro is struck >periodically 65
upon the main electrode burns uponl portions whereby at least one of the foot points of the,
65
of the said main electrode which are not ex
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
posed to parts of the current of air and/or gas in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
and/or steam which are of high velocity.
which one of the foot points of the main arc
19. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc which is to be initiated shall exist, one of the said 70
converters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters com
parts of electrodes, e. g., the screen electrode
70
prising two electrodes in a‘flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
75
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing
having radial channels inserted into the surface
opposing the adjoining part of electrode for
blowing a large flow of air and/or gas and/or
steam between the said parts'of electrodes with 75
2,188,884
out reducingthe distance between points upon
the said parts of electrodes where the ignition
in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
of the auxiliary arc is to take place.
which one of the foot points of the main are
22. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g.. arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, the said parts
converters, arc rectiilers, and arc inverters com
prising two electrodes in a flow of air and/ox- gas
of electrodes having their opposing surfaces Silit
ably shaped for forming a sharply edged crater
upon the main electrode due tothe burning
away thereof, the sharply edged rim of the said
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
10 arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby
additional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means lfor discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
and means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
20 whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions oi.' electrodes or
in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
which one of the foot points of the main arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, the said parts
crater consisting of a material of higher
melting
‘
D0 n .
25. The arrangement of are gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiners and arc inverters compris 10
ing two electrodes in a iiow of air and/or gas
introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the aix' and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
25 of electrodes having their opposing surfaces suit
ably shaped for forming a sharply edged crater
upon the main electrode due to the burning-away
thereof, the portion of the main electrode upon
which the said crater is formed consisting of a
30 material of a lower melting point and/or of lower
conductivity.
23. 'I'he arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiiiers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a> flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode-consisting at least
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
40 arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
45 between the main electrode and screen electrode,
means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
50 in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
which one of the foot points of the main arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, the said parts
of electrodes having their opposing surfaces suit
ably shaped for forming a sharply edged crater
55 upon the main electrode due to the burning
away thereof, the said crater being filled entirely
or partly with mercury.
24. The arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiñers and arc inverters comprising
60 two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas and/or
steam, either electrode consisting at least of a
main electrode and a screen electrode and with
means for a periodic initiating of the main arcs
by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a stream
65 of air and/or gas and/or steam into the arc
chamber through one electrode between the main
electrode and screen electrode, whereby addi
tional openings for a further stream may be pro
vided, means for discharging the air and/or gas
70 and/or steam through the second electrode be
tween the main electrode and screen electrode,
means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary arc is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
76. auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
electrodes having their opposing surfaces suit
ably shaped for forming a sharply edgedl crater
upon the main electrode due to the burning
away thereof, the said portion of electrode upon
which the crater is formed consisting of a piece
of metal automatically shifted forward, e. g., by
a spring.
'
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
parts of electrodes between
arc is struck periodically
oi' the foot‘points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
‘
portions of electrodes upon
55
foot points of the main arc
which is to be initiated shall exist, means for
forming the cathode foot points of the auxiliary
arc upon parts of electrodes upon which the 60
cathode foot point of the main arc is to exist.
27. 'I'he arrangement of arc gaps, e. g., arc con
verters, arc rectiiiers and arc inverters compris
ing two electrodes in a flow of air and/or gas
and/or steam, either electrode consisting at least 65
of a main electrode and a screen electrode and
with means for a periodic initiating of the main
arcs by auxiliary arcs, means for introducing a
stream of air and/or gas and/or steam into the
arc chamber through one electrode between the 70
main electrode and screen electrode, whereby ad- i
ditional openings for a further stream may be
provided, means for discharging the air and/or
gas and/or steam through the second electrode
15
2,128,884
_
9
which one of the foot points of the main arc
between the main electrode and screen electrode,
means including parts of electrodes between
which the auxiliary are is struck periodically
whereby at least one of the foot points of the
auxiliary arc arises on portions of electrodes or
in the vicinity of portions of electrodes upon
which is to be initiated shall exist, means for
making the cathode foot point of the main arc
arise upon the main electrode.
ERWIN MARX.
HERBERT BUCI-IWALD.
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